poj 1013 Counterfeit Dollar

Description

Sally Jones has a dozen Voyageur silver dollars. However, only eleven of the coins are true silver dollars; one coin is counterfeit even though its color and size make it indistinguishable from the real silver dollars. The counterfeit coin has a different weight from the other coins but Sally does not know if it is heavier or lighter than the real coins. Happily, Sally has a friend who loans her a very accurate balance scale. The friend will permit Sally three weighings to find the counterfeit coin. For instance, if Sally weighs two coins against each other and the scales balance then she knows these two coins are true. Now if Sally weighs one of the true coins against a third coin and the scales do not balance then Sally knows the third coin is counterfeit and she can tell whether it is light or heavy depending on whether the balance on which it is placed goes up or down, respectively. By choosing her weighings carefully, Sally is able to ensure that she will find the counterfeit coin with exactly three weighings.

Input

The first line of input is an integer n (n > 0) specifying the number of cases to follow. Each case consists of three lines of input, one for each weighing. Sally has identified each of the coins with the letters A--L. Information on a weighing will be given by two strings of letters and then one of the words ``up'', ``down'', or ``even''. The first string of letters will represent the coins on the left balance; the second string, the coins on the right balance. (Sally will always place the same number of coins on the right balance as on the left balance.) The word in the third position will tell whether the right side of the balance goes up, down, or remains even.

Output

For each case, the output will identify the counterfeit coin by its letter and tell whether it is heavy or light. The solution will always be uniquely determined.

思路:

在评论区借鉴的思路,觉得挺好。

用一个数组记录每一个硬币的权重,若结果为even,则权重加上一个大于3的数字,若结果为up/down,重的一方加1,轻的一方减1,则这样,最后结果的绝对值为不平衡出现的次数的硬币为假币,应该每次不平衡的出现都是因为假币的出现。出现在even中的硬币肯定是正确的,故可以全部排除。

/*
author:wangqi
url:http://poj.org/problem?id=1013
思路:使用flag数组记录每一个硬币的权重。若结果为even,则权重+一个大于3的数,若结果为up/down,重的一方加1,轻的一方减一
假的硬币的flag的绝对值应该为出现不平衡的次数
因为每次不平衡都是因为假的硬币出现导致的
*/
#include<iostream>
#include<string>
using namespace std;
const int totalCoins = 12;
//处理right/left
void process(string s,int flag[],int num){
    for(int i = 0; i<s.size();i++){
        flag[s[i] - 'A'] += num;
    }
}
int main(){

    int n;
    cin>>n;
    for(int i = 0 ; i < n ;i ++){
        int flag[totalCoins] = {0};
        string left,right,result;
        int unBlanceTimes = 0;
        for(int j = 0 ;j < 3; j++){
            cin>>left>>right>>result;
            if(result == "up"){
                process(left,flag,1);
                process(right,flag,-1);
                unBlanceTimes++;
            }else if(result == "even"){
                process(left,flag,9);
                process(right,flag,9);
            }else{
                process(left,flag,-1);
                process(right,flag,1);
                unBlanceTimes++;
            }
        }
        for(int j = 0 ; j< totalCoins; j++){
            if(flag[j] == -1*unBlanceTimes){
                cout<<(char)(j+'A') <<" is the counterfeit coin and it is light. "<<endl;
                break;
            }else if(flag[j] == unBlanceTimes){
                cout<<(char)(j+'A') <<" is the counterfeit coin and it is heavy. "<<endl;
                break;
            }
        }
    }
}



