Android 播放视频并获取指定时间的帧画面

最近做的项目要求既能播放视频(类似于视频播放器),又能每隔1s左右获取一帧视频画面,然后对图片进行处理,调查了一周,也被折磨了一周,总算找到了大致符合要求的方法。首先对调查过程中涉及到的方法进行简单介绍,再重点介绍最终所采用的方法,话不多说,进入正题。

一.MediaMetadataRetriever

播放视频并取得画面的一帧,大家最先想到应该都是这个,我同样也最先对它进行了测试,这里使用MediaPlayer进行播放,视频播放界面使用SurfaceView来实现。

public class PlayerMainActivity extends Activity implements OnClickListener,
        SurfaceHolder.Callback, Runnable {
    
    private static final String TAG = "Movie";
    private MediaPlayer mediaPlayer;
    private SurfaceView surfaceView;
    private SurfaceHolder surfaceHolder;
    private Button play_btn;private int currentPosition = 0;
    private Bitmap bitmap = null;
    private String dataPath = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory()    + "/Video/Test_movie.AVI";
    
    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);

        surfaceView = (SurfaceView) findViewById(R.id.surfaceView);
        play_btn = (Button) findViewById(R.id.play_btn);       
        play_btn.setOnClickListener(this);
        screen_cut_btn.setOnClickListener(this);

        surfaceHolder = surfaceView.getHolder();
        surfaceHolder.addCallback(this);
    }

    @Override
    public void run() {
        mediaPlayer = new MediaPlayer();
        mediaPlayer.setAudioStreamType(AudioManager.STREAM_MUSIC);
        mediaPlayer.setDisplay(surfaceHolder);
        try {
            mediaPlayer.setDataSource(dataPath);
            mediaPlayer.prepare();            
            MediaMetadataRetriever mediaMetadataRetriever = new MediaMetadataRetriever();
            mediaMetadataRetriever.setDataSource(dataPath);
            int millis = mediaPlayer.getDuration();
            Log.i(TAG, "millis: " + millis/1000);
            for (int i = 10000*1000; i < 20*1000*1000; i+=500*1000) {
                
                bitmap = mediaMetadataRetriever.getFrameAtTime(i, MediaMetadataRetriever.OPTION_CLOSEST);
                
                String path = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory() + "/bitmap/"    + i + ".png";
                FileOutputStream fileOutputStream = null;
                try {
                    fileOutputStream = new FileOutputStream(path);
                    bitmap.compress(CompressFormat.PNG, 100, fileOutputStream);
                    Log.i(TAG, "i: " + i/1000/1000);
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    Log.i(TAG, "Error: " + i/1000/1000);
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
                finally {
                    if (fileOutputStream != null) {
                        fileOutputStream.close();
                    }
                }                
                bitmap.recycle();
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void surfaceCreated(SurfaceHolder holder) {
        Thread t = new Thread(this);
        t.start();
    }

    @Override
    public void surfaceChanged(SurfaceHolder holder, int format, int width,    int height) {
    }

    @Override
    public void surfaceDestroyed(SurfaceHolder holder) {
    }

    @Override
    public void onClick(View view) {
        switch (view.getId()) {
        case R.id.play_btn:
            if (mediaPlayer.isPlaying()) {
                mediaPlayer.pause();
                play_btn.setText(getResources().getText(R.string.play));
            } else {
                mediaPlayer.start();
                play_btn.setText(getResources().getText(R.string.pause));
            }
            break;default:
            break;
        }
    }

    @Override
    protected void onDestroy() {
        super.onDestroy();
        if (mediaPlayer.isPlaying()) {
            mediaPlayer.stop();
        }
        mediaPlayer.release();
    }
}

 

获取一帧的关键代码为:

Bitmap bitmap = mediaMetadataRetriever.getFrameAtTime(timeMs * 1000, MediaMetadataRetriever.OPTION_CLOSEST);

public Bitmap getFrameAtTime(long timeUs, int option) 

第一个参数是传入时间,只能是us(微秒)

第二个参数:

  • OPTION_CLOSEST    在给定的时间,检索最近一个帧,这个帧不一定是关键帧。
  • OPTION_CLOSEST_SYNC   在给定的时间,检索最近一个同步与数据源相关联的的帧(关键帧)。
  • OPTION_NEXT_SYNC 在给定时间之后检索一个同步与数据源相关联的关键帧。
  • OPTION_PREVIOUS_SYNC  顾名思义,同上

这里为了提取我们想要的帧,不使用关键帧,所以用 OPTION_CLOSEST .

