Python操作mysql

一、 Python DB-API介绍

'''
Python标准数据接口为Python DB-API   Python DB-API为开发人员提供了数据库应用的编程接口
    它定义了一系列必须的对象和数据库存取方式,以便为各种各样的底层数据库系统提供一致的访问接口
    使用它连接各种数据库后,就可以用相同的方式操作各种数据库
    不同的数据库需要安装不同的DB-API模块,例如Python3 需要安装pymysql  Python2需要安装mysqlLdb
'''

二、pymysql介绍

'''
在Python2.x的版本中,通常使用MySQLdb来连接数据库操作进行操作
在Python3.x的版本中,MySQLdb模块不再提供支持,可以使用pymysql,它支持Python2和Python3 
pymysql:
    是一个纯Python写的MySQL客户端,它的目标是替代MySQLdb,可以在cpython pypy lronpython和Jython环境下运行
    性能和MySQLdb几乎相当,如果对性能要求不是特别的强,使用pymysql将更加方便
    使用方法和MySQLdb几乎一样
'''

三、安装pymysql 

pip3 install pymysql   -i http://mirrors.aliyun.com/pypi/simple/ --trusted-host mirrors.aliyun.com  

 

四、使用pymysql连接数据库 

'''
pymysql.connect()  参数大全
def __init__(self, host=None, user=None, password="",
             database=None, port=0, unix_socket=None,
             charset='', sql_mode=None,
             read_default_file=None, conv=None, use_unicode=None,
             client_flag=0, cursorclass=Cursor, init_command=None,
             connect_timeout=10, ssl=None, read_default_group=None,
             compress=None, named_pipe=None,
             autocommit=False, db=None, passwd=None, local_infile=False,
             max_allowed_packet=16*1024*1024, defer_connect=False,
             auth_plugin_map=None, read_timeout=None, write_timeout=None,
             bind_address=None, binary_prefix=False, program_name=None,
             server_public_key=None):
             
连接方式1: 按位置参数传参
    con=pymysql.connect('host','user','passwd','dbname')

连接方式2: 按关键字参数传参
    con=pymysql.connect(host='host',user='user',passwd='passwd',db='dbname') 
    
连接方式3: 使用变量 
host='127.0.0.1'
user='gameserver'
passwd='123456'
db='game'  
con = pymysql.connect(host=host, user=user, passwd=password, db=db) 

连接方式4: 使用字典配置
config={
    'host':'127.0.0.1',
    'user':'fred_li',
    'passwd':'835y1354',
    'db':'schoolinfo'
}

con=pymysql.connect(**config)          
'''
# Python implementation of the MySQL client-server protocol
# http://dev.mysql.com/doc/internals/en/client-server-protocol.html
# Error codes:
# http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.5/en/error-messages-client.html
from __future__ import print_function
from ._compat import PY2, range_type, text_type, str_type, JYTHON, IRONPYTHON

import errno
import io
import os
import socket
import struct
import sys
import traceback
import warnings

from . import _auth

from .charset import charset_by_name, charset_by_id
from .constants import CLIENT, COMMAND, CR, FIELD_TYPE, SERVER_STATUS
from . import converters
from .cursors import Cursor
from .optionfile import Parser
from .protocol import (
    dump_packet, MysqlPacket, FieldDescriptorPacket, OKPacketWrapper,
    EOFPacketWrapper, LoadLocalPacketWrapper
)
from .util import byte2int, int2byte
from . import err, VERSION_STRING

try:
    import ssl
    SSL_ENABLED = True
except ImportError:
    ssl = None
    SSL_ENABLED = False

try:
    import getpass
    DEFAULT_USER = getpass.getuser()
    del getpass
except (ImportError, KeyError):
    # KeyError occurs when there's no entry in OS database for a current user.
    DEFAULT_USER = None

DEBUG = False

_py_version = sys.version_info[:2]

if PY2:
    pass
elif _py_version < (3, 6):
    # See http://bugs.python.org/issue24870
    _surrogateescape_table = [chr(i) if i < 0x80 else chr(i + 0xdc00) for i in range(256)]

    def _fast_surrogateescape(s):
        return s.decode('latin1').translate(_surrogateescape_table)
else:
    def _fast_surrogateescape(s):
        return s.decode('ascii', 'surrogateescape')

