Nginx反向代理支持长连接

Nginx upstream与后端的连接默认为短连接,通过HTTP/1.0向后端发起连接,并把请求的"Connection" header设为"close"。Nginx与前端的连接默认为长连接,一个用户跟Nginx建立连接之后,通过这个长连接发送多个请求。如果Nginx只是作为reverse proxy的话,可能一个用户连接就需要多个向后端的短连接。如果后端的服务器(源站或是缓存服务器)处理并发连接能力不强的话,就可能导致瓶颈的出现。

 

Nginx目前的upstream连接建立和获取的机制如下图。Nginx会在一开始创建connection pool(进程间不共享,可以避免锁),提供给所有向前/后的连接。


 

如果要实现upstream长连接,则每个进程需要另外一个connection pool,里面都是长连接。一旦与后端服务器建立连接,则在当前请求连接结束之后不会立即关闭连接,而是把用完的连接保存在一个keepalive connection pool里面,以后每次需要建立向后连接的时候,只需要从这个连接池里面找,如果找到合适的连接的话,就可以直接来用这个连接,不需要重新创建socket或者发起connect()。这样既省下建立连接时三次握手的时间消耗,又可以避免TCP连接的slow start。如果在keepalive连接池找不到合适的连接,那就按照原来的步骤重新建立连接。假设连接查找时间可以忽略不计,那么这种方法肯定是有益而无害的(当然,需要少量额外的内存)。


 

具体如何来设计这个keepalive connection pool,不同人有不同的选择。比如Nginx目前的第三方模块upstream keepalive(作者Maxim Dounin)使用了一个queue来做。因为upstream的服务器很可能是多个,所以可能当保持的连接数多的时候,查找的时间可能会较长。可以给每个upstream服务器都分配一个pool(queue),缩短查找时间。但是总体来说内存操作很快,影响不会很大。upstream keepalive模块目前只支持memcached,但是可以重用其代码来达到对http upstream的长连接。由于Nginx作者之前没有考虑upstream的长连接,所以在设计上要把http upstream keepalive模块化可能比较难,只能通过手动修改代码来做到。

一个完整的让upstream支持长连接的配置示例如下:

#user  nobody;
worker_processes  1;

#error_log  logs/error.log;
#error_log  logs/error.log  notice;
#error_log  logs/error.log  info;

#pid        logs/nginx.pid;


events {
    worker_connections  1024;
}


http {
    include       mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;

    #log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
    #                  '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
    #                  '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    #access_log  logs/access.log  main;
	
	client_max_body_size 20M;
    client_header_buffer_size  32k;
    large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;

    sendfile        on;
    #tcp_nopush     on;

    #keepalive_timeout  0;
    keepalive_timeout  65;

    #gzip  on;

	proxy_buffer_size 64k;
    proxy_buffers   32 32k;
    proxy_busy_buffers_size 128k;
	
	upstream aauCfg_backend {
		server  127.0.0.1:97;
		keepalive 16;
	}
	
	upstream HFC_backend {
		server  127.0.0.1:8090;
		keepalive 16;
	}
	
	upstream manager_backend {
		server  127.0.0.1:8095;
		keepalive 16;
	}
	
    server {
        listen       80;
        server_name  localhost;

        #charset koi8-r;

        #access_log  logs/host.access.log  main;

		root   html/tools;
        index  index.html index.htm index.php;
		
		proxy_http_version 1.1;
		proxy_set_header  Connection  "";
		proxy_set_header  Host  $host;
        proxy_set_header  X-Real_IP  $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header  X-Forwarded-For  $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
		
        location / {
			if (!-e $request_filename) {
                #rewrite  ^/(.*)$  /index.php/$1  last;
                #break;
                rewrite ^/(.*)$ /index.php/$1;
            }
        }
		
		location ~* \.(ico|css|js|gif|jpe?g|png)(\?[0-9]+)?$ {
                expires max;
                log_not_found off;
        }
		
        location ^~ /aauCfg/ {
            #proxy_pass   http://$remote_addr:97$request_uri;
			proxy_pass   http://aauCfg_backend;
        }
		
        location ^~ /HFC/ {
            #proxy_pass   http://$remote_addr:8090$request_uri;
			proxy_pass   http://HFC_backend;
        }
		
        location ^~ /manager/ {
            #proxy_pass   http://$remote_addr:8095$request_uri;
			proxy_pass   http://manager_backend;
        }
		
        #error_page  404              /404.html;

        # redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
        #
        error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
        location = /50x.html {
            root   html;
        }

        # proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 127.0.0.1:80
        #
        #location ~ \.php$ {
        #    proxy_pass   http://127.0.0.1;
        #}

        # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
        #
        #location ~ \.php$ {
        #    fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
        #    fastcgi_index  index.php;
        #    fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
        #    include        fastcgi_params;
        #}
		
		location ~ .php
        {
            fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_index  index.php;
            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
            include        fastcgi.conf;
            include        fastcgi_params;

            #定义变量 $path_info ,用于存放pathinfo信息
            set $path_info "";
            #定义变量 $real_script_name,用于存放真实地址
            set $real_script_name $fastcgi_script_name;
            #如果地址与引号内的正则表达式匹配
            if ($fastcgi_script_name ~ "^(.+?\.php)(/.+)$") {
                    #将文件地址赋值给变量 $real_script_name
                    set $real_script_name $1;
                    #将文件地址后的参数赋值给变量 $path_info
                    set $path_info $2;
            }
            #配置fastcgi的一些参数
            fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$real_script_name;
            fastcgi_param SCRIPT_NAME $real_script_name;
            fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $path_info;
        }

        # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
        # concurs with nginx's one
        #
        #location ~ /\.ht {
        #    deny  all;
        #}
    }


    # another virtual host using mix of IP-, name-, and port-based configuration
    #
    #server {
    #    listen       8000;
    #    listen       somename:8080;
    #    server_name  somename  alias  another.alias;

    #    location / {
    #        root   html;
    #        index  index.html index.htm;
    #    }
    #}


    # HTTPS server
    #
    #server {
    #    listen       443 ssl;
    #    server_name  localhost;

    #    ssl_certificate      cert.pem;
    #    ssl_certificate_key  cert.key;

    #    ssl_session_cache    shared:SSL:1m;
    #    ssl_session_timeout  5m;

    #    ssl_ciphers  HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
    #    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers  on;

    #    location / {
    #        root   html;
    #        index  index.html index.htm;
    #    }
    #}

}


参考:

http://nginx.org/en/docs/http/ngx_http_proxy_module.html#proxy_http_version

http://nginx.org/en/docs/http/ngx_http_upstream_module.html#keepalive

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