 

最终的测试结果并不理想,连续取20帧画面,其中真正有效的只有7张,其余都是重复的,原因为即使是使用参数OPTION_CLOSEST,程序仍然会去取指定时间临近的关键帧,如10s-15s总是取同一帧,因此这种方法不可用。

提高视频的质量或许有效,未尝试

 

补充MediaMetadataRetriever的其他知识

// 取得视频的总长度(单位为毫秒)

String time = mediaMetadataRetriever. extractMetadata( MediaMetadataRetriever. METADATA_KEY_DURATION);

MediaMetadataRetriever主要用来取缩略图。

 

二.ThumbnailUtils

同样主要是用来获取视频的缩略图,不可靠,因此并未深入研究。

 

从以上两种方法可以看出,Android API 所提供的获取视频帧的方法大都只能获取视频的缩略图,没办法获取视频每一帧的图片。因此,调查方向应当转向对视频进行解码,然后获取任意一帧。

 

三.MediaCodec

硬件解码,尝试从inputBuffers、outputBuffers中获取帧画面,失败,bitmap中的数据大小始终为0 KB。

public class MoviePlayerActivity extends Activity implements OnTouchListener, OnClickListener, SurfaceHolder.Callback {

    private static final String TAG = "Image";
    private String file_path;
    private Button movie_play;
    private boolean playButtonVisible;
    private boolean playPause;
    private SurfaceView surfaceView;
    private SurfaceHolder surfaceHolder;
    private PlayerThread playerThread = null;
    private ByteBuffer mPixelBuf;

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        getWindow().setFlags(WindowManager.LayoutParams.FLAG_FULLSCREEN, WindowManager.LayoutParams.FLAG_FULLSCREEN);     
        requestWindowFeature(Window.FEATURE_NO_TITLE);  
        setRequestedOrientation(ActivityInfo.SCREEN_ORIENTATION_LANDSCAPE);

        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.movie_player_activity);
        movie_play = (Button) findViewById(R.id.movie_videoview_play);
        movie_play.setOnClickListener(this);
        movie_play.setText("Play");

        Intent intent = getIntent();
        file_path = intent.getStringExtra("file_path");  //此Activity是从其他页面跳转来的,file_path为要播放的视频地址
        
        surfaceView = (SurfaceView) findViewById(R.id.surfaceView);
        surfaceHolder = surfaceView.getHolder();
        surfaceHolder.addCallback(this);
        mPixelBuf = ByteBuffer.allocateDirect(640*480*4);
        mPixelBuf.order(ByteOrder.LITTLE_ENDIAN);
    }
    
    @Override
    public void surfaceCreated(SurfaceHolder holder) {
        if (playerThread == null) {
            playerThread = new PlayerThread(holder.getSurface());
            playerThread.start();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void surfaceChanged(SurfaceHolder holder, int format, int width,    int height) {        
    }

    @Override
    public void surfaceDestroyed(SurfaceHolder holder) {
        if (playerThread != null) {
            playerThread.interrupt();
        }
    }   

    @Override
    public boolean onTouch(View v, MotionEvent event) {
        if (!playButtonVisible) {
            movie_play.setVisibility(View.VISIBLE);
            movie_play.setEnabled(true);
        } else {
            movie_play.setVisibility(View.INVISIBLE);
        }
        playButtonVisible = !playButtonVisible;
        return false;
    }

    @Override
    public void onClick(View view) {
        switch (view.getId()) {
        case R.id.movie_videoview_play:
            if (!playPause) {
                movie_play.setText("Pause");
            } else {
                movie_play.setText("Play");
            }
            playPause = !playPause;
            break;
        default:
            break;
        }
    }
    
    private void writeFrameToSDCard(byte[] bytes, int i, int sampleSize) {                i++;
        if (i%10 == 0) {
            try {
                Bitmap bmp = BitmapFactory.decodeByteArray(bytes, 0, sampleSize);
                mPixelBuf.rewind();
                bmp.copyPixelsFromBuffer(mPixelBuf);
                String path = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory() + "/bitmap/" + i + ".png";
                FileOutputStream fileOutputStream = null;
                try {
                    fileOutputStream = new FileOutputStream(path);
                    bmp.compress(CompressFormat.PNG, 90, fileOutputStream);
                    bmp.recycle();
                    Log.i(TAG, "i: " + i);
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    Log.i(TAG, "Error: " + i);
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
                finally {
                    if (fileOutputStream != null) {
                        fileOutputStream.close();
                    }
                }
            } catch (Exception e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
    }
    
    private class PlayerThread extends Thread {

        private MediaExtractor extractor;
        private MediaCodec mediaCodec;
        private Surface surface;

        public PlayerThread(Surface surface) {
            this.surface = surface;
        }