# socket.makefile() in Python 2 is not usable because very inefficient and
# bad behavior about timeout.
# XXX: ._socketio doesn't work under IronPython.
if PY2 and not IRONPYTHON:
    # read method of file-like returned by sock.makefile() is very slow.
    # So we copy io-based one from Python 3.
    from ._socketio import SocketIO

    def _makefile(sock, mode):
        return io.BufferedReader(SocketIO(sock, mode))
else:
    # socket.makefile in Python 3 is nice.
    def _makefile(sock, mode):
        return sock.makefile(mode)


TEXT_TYPES = {
    FIELD_TYPE.BIT,
    FIELD_TYPE.BLOB,
    FIELD_TYPE.LONG_BLOB,
    FIELD_TYPE.MEDIUM_BLOB,
    FIELD_TYPE.STRING,
    FIELD_TYPE.TINY_BLOB,
    FIELD_TYPE.VAR_STRING,
    FIELD_TYPE.VARCHAR,
    FIELD_TYPE.GEOMETRY,
}


DEFAULT_CHARSET = 'utf8mb4'  # TODO: change to utf8mb4

MAX_PACKET_LEN = 2**24-1


def pack_int24(n):
    return struct.pack('<I', n)[:3]


# https://dev.mysql.com/doc/internals/en/integer.html#packet-Protocol::LengthEncodedInteger
def lenenc_int(i):
    if (i < 0):
        raise ValueError("Encoding %d is less than 0 - no representation in LengthEncodedInteger" % i)
    elif (i < 0xfb):
        return int2byte(i)
    elif (i < (1 << 16)):
        return b'\xfc' + struct.pack('<H', i)
    elif (i < (1 << 24)):
        return b'\xfd' + struct.pack('<I', i)[:3]
    elif (i < (1 << 64)):
        return b'\xfe' + struct.pack('<Q', i)
    else:
        raise ValueError("Encoding %x is larger than %x - no representation in LengthEncodedInteger" % (i, (1 << 64)))


class Connection(object):
    """
    Representation of a socket with a mysql server.

    The proper way to get an instance of this class is to call
    connect().

    Establish a connection to the MySQL database. Accepts several
    arguments:

    :param host: Host where the database server is located
    :param user: Username to log in as
    :param password: Password to use.
    :param database: Database to use, None to not use a particular one.
    :param port: MySQL port to use, default is usually OK. (default: 3306)
    :param bind_address: When the client has multiple network interfaces, specify
        the interface from which to connect to the host. Argument can be
        a hostname or an IP address.
    :param unix_socket: Optionally, you can use a unix socket rather than TCP/IP.
    :param read_timeout: The timeout for reading from the connection in seconds (default: None - no timeout)
    :param write_timeout: The timeout for writing to the connection in seconds (default: None - no timeout)
    :param charset: Charset you want to use.
    :param sql_mode: Default SQL_MODE to use.
    :param read_default_file:
        Specifies  my.cnf file to read these parameters from under the [client] section.
    :param conv:
        Conversion dictionary to use instead of the default one.
        This is used to provide custom marshalling and unmarshaling of types.
        See converters.
    :param use_unicode:
        Whether or not to default to unicode strings.
        This option defaults to true for Py3k.
    :param client_flag: Custom flags to send to MySQL. Find potential values in constants.CLIENT.
    :param cursorclass: Custom cursor class to use.
    :param init_command: Initial SQL statement to run when connection is established.
    :param connect_timeout: Timeout before throwing an exception when connecting.
        (default: 10, min: 1, max: 31536000)
    :param ssl:
        A dict of arguments similar to mysql_ssl_set()'s parameters.
        For now the capath and cipher arguments are not supported.
    :param read_default_group: Group to read from in the configuration file.
    :param compress: Not supported
    :param named_pipe: Not supported
    :param autocommit: Autocommit mode. None means use server default. (default: False)
    :param local_infile: Boolean to enable the use of LOAD DATA LOCAL command. (default: False)
    :param max_allowed_packet: Max size of packet sent to server in bytes. (default: 16MB)
        Only used to limit size of "LOAD LOCAL INFILE" data packet smaller than default (16KB).
    :param defer_connect: Don't explicitly connect on contruction - wait for connect call.
        (default: False)
    :param auth_plugin_map: A dict of plugin names to a class that processes that plugin.
        The class will take the Connection object as the argument to the constructor.
        The class needs an authenticate method taking an authentication packet as
        an argument.  For the dialog plugin, a prompt(echo, prompt) method can be used
        (if no authenticate method) for returning a string from the user. (experimental)
    :param server_public_key: SHA256 authenticaiton plugin public key value. (default: None)
    :param db: Alias for database. (for compatibility to MySQLdb)
    :param passwd: Alias for password. (for compatibility to MySQLdb)
    :param binary_prefix: Add _binary prefix on bytes and bytearray. (default: False)