阅读更多

Counterfeit Dollar

04-24

Sally Jones has a dozen Voyageur silver dollars. However, only eleven of the coins are true silver dollars; one coin is counterfeit even though its color and size make it indistinguishable from the real silver dollars. The counterfeit coin has a different weight from the other coins but Sally does not know if it is heavier or lighter than the real coins.nHappily, Sally has a friend who loans her a very accurate balance scale. The friend will permit Sally three weighings to find the counterfeit coin. For instance, if Sally weighs two coins against each other and the scales balance then she knows these two coins are true. Now if Sally weighs one of the true coins against a third coin and the scales do not balance then Sally knows the third coin is counterfeit and she can tell whether it is light or heavy depending on whether the balance on which it is placed goes up or down, respectively.nnBy choosing her weighings carefully, Sally is able to ensure that she will find the counterfeit coin with exactly three weighings.nnnInputnnThe first line of input is an integer n (n > 0) specifying the number of cases to follow. Each case consists of three lines of input, one for each weighing. Sally has identified each of the coins with the letters A-L. Information on a weighing will be given by two strings of letters and then one of the words ``up'', ``down'', or ``even''. The first string of letters will represent the coins on the left balance; the second string, the coins on the right balance. (Sally will always place the same number of coins on the right balance as on the left balance.) The word in the third position will tell whether the right side of the balance goes up, down, or remains even.nnnOutputnnFor each case, the output will identify the counterfeit coin by its letter and tell whether it is heavy or light. The solution will always be uniquely determined.nnnSample Inputnn1nABCD EFGH evennABCI EFJK upnABIJ EFGH evennnnSample OutputnnK is the counterfeit coin and it is light.

求助 FOJ 1003 Counterfeit Dollar

09-07

[quote]Problem DescriptionrnrnSally Jones has a dozen Voyageur silver dollars. However, only eleven of the coins are true silver dollars; one coin is counterfeit even though its color and size make it indistinguishable from the real silver dollars. The counterfeit coin has a different weight from the other coins but Sally does not know if it is heavier or lighter than the real coins.rnrnHappily, Sally has a friend who loans her a very accurate balance scale. The friend will permit Sally three weighings to find the counterfeit coin. For instance, if Sally weighs two coins against each other and the scales balance then she knows these two coins are true. Now if Sally weighs one of the true coins against a third coin and the scales do not balance then Sally knows the third coin is counterfeit and she can tell whether it is light or heavy depending on whether the balance on which it is placed goes up or down, respectively.rnrnBy choosing her weighings carefully, Sally is able to ensure that she will find the counterfeit coin with exactly three weighings.rnrnrn InputrnrnThe first line of input is an integer n (n > 0) specifying the number of cases to follow. Each case consists of three lines of input, one for each weighing. Sally has identified each of the coins with the letters A-L. Information on a weighing will be given by two strings of letters and then one of the words ``up'', ``down'', or ``even''. The first string of letters will represent the coins on the left balance; the second string, the coins on the right balance. (Sally will always place the same number of coins on the right balance as on the left balance.) The word in the third position will tell whether the right side of the balance goes up, down, or remains even.rnrn OutputrnrnFor each case, the output will identify the counterfeit coin by its letter and tell whether it is heavy or light. The solution will always be uniquely determined.rnrn Sample Inputrn1rnABCD EFGH evenrnABCI EFJK uprnABIJ EFGH evenrnrn Sample OutputrnK is the counterfeit coin and it is light.[/quote]rnrn[code=c]#include rn#include rnusing namespace std;rnint coins[12] = 0;rnstring state;rnrninline void setReal(int coin)rn coins[coin-'A'] = 1; //1 for realrnrnrnvoid setFake(int coin, string disk)rn int stat = (state == "up"? -1 : 2);rn //-1 for light, 2 for heavy(right)rn if (coins[coin-'A'] != 1) rn disk == "right"? coins[coin-'A'] = stat : coins[coin-'A'] = 1 - stat;rn //left disk, upside downrn rnrnrnint main()rn int n;rn cin >> n;rn while (n--) rn for (int i = 0; i < 3; ++i) rn string left, right;rn cin >> left >> right >> state;rn if (state == "even") rn for (string::iterator strIter = left.begin(); strIter != left.end(); ++strIter)rn setReal(*strIter);rn for (string::iterator strIter = right.begin(); strIter != right.end(); ++strIter)rn setReal(*strIter);rn rn else rn for (string::iterator strIter = left.begin(); strIter != left.end(); ++strIter)rn setFake(*strIter, "left");rn for (string::iterator strIter = right.begin(); strIter != right.end(); ++strIter)rn setFake(*strIter, "right");rn rn rn for (int j = 0; j < 12; j++) rn if (coins[j] != 1 && coins[j] != 0) rn cout << char(j+'A') << " is the counterfeit coin and it is ";rn cout << (coins[j] == 2? "heavy." : "light.") << endl;rn break;rn rn rn memset(coins, 0, 12*sizeof(int));rn rn return 0;rn[/code]rnrn求问这样写问题在哪里?

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