        @Override
        public void run() {
            extractor = new MediaExtractor();
            try {
                extractor.setDataSource(file_path);
            } catch (IOException e1) {
                Log.i(TAG, "Error");
                e1.printStackTrace();
            }

            for (int i = 0; i < extractor.getTrackCount(); i++) {
                MediaFormat format = extractor.getTrackFormat(i);
                String mime = format.getString(MediaFormat.KEY_MIME);
                if (mime.startsWith("video/")) {
                    extractor.selectTrack(i);
                    mediaCodec = MediaCodec.createDecoderByType(mime);
                    mediaCodec.configure(format, surface, null, 0);
                    break;
                }
            }

            if (mediaCodec == null) {
                Log.e(TAG, "Can't find video info!");
                return;
            }

            mediaCodec.start();

            ByteBuffer[] inputBuffers = mediaCodec.getInputBuffers();
            ByteBuffer[] outputBuffers = mediaCodec.getOutputBuffers();
            BufferInfo info = new BufferInfo();
            boolean isEOS = false;
            long startMs = System.currentTimeMillis();

            int i = 0;
            while (!Thread.interrupted()) {
                if (!isEOS) {
                    int inIndex = mediaCodec.dequeueInputBuffer(10000);
                    if (inIndex >= 0) {
                        ByteBuffer buffer = inputBuffers[inIndex];
                        int sampleSize = extractor.readSampleData(buffer, 0);
                        if (sampleSize < 0) {
                            // We shouldn't stop the playback at this point, just pass the EOS
                            // flag to mediaCodec, we will get it again from the dequeueOutputBuffer
                            Log.d(TAG, "InputBuffer BUFFER_FLAG_END_OF_STREAM");
                            mediaCodec.queueInputBuffer(inIndex, 0, 0, 0, MediaCodec.BUFFER_FLAG_END_OF_STREAM);
                            isEOS = true;
                        } else {
                            mediaCodec.queueInputBuffer(inIndex, 0, sampleSize, extractor.getSampleTime(), 0);
                            extractor.advance();
                        }
                    }
                }

                int outIndex = mediaCodec.dequeueOutputBuffer(info, 100000);
                
                switch (outIndex) {
                case MediaCodec.INFO_OUTPUT_BUFFERS_CHANGED:
                    Log.d(TAG, "INFO_OUTPUT_BUFFERS_CHANGED");
                    outputBuffers = mediaCodec.getOutputBuffers();
                    break;
                case MediaCodec.INFO_OUTPUT_FORMAT_CHANGED:
                    Log.d(TAG,"New format " + mediaCodec.getOutputFormat());
                    break;
                case MediaCodec.INFO_TRY_AGAIN_LATER:
                    Log.d(TAG, "dequeueOutputBuffer timed out!");
                    break;
                default:
                    ByteBuffer buffer = outputBuffers[outIndex];
                    Log.v(TAG,"We can't use this buffer but render it due to the API limit, " + buffer);

                    // We use a very simple clock to keep the video FPS, or the video
                    // playback will be too fast
                    while (info.presentationTimeUs / 1000 > System.currentTimeMillis() - startMs) {
                        try {
                            sleep(10);
                        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                            e.printStackTrace();
                            break;
                        }
                    }
                    mediaCodec.releaseOutputBuffer(outIndex, true);
                    
                    /* saves frame to SDcard */
                    mPixelBuf.rewind();
                    GLES20.glReadPixels(0, 0, 640, 480, GLES20.GL_RGBA, GLES20.GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, mPixelBuf);
                    try {
                        ByteBuffer outByteBuffer = outputBuffers[outIndex];
                        outByteBuffer.position(info.offset);
                        outByteBuffer.limit(info.offset + info.size);  //info的两个参数值始终为0,所保存的.png也都是0KB。
                        outByteBuffer.limit(2);
                        byte[] dst = new byte[outByteBuffer.capacity()];
                        outByteBuffer.get(dst);
                        writeFrameToSDCard(dst, i, dst.length);    
                        i++;
                    } catch (Exception e) {
                        Log.d(TAG, "Error while creating bitmap with: " + e.getMessage());
                    }
                    break;
                }

