mysql中的第三范式

※多表操作 (凡是多表,都要用到关联技术(把多表合并成一个新表): 左关联、右关联、内关联。还有一个外(全)关联,MySQL不支持,为考虑软件兼容,我们开发一般不用。)

※表与表之间的关系:1对1,1对多,多对多
一、1对1
※第三范式: 1方建主表(id为主键字段), 多方建外键字段(husband--参考主表的主键id,加unique)

CREATE TABLE man(
id VARCHAR(32) PRIMARY KEY,
NAME VARCHAR(30)
);

CREATE TABLE woman(
id VARCHAR(32) PRIMARY KEY,
NAME VARCHAR(30),
husband VARCHAR(32) UNIQUE,
CONSTRAINT wm_fk FOREIGN KEY(husband) REFERENCES man(id)
);

//DROP TABLE woman;

INSERT INTO man VALUES('1','张三');
INSERT INTO man VALUES('2','李四');
INSERT INTO man VALUES('3','王五');

INSERT INTO woman VALUES('1','小花','1');
INSERT INTO woman VALUES('2','玉芬','3');
INSERT INTO woman VALUES('3','小玉','1');//Error:违反1对1
INSERT INTO woman VALUES('3','小玉','10');//Error:违反外键--主表必须存在该外键值

INSERT INTO man VALUES('10','王六');
INSERT INTO woman VALUES('3','小玉','10');//OK

//◇查询夫妻信息(内联)
SELECT man.name AS 丈夫, woman.name AS 妻子 FROM man
INNER JOIN woman ON man.id=woman.husband;

SELECT m.name AS 丈夫, w.name AS 妻子 FROM man AS m
INNER JOIN woman AS w ON m.id=w.husband;

二、1对多
※第三范式: 1方建主表(id为主键字段), 多方建外键字段(pid--参考主表的主键id,不加unique)
CREATE TABLE person2(
id VARCHAR(32) PRIMARY KEY,
NAME VARCHAR(30),
sex CHAR(1)
);

DROP TABLE car2;
CREATE TABLE car(
id VARCHAR(32) PRIMARY KEY,
NAME VARCHAR(30),
price NUMERIC(10,2),
pid VARCHAR(32),
CONSTRAINT car_fk FOREIGN KEY(pid) REFERENCES person2(id)
);

INSERT INTO person2 VALUES('P01','Jack','1');
INSERT INTO person2 VALUES('P02','Tom','1');
INSERT INTO person2 VALUES('P03','Rose','0');

INSERT INTO car VALUES('C001','BMW',30,'P01');
INSERT INTO car VALUES('C002','BEnZ',40,'P01');
INSERT INTO car VALUES('C003','Audi',40,'P01');

INSERT INTO car VALUES('C004','QQ',5.5,'P02');
//外键字段值可以为“NULL”
INSERT INTO car(id,NAME,price) VALUES('C005','ABC',10);
INSERT INTO car(id,NAME,price) VALUES('C006','BCD',10);

//◇查询哪些人有哪些车
SELECT * FROM car INNER JOIN person2 ON car.pid=person2.id;
SELECT car.NAME,car.price,person2.name FROM car
INNER JOIN person2 ON car.pid=person2.id ;
//◇查询Jack有哪些车
SELECT car.NAME,car.price,person2.name FROM car
INNER JOIN person2 ON car.pid=person2.id where person2.name='Jack';
//◇查询哪些人有两辆或两辆以上的车
//失败品:--每组只显示第一条
SELECT car.NAME,car.price,person2.name FROM car
INNER JOIN person2 ON car.pid=person2.id GROUP BY person2.id HAVING COUNT(car.pid)>=2;

//过渡版
SELECT car.NAME,car.price,person2.name FROM car
INNER JOIN person2 ON car.pid=person2.id WHERE person2.id IN('P01','P02');
SELECT pid FROM car GROUP BY pid HAVING COUNT(pid)>=2; //把上面写死的pid写成活的