    See `Connection <https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0249/#connection-objects>`_ in the
    specification.
    """

    _sock = None
    _auth_plugin_name = ''
    _closed = False
    _secure = False

    def __init__(self, host=None, user=None, password="",
                 database=None, port=0, unix_socket=None,
                 charset='', sql_mode=None,
                 read_default_file=None, conv=None, use_unicode=None,
                 client_flag=0, cursorclass=Cursor, init_command=None,
                 connect_timeout=10, ssl=None, read_default_group=None,
                 compress=None, named_pipe=None,
                 autocommit=False, db=None, passwd=None, local_infile=False,
                 max_allowed_packet=16*1024*1024, defer_connect=False,
                 auth_plugin_map=None, read_timeout=None, write_timeout=None,
                 bind_address=None, binary_prefix=False, program_name=None,
                 server_public_key=None):
        if use_unicode is None and sys.version_info[0] > 2:
            use_unicode = True

        if db is not None and database is None:
            database = db
        if passwd is not None and not password:
            password = passwd

        if compress or named_pipe:
            raise NotImplementedError("compress and named_pipe arguments are not supported")

        self._local_infile = bool(local_infile)
        if self._local_infile:
            client_flag |= CLIENT.LOCAL_FILES

        if read_default_group and not read_default_file:
            if sys.platform.startswith("win"):
                read_default_file = "c:\\my.ini"
            else:
                read_default_file = "/etc/my.cnf"

        if read_default_file:
            if not read_default_group:
                read_default_group = "client"

            cfg = Parser()
            cfg.read(os.path.expanduser(read_default_file))

            def _config(key, arg):
                if arg:
                    return arg
                try:
                    return cfg.get(read_default_group, key)
                except Exception:
                    return arg

            user = _config("user", user)
            password = _config("password", password)
            host = _config("host", host)
            database = _config("database", database)
            unix_socket = _config("socket", unix_socket)
            port = int(_config("port", port))
            bind_address = _config("bind-address", bind_address)
            charset = _config("default-character-set", charset)
            if not ssl:
                ssl = {}
            if isinstance(ssl, dict):
                for key in ["ca", "capath", "cert", "key", "cipher"]:
                    value = _config("ssl-" + key, ssl.get(key))
                    if value:
                        ssl[key] = value

        self.ssl = False
        if ssl:
            if not SSL_ENABLED:
                raise NotImplementedError("ssl module not found")
            self.ssl = True
            client_flag |= CLIENT.SSL
            self.ctx = self._create_ssl_ctx(ssl)

        self.host = host or "localhost"
        self.port = port or 3306
        self.user = user or DEFAULT_USER
        self.password = password or b""
        if isinstance(self.password, text_type):
            self.password = self.password.encode('latin1')
        self.db = database
        self.unix_socket = unix_socket
        self.bind_address = bind_address
        if not (0 < connect_timeout <= 31536000):
            raise ValueError("connect_timeout should be >0 and <=31536000")
        self.connect_timeout = connect_timeout or None
        if read_timeout is not None and read_timeout <= 0:
            raise ValueError("read_timeout should be >= 0")
        self._read_timeout = read_timeout
        if write_timeout is not None and write_timeout <= 0:
            raise ValueError("write_timeout should be >= 0")
        self._write_timeout = write_timeout
        if charset:
            self.charset = charset
            self.use_unicode = True
        else:
            self.charset = DEFAULT_CHARSET
            self.use_unicode = False

        if use_unicode is not None:
            self.use_unicode = use_unicode

        self.encoding = charset_by_name(self.charset).encoding

        client_flag |= CLIENT.CAPABILITIES
        if self.db:
            client_flag |= CLIENT.CONNECT_WITH_DB

        self.client_flag = client_flag

        self.cursorclass = cursorclass

        self._result = None
        self._affected_rows = 0
        self.host_info = "Not connected"

