C# C++ 字符串传递

可以说新手使用P-INVOKE最开始的头疼就是C#和C++的字符串传递,因为这里涉及到两个问题。

第一:C#的string和C++的字符串首指针如何对应。

第二:字符串还有ANSI和UNICODE(宽字符串)之分。

 

本文分三部分阐述:

第一:字符串指针当输入参数,

第二:字符串指针作为返回值,

第三:字符串指针作为输入输出参数。

 

C++部分的测试代码很简单这里就全部贴出来了:

 

1#include "stdafx.h"
2#include "TestDll.h"
3#include <stdio.h>
4#include <string.h>
5#include <tchar.h>
6
7
8 staticchar* _hello ="Hello,World!!";
9 static TCHAR * _helloW = TEXT("Hello,World!!");
10
11 void __stdcall PrintString(char* hello)
12{
13 printf("%s\n",hello);
14}
15
16 void __stdcall PrintStringW(TCHAR * hello)
17{
18 _tprintf(TEXT("%s\n"),hello);
19}
20
21
22 char* __stdcall GetStringReturn()
23{
24return _hello;
25}
26
27TCHAR * __stdcall GetStringReturnW()
28{
29return _helloW;
30}
31
32
33 void __stdcall GetStringParam(char* outHello,int len)
34{ //output "aaaaaaaa"
35 for(int i=0; i< len -1 ;i++) outHello[i] ='a';
36 outHello[len -1] ='\0';
37}
38
39 void __stdcall GetStringParamW(TCHAR * outHello,int len)
40{ //output "aaaaaaaa" unicode version.
41 for(int i=0; i< len -1 ;i++) outHello[i] = TEXT('a');
42 outHello[len -1] = TEXT('\0');
43}

 

 

 

下面看C#如何调用。

 

第一:字符串指针作为输入参数,可以使用byte[] 和MarshalAs来解决。(注意四个P-INVOKE,两个ANSI版本,和两个UNICODE版本),推荐使用MarshalAs方法简单明了。

 

1 [DllImport("TestDll", EntryPoint ="PrintString")]
2publicstaticexternvoid PrintStringByBytes(byte[] hello);
3
4 [DllImport("TestDll", EntryPoint ="PrintString")]
5publicstaticexternvoid PrintStringByMarshal([MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStr)]string hello);
6
7 [DllImport("TestDll", EntryPoint ="PrintStringW")]
8publicstaticexternvoid PrintStringByBytesW(byte[] hello);
9
10 [DllImport("TestDll", EntryPoint ="PrintStringW")]
11publicstaticexternvoid PrintStringByMarshalW([MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)]string hello);
12
13
14publicvoid Run()
15 {
16 PrintStringByBytes(Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes("use byte[]"));
17 PrintStringByMarshal("use MarshalAs");
18 PrintStringByBytesW(Encoding.Unicode.GetBytes("use byte[]"));
19 PrintStringByMarshalW("use MarshalAs");
20}

 

 

 

第二:字符串指针作为返回值,和上面一样也有两种声明方法,同样也包含两个版本。注意:Marshal.PtrToStringAnsi()函数的使用,把字符串指针转变为C#的string.推荐使用MarshalAs方法简单明了。

 

1 [DllImport("TestDll", EntryPoint ="GetStringReturn")]
2publicstaticextern IntPtr GetStringReturnByBytes();
3
4 [DllImport("TestDll", EntryPoint ="GetStringReturn")]
5 [return:MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStr)]
6publicstaticexternstring GetStringReturnByMarshal();
7
8 [DllImport("TestDll", EntryPoint ="GetStringReturnW")]
9publicstaticextern IntPtr GetStringReturnByBytesW();
10
11 [DllImport("TestDll", EntryPoint ="GetStringReturnW")]
12 [return: MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)]
13publicstaticexternstring GetStringReturnByMarshalW();
14
15
16publicvoid Run()
17 { //Marshal.PtrToStringAuto(GetStringReturnByBytes()); 自动判断类型不错。
18  Console.WriteLine(Marshal.PtrToStringAnsi(GetStringReturnByBytes()));
19 Console.WriteLine(GetStringReturnByMarshal());
20 Console.WriteLine(Marshal.PtrToStringUni(GetStringReturnByBytesW()));
21 Console.WriteLine(GetStringReturnByMarshalW());
22}

 

 

 

第三:字符串指针作为输入输出参数时,因为要求有固定的容量,所以这里使用的是StringBuilder,大家仔细看了,当然也有byte[]版本。这个看大家喜欢那个版本就是用那个.

 

1 [DllImport("TestDll", EntryPoint ="GetStringParam")]
2publicstaticexternvoid GetStringParamByBytes(byte[] outHello, int len);
3
4 [DllImport("TestDll", EntryPoint ="GetStringParam")]
5publicstaticexternvoid GetStringParamByMarshal([Out, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStr)]StringBuilder outHello, int len);
6
7 [DllImport("TestDll", EntryPoint ="GetStringParamW")]
8publicstaticexternvoid GetStringParamByBytesW(byte[] outHello, int len);
9
10 [DllImport("TestDll", EntryPoint ="GetStringParamW")]
11publicstaticexternvoid GetStringParamByMarshalW([Out, MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPWStr)]StringBuilder outHello, int len);
12
13
14publicbyte[] _outHello =newbyte[10];
15publicbyte[] _outHelloW =newbyte[20];
16public StringBuilder _builder =new StringBuilder(10); //很重要设定string的容量。
17 
18publicvoid Run()
19 {
20//
21  GetStringParamByBytes(_outHello, _outHello.Length);
22 GetStringParamByMarshal(_builder, _builder.Capacity);
23 GetStringParamByBytesW(_outHelloW, _outHelloW.Length /2);
24 GetStringParamByMarshalW(_builder, _builder.Capacity);
25
26//
27  Console.WriteLine(Encoding.ASCII.GetString(_outHello));
28 Console.WriteLine(_builder.ToString());
29 Console.WriteLine(Encoding.Unicode.GetString(_outHelloW));
30 Console.WriteLine(_builder.ToString());
31}
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