                // All decoded frames have been rendered, we can stop playing now
                if ((info.flags & MediaCodec.BUFFER_FLAG_END_OF_STREAM) != 0) {
                    Log.d(TAG,    "OutputBuffer BUFFER_FLAG_END_OF_STREAM");
                    break;
                }
            }

            mediaCodec.stop();
            mediaCodec.release();
            extractor.release();
        }
    }
}

所保存的图片大小始终为0的原因大概和下面的方法五类似。

想要深入研究此方法可以参考:

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/19754547/mediacodec-get-all-frames-from-video

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/23321880/how-to-get-bitmap-frames-from-video-using-mediacodec

 

四.JCodec

http://jcodec.org/

jcodec-samples-0.1.7.apk

解码视频文件耗时较长,性能较差,平均1.5s取一帧图片,达不到要求。

 

五.使用VideoView播放视频,使用getDrawingCache获取View视图

VideoView是Android提供的播放视频组件,上手很容易。这里使用getDrawingCache获取控件的View。

但是DrawingCache只能截取非视频部分的画面,播放视频的那个小窗口一直是黑色的。原因为Activity画面走的是framebuffer,视频是硬解码推送过来的,所有读取/dev/graphics/fb0  视频播放的那一块就是黑色的,硬件解码不会推送到buffer的,而是直接推送到硬件输出了。

public class MoviePlayerActivity extends Activity implements OnTouchListener, OnClickListener, Runnable {

    private static final String TAG = "Image";
    private String file_path;
    private VideoView videoView;
    private Button movie_play;
    private boolean playButtonVisible;
    private boolean playPause;

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        // full screen
        getWindow().setFlags(WindowManager.LayoutParams.FLAG_FULLSCREEN, WindowManager.LayoutParams.FLAG_FULLSCREEN);
        // no title
        requestWindowFeature(Window.FEATURE_NO_TITLE);
        // landscape or horizontal screen
        setRequestedOrientation(ActivityInfo.SCREEN_ORIENTATION_LANDSCAPE);

        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.movie_player_activity);
        movie_play = (Button) findViewById(R.id.movie_videoview_play);
        movie_play.setOnClickListener(this);
        movie_play.setText("Play");

        Intent intent = getIntent();
        file_path = intent.getStringExtra("file_path");

        videoView = (VideoView) findViewById(R.id.movie_palyer_videoview);
        videoView.setMediaController(null);
        // videoView.setMediaController(new MediaController(this));
        videoView.setVideoPath(file_path);
        videoView.start();
        videoView.requestFocus();

         Thread screenShootThread = new Thread(this);
         screenShootThread.start();
        videoView.setOnTouchListener(this);
    }

    @Override
    public void run() {            //播放视频时后台自动截图,注意参数为videoView
        for (int i = 10000 * 1000; i < 20 * 1000 * 1000; i += 500 * 1000) {
            int nowTime = videoView.getCurrentPosition();
            try {
                screenShot(videoView, i);
            } catch (Exception e1) {
                Log.i(TAG, "Error: screenShot. ");
                e1.printStackTrace();
            }

            try {
                Thread.sleep(500);
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onTouch(View v, MotionEvent event) {
        if (!playButtonVisible) {
            movie_play.setVisibility(View.VISIBLE);
            movie_play.setEnabled(true);
        } else {
            movie_play.setVisibility(View.INVISIBLE);
        }
        playButtonVisible = !playButtonVisible;

        return false;
    }

    @Override
    public void onClick(View view) {
        switch (view.getId()) {
        case R.id.movie_videoview_play:
            if (!playPause) {
                movie_play.setText("Pause");
            } else {
                movie_play.setText("Play");
            }
            playPause = !playPause;

            int nowTime = videoView.getCurrentPosition();
            Log.i(TAG, "nowTime: " + nowTime);
            try {
                screenShot(videoView, nowTime);    //点击按钮截图,注意参数为videoView
            } catch (Exception e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }

            break;
        default:
            break;
        }
    }

    public void screenShot(View view, int nowTime) throws Exception {

        view.measure(MeasureSpec.makeMeasureSpec(0, MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED), MeasureSpec.makeMeasureSpec(0, MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED));
        view.layout(0, 0, view.getMeasuredWidth(), view.getMeasuredHeight());
        view.setDrawingCacheEnabled(true);
        view.buildDrawingCache();
        Bitmap bitmap = Bitmap.createBitmap(view.getDrawingCache());
        String path = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory() + "/bitmap/" + nowTime + ".png";
        FileOutputStream fileOutputStream = null;
        try {
            fileOutputStream = new FileOutputStream(path);
            bitmap.compress(Bitmap.CompressFormat.PNG, 90, fileOutputStream);
            Log.i(TAG, "i: " + nowTime);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            Log.i(TAG, "Error: " + nowTime);
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            if (fileOutputStream != null) {
                fileOutputStream.close();
            }
        }
        bitmap.recycle();
        view.setDrawingCacheEnabled(false);
    }
}

DrawingCache 获取其他控件如Button等View时正常。

 

六.VideoView播放视频,MediaMetadataRetriever获取帧画面(就是你了!)

能够正常获取帧画面,并且画面之间不重复,即不是只取关键帧,而是去取相应时间点的帧画面。若不保存为图片(.png/.jpg),耗时最多为0.4s,基本达到要求。

参考:http://yashirocc.blog.sohu.com/175636801.html

public class MoviePlayerActivity extends Activity implements OnTouchListener, OnClickListener, Runnable {

    private static final String TAG = "ImageLight";
    private String file_path;
    private VideoView videoView;
    private Button movie_play;
    private boolean playButtonVisible;
    private boolean playPause;

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        getWindow().setFlags(WindowManager.LayoutParams.FLAG_FULLSCREEN, WindowManager.LayoutParams.FLAG_FULLSCREEN);    // full screen
        requestWindowFeature(Window.FEATURE_NO_TITLE);                            // no title
        setRequestedOrientation(ActivityInfo.SCREEN_ORIENTATION_LANDSCAPE);        // landscape or horizontal screen

        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.movie_player_activity);
        movie_play = (Button) findViewById(R.id.movie_videoview_play);
        movie_play.setOnClickListener(this);
        movie_play.setText("Play");

        Intent intent = getIntent();
        file_path = intent.getStringExtra("file_path");

        videoView = (VideoView) findViewById(R.id.movie_palyer_videoview);
        videoView.setMediaController(null);
        // videoView.setMediaController(new MediaController(this));
        videoView.setVideoPath(file_path);
        videoView.start();
        videoView.requestFocus();

        Thread screenShootThread = new Thread(this);
        screenShootThread.start();
        videoView.setOnTouchListener(this);
    }

    @Override
    public void run() {
        MediaMetadataRetriever metadataRetriever = new MediaMetadataRetriever();
        metadataRetriever.setDataSource(file_path);
        
        for (int i = 40000 * 1000; i < 50 * 1000 * 1000; i += 500 * 1000) {
//            try {
//                Thread.sleep(500);
//            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
//                e.printStackTrace();
//            }            
            Bitmap bitmap = metadataRetriever.
                    getFrameAtTime(videoView.getCurrentPosition()*1000, MediaMetadataRetriever.OPTION_CLOSEST);
            Log.i(TAG, "bitmap---i: " + i/1000);
            
            String path = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory() + "/bitmap/" + i + ".png";
            FileOutputStream fileOutputStream = null;
            try {
                fileOutputStream = new FileOutputStream(path);
                bitmap.compress(Bitmap.CompressFormat.PNG, 90, fileOutputStream);
                Log.i(TAG, "i: " + i/1000);
            } catch (Exception e) {
                Log.i(TAG, "Error: " + i/1000);
                e.printStackTrace();
            } finally {
                if (fileOutputStream != null) {
                    try {
                        fileOutputStream.close();
                    } catch (IOException e) {
                        e.printStackTrace();
                    }
                }
            }          
            bitmap.recycle();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onTouch(View v, MotionEvent event) {
        if (!playButtonVisible) {
            movie_play.setVisibility(View.VISIBLE);
            movie_play.setEnabled(true);
        } else {
            movie_play.setVisibility(View.INVISIBLE);
        }
        playButtonVisible = !playButtonVisible;
        return false;
    }

    @Override
    public void onClick(View view) {
        switch (view.getId()) {
        case R.id.movie_videoview_play:
            if (!playPause) {
                movie_play.setText("Pause");
            } else {
                movie_play.setText("Play");
            }
            playPause = !playPause;
            break;
        default:
            break;
        }
    }
}

 

转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/fansen/p/4914784.html

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