# python中的列表生成式 | 字典生成式

1.列表生成式

>>> list(range(1, 11))
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]


>>> L = []
>>> for x in range(1, 11):
...    L.append(x * x)
...
>>> L
[1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100]


>>> [x * x for x in range(1, 11)]
[1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100]


for循环后面还可以加上if判断，这样我们就可以筛选出仅偶数的平方：

>>> [x * x for x in range(1, 11) if x % 2 == 0]
[4, 16, 36, 64, 100]


>>> [m + n for m in 'ABC' for n in 'XYZ']
['AX', 'AY', 'AZ', 'BX', 'BY', 'BZ', 'CX', 'CY', 'CZ']


>>> import os # 导入os模块，模块的概念后面讲到
>>> [d for d in os.listdir('.')] # os.listdir可以列出文件和目录
['.emacs.d', '.ssh', '.Trash', 'Adlm', 'Applications', 'Desktop', 'Documents', 'Downloads', 'Library', 'Movies', 'Music', 'Pictures', 'Public', 'VirtualBox VMs', 'Workspace', 'XCode']


for循环其实可以同时使用两个甚至多个变量，比如dictitems()可以同时迭代key和value：

>>> d = {'x': 'A', 'y': 'B', 'z': 'C' }
>>> for k, v in d.items():
...     print(k, '=', v)
...
y = B
x = A
z = C


>>> d = {'x': 'A', 'y': 'B', 'z': 'C' }
>>> [k + '=' + v for k, v in d.items()]
['y=B', 'x=A', 'z=C']


>>> L = ['Hello', 'World', 'IBM', 'Apple']
>>> [s.lower() for s in L]
['hello', 'world', 'ibm', 'apple']

2.字典生成式

d = {key: value for (key, value) in iterable}

org_dict = {'x': 1, 'y': 2, 'z': 3}
new_dict = {v: k for k,v in some_dict.items()} 

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