        #: specified autocommit mode. None means use server default.
        self.autocommit_mode = autocommit

        if conv is None:
            conv = converters.conversions

        # Need for MySQLdb compatibility.
        self.encoders = dict([(k, v) for (k, v) in conv.items() if type(k) is not int])
        self.decoders = dict([(k, v) for (k, v) in conv.items() if type(k) is int])
        self.sql_mode = sql_mode
        self.init_command = init_command
        self.max_allowed_packet = max_allowed_packet
        self._auth_plugin_map = auth_plugin_map or {}
        self._binary_prefix = binary_prefix
        self.server_public_key = server_public_key

        self._connect_attrs = {
            '_client_name': 'pymysql',
            '_pid': str(os.getpid()),
            '_client_version': VERSION_STRING,
        }
        if program_name:
            self._connect_attrs["program_name"] = program_name
        elif sys.argv:
            self._connect_attrs["program_name"] = sys.argv[0]

        if defer_connect:
            self._sock = None
        else:
            self.connect()

    def _create_ssl_ctx(self, sslp):
        if isinstance(sslp, ssl.SSLContext):
            return sslp
        ca = sslp.get('ca')
        capath = sslp.get('capath')
        hasnoca = ca is None and capath is None
        ctx = ssl.create_default_context(cafile=ca, capath=capath)
        ctx.check_hostname = not hasnoca and sslp.get('check_hostname', True)
        ctx.verify_mode = ssl.CERT_NONE if hasnoca else ssl.CERT_REQUIRED
        if 'cert' in sslp:
            ctx.load_cert_chain(sslp['cert'], keyfile=sslp.get('key'))
        if 'cipher' in sslp:
            ctx.set_ciphers(sslp['cipher'])
        ctx.options |= ssl.OP_NO_SSLv2
        ctx.options |= ssl.OP_NO_SSLv3
        return ctx

    def close(self):
        """
        Send the quit message and close the socket.

        See `Connection.close() <https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0249/#Connection.close>`_
        in the specification.

        :raise Error: If the connection is already closed.
        """
        if self._closed:
            raise err.Error("Already closed")
        self._closed = True
        if self._sock is None:
            return
        send_data = struct.pack('<iB', 1, COMMAND.COM_QUIT)
        try:
            self._write_bytes(send_data)
        except Exception:
            pass
        finally:
            self._force_close()

    @property
    def open(self):
        """Return True if the connection is open"""
        return self._sock is not None

    def _force_close(self):
        """Close connection without QUIT message"""
        if self._sock:
            try:
                self._sock.close()
            except:  # noqa
                pass
        self._sock = None
        self._rfile = None

    __del__ = _force_close

    def autocommit(self, value):
        self.autocommit_mode = bool(value)
        current = self.get_autocommit()
        if value != current:
            self._send_autocommit_mode()

    def get_autocommit(self):
        return bool(self.server_status &
                    SERVER_STATUS.SERVER_STATUS_AUTOCOMMIT)

    def _read_ok_packet(self):
        pkt = self._read_packet()
        if not pkt.is_ok_packet():
            raise err.OperationalError(2014, "Command Out of Sync")
        ok = OKPacketWrapper(pkt)
        self.server_status = ok.server_status
        return ok

    def _send_autocommit_mode(self):
        """Set whether or not to commit after every execute()"""
        self._execute_command(COMMAND.COM_QUERY, "SET AUTOCOMMIT = %s" %
                              self.escape(self.autocommit_mode))
        self._read_ok_packet()

    def begin(self):
        """Begin transaction."""
        self._execute_command(COMMAND.COM_QUERY, "BEGIN")
        self._read_ok_packet()

    def commit(self):
        """
        Commit changes to stable storage.