//OK版
SELECT car.NAME,car.price,person2.name FROM car
INNER JOIN person2 ON car.pid=person2.id WHERE person2.id IN(
SELECT pid FROM car GROUP BY pid HAVING COUNT(pid)>=2
);

 

//演示左关联: SELECT * FROM person2 LEFT JOIN car ON car.pid=person2.id;
//◇查询哪些人没有车
SELECT person2.name FROM person2 LEFT JOIN car ON car.pid=person2.id
WHERE car.id IS NULL;


//◇补一个外键的概念(默认是约束): 删除主键信息时,当该主键字段值在外键表中存在时,该记录是不能删除的。---要把外键表是的相关信息删除之后,才能删除。 ---更新同理
DELETE FROM person2 WHERE id='P01';//car表中存在pid='P01'的车,所以主表不能删除'P01'这条记录


三、多对多( 3个表= 2个实体表 + 1个关系表 )
※第三范式: 两个实体都建成独立的主表, 另外再单独建一个关系表(采用联合主键)
1、分别建议两个实体表(没有外键,但有自己的主键, 没有冗余信息)
//DROP TABLE stud;
//学生表
CREATE TABLE stud(
id VARCHAR(32) PRIMARY KEY,
NAME VARCHAR(30)
);
//课程表
CREATE TABLE ject(
id VARCHAR(32) PRIMARY KEY,
NAME VARCHAR(30)
);

2、另外补建一个关系表
CREATE TABLE sj(
studid VARCHAR(32) NOT NULL,
jectid VARCHAR(32)
);
//注意,要先建联合主键,再添加外键。顺序不能反了。
ALTER TABLE sj ADD CONSTRAINT sj_pk PRIMARY KEY(studid,jectid);
ALTER TABLE sj ADD CONSTRAINT sj_fk1 FOREIGN KEY(studid) REFERENCES stud(id);
ALTER TABLE sj ADD CONSTRAINT sj_fk2 FOREIGN KEY(jectid) REFERENCES ject(id);

//删除外键约束
//ALTER TABLE sj DROP FOREIGN KEY sj_fk1;
//ALTER TABLE sj DROP FOREIGN KEY sj_fk2;


3、添加一些演示数据
//实体表1
INSERT INTO stud VALUES('S001','Jack');
INSERT INTO stud VALUES('S002','Rose');
INSERT INTO stud VALUES('S003','Tom');

//实体表2
INSERT INTO ject VALUES('J001','Java');
INSERT INTO ject VALUES('J002','Oracle');
INSERT INTO ject VALUES('J003','XML');
INSERT INTO ject VALUES('J004','JSP');
INSERT INTO ject VALUES('J005','Game');

//关系表
INSERT INTO sj VALUES('S001','J001');
INSERT INTO sj VALUES('S001','J003');
INSERT INTO sj VALUES('S001','J004');
INSERT INTO sj VALUES('S002','J002');
INSERT INTO sj VALUES('S002','J003');
INSERT INTO sj VALUES('S002','J004');


//查询哪些人选了哪些课
//SQL组织的1992标准,可用,但效率不高
SELECT stud.name, ject.NAME FROM stud,ject,sj WHERE stud.id=sj.studid AND ject.id=sj.jectid;

//SQL组织的1996标准,效率高,推荐使用---关联
SELECT stud.name, ject.NAME FROM stud INNER JOIN sj ON stud.id=sj.studid
INNER JOIN ject ON ject.id=sj.jectid;

//查询哪些人没选课
SELECT stud.name FROM stud LEFT JOIN sj ON stud.id=sj.studid
LEFT JOIN ject ON ject.id=sj.jectid where ject.id is NULL;

//查询哪些课没人选
SELECT ject.name FROM stud RIGHT JOIN sj ON stud.id=sj.studid
RIGHT JOIN ject ON ject.id=sj.jectid where stud.id is NULL;
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

//额外补充:

1)在java中如果要对mysql进行操作时要导入mysql的jar包,倒入之后点右键中的bulid path进行导包;

2)外键可以保证两个表数据的一致性

 

转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/1314wamm/p/6022318.html

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