        See `Connection.commit() <https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0249/#commit>`_
        in the specification.
        """
        self._execute_command(COMMAND.COM_QUERY, "COMMIT")
        self._read_ok_packet()

    def rollback(self):
        """
        Roll back the current transaction.

        See `Connection.rollback() <https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0249/#rollback>`_
        in the specification.
        """
        self._execute_command(COMMAND.COM_QUERY, "ROLLBACK")
        self._read_ok_packet()

    def show_warnings(self):
        """Send the "SHOW WARNINGS" SQL command."""
        self._execute_command(COMMAND.COM_QUERY, "SHOW WARNINGS")
        result = MySQLResult(self)
        result.read()
        return result.rows

    def select_db(self, db):
        """
        Set current db.

        :param db: The name of the db.
        """
        self._execute_command(COMMAND.COM_INIT_DB, db)
        self._read_ok_packet()

    def escape(self, obj, mapping=None):
        """Escape whatever value you pass to it.

        Non-standard, for internal use; do not use this in your applications.
        """
        if isinstance(obj, str_type):
            return "'" + self.escape_string(obj) + "'"
        if isinstance(obj, (bytes, bytearray)):
            ret = self._quote_bytes(obj)
            if self._binary_prefix:
                ret = "_binary" + ret
            return ret
        return converters.escape_item(obj, self.charset, mapping=mapping)

    def literal(self, obj):
        """Alias for escape()

        Non-standard, for internal use; do not use this in your applications.
        """
        return self.escape(obj, self.encoders)

    def escape_string(self, s):
        if (self.server_status &
                SERVER_STATUS.SERVER_STATUS_NO_BACKSLASH_ESCAPES):
            return s.replace("'", "''")
        return converters.escape_string(s)

    def _quote_bytes(self, s):
        if (self.server_status &
                SERVER_STATUS.SERVER_STATUS_NO_BACKSLASH_ESCAPES):
            return "'%s'" % (_fast_surrogateescape(s.replace(b"'", b"''")),)
        return converters.escape_bytes(s)

    def cursor(self, cursor=None):
        """
        Create a new cursor to execute queries with.

        :param cursor: The type of cursor to create; one of :py:class:`Cursor`,
            :py:class:`SSCursor`, :py:class:`DictCursor`, or :py:class:`SSDictCursor`.
            None means use Cursor.
        """
        if cursor:
            return cursor(self)
        return self.cursorclass(self)

    def __enter__(self):
        """Context manager that returns a Cursor"""
        return self.cursor()

    def __exit__(self, exc, value, traceback):
        """On successful exit, commit. On exception, rollback"""
        if exc:
            self.rollback()
        else:
            self.commit()

    # The following methods are INTERNAL USE ONLY (called from Cursor)
    def query(self, sql, unbuffered=False):
        # if DEBUG:
        #     print("DEBUG: sending query:", sql)
        if isinstance(sql, text_type) and not (JYTHON or IRONPYTHON):
            if PY2:
                sql = sql.encode(self.encoding)
            else:
                sql = sql.encode(self.encoding, 'surrogateescape')
        self._execute_command(COMMAND.COM_QUERY, sql)
        self._affected_rows = self._read_query_result(unbuffered=unbuffered)
        return self._affected_rows

    def next_result(self, unbuffered=False):
        self._affected_rows = self._read_query_result(unbuffered=unbuffered)
        return self._affected_rows

    def affected_rows(self):
        return self._affected_rows

    def kill(self, thread_id):
        arg = struct.pack('<I', thread_id)
        self._execute_command(COMMAND.COM_PROCESS_KILL, arg)
        return self._read_ok_packet()

    def ping(self, reconnect=True):
        """
        Check if the server is alive.

        :param reconnect: If the connection is closed, reconnect.
        :raise Error: If the connection is closed and reconnect=False.
        """
        if self._sock is None:
            if reconnect:
                self.connect()
                reconnect = False
            else:
                raise err.Error("Already closed")
        try:
            self._execute_command(COMMAND.COM_PING, "")
            self._read_ok_packet()
        except Exception:
            if reconnect:
                self.connect()
                self.ping(False)
            else:
                raise

    def set_charset(self, charset):
        # Make sure charset is supported.
        encoding = charset_by_name(charset).encoding

        self._execute_command(COMMAND.COM_QUERY, "SET NAMES %s" % self.escape(charset))
        self._read_packet()
        self.charset = charset
        self.encoding = encoding

    def connect(self, sock=None):
        self._closed = False
        try:
            if sock is None:
                if self.unix_socket:
                    sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_UNIX, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
                    sock.settimeout(self.connect_timeout)
                    sock.connect(self.unix_socket)
                    self.host_info = "Localhost via UNIX socket"
                    self._secure = True
                    if DEBUG: print('connected using unix_socket')
                else:
                    kwargs = {}
                    if self.bind_address is not None:
                        kwargs['source_address'] = (self.bind_address, 0)
                    while True:
                        try:
                            sock = socket.create_connection(
                                (self.host, self.port), self.connect_timeout,
                                **kwargs)
                            break
                        except (OSError, IOError) as e:
                            if e.errno == errno.EINTR:
                                continue
                            raise
                    self.host_info = "socket %s:%d" % (self.host, self.port)
                    if DEBUG: print('connected using socket')
                    sock.setsockopt(socket.IPPROTO_TCP, socket.TCP_NODELAY, 1)
                sock.settimeout(None)
                sock.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_KEEPALIVE, 1)
            self._sock = sock
            self._rfile = _makefile(sock, 'rb')
            self._next_seq_id = 0

            self._get_server_information()
            self._request_authentication()

            if self.sql_mode is not None:
                c = self.cursor()
                c.execute("SET sql_mode=%s", (self.sql_mode,))

            if self.init_command is not None:
                c = self.cursor()
                c.execute(self.init_command)
                c.close()
                self.commit()

            if self.autocommit_mode is not None:
                self.autocommit(self.autocommit_mode)
        except BaseException as e:
            self._rfile = None
            if sock is not None:
                try:
                    sock.close()
                except:  # noqa
                    pass

            if isinstance(e, (OSError, IOError, socket.error)):
                exc = err.OperationalError(
                        2003,
                        "Can't connect to MySQL server on %r (%s)" % (
                            self.host, e))
                # Keep original exception and traceback to investigate error.
                exc.original_exception = e
                exc.traceback = traceback.format_exc()
                if DEBUG: print(exc.traceback)
                raise exc

            # If e is neither DatabaseError or IOError, It's a bug.
            # But raising AssertionError hides original error.
            # So just reraise it.
            raise

    def write_packet(self, payload):
        """Writes an entire "mysql packet" in its entirety to the network
        addings its length and sequence number.
        """
        # Internal note: when you build packet manualy and calls _write_bytes()
        # directly, you should set self._next_seq_id properly.
        data = pack_int24(len(payload)) + int2byte(self._next_seq_id) + payload
        if DEBUG: dump_packet(data)
        self._write_bytes(data)
        self._next_seq_id = (self._next_seq_id + 1) % 256

    def _read_packet(self, packet_type=MysqlPacket):
        """Read an entire "mysql packet" in its entirety from the network
        and return a MysqlPacket type that represents the results.

        :raise OperationalError: If the connection to the MySQL server is lost.
        :raise InternalError: If the packet sequence number is wrong.
        """
        buff = b''
        while True:
            packet_header = self._read_bytes(4)
            #if DEBUG: dump_packet(packet_header)

            btrl, btrh, packet_number = struct.unpack('<HBB', packet_header)
            bytes_to_read = btrl + (btrh << 16)
            if packet_number != self._next_seq_id:
                self._force_close()
                if packet_number == 0:
                    # MariaDB sends error packet with seqno==0 when shutdown
                    raise err.OperationalError(
                        CR.CR_SERVER_LOST,
                        "Lost connection to MySQL server during query")
                raise err.InternalError(
                    "Packet sequence number wrong - got %d expected %d"
                    % (packet_number, self._next_seq_id))
            self._next_seq_id = (self._next_seq_id + 1) % 256

            recv_data = self._read_bytes(bytes_to_read)
            if DEBUG: dump_packet(recv_data)
            buff += recv_data
            # https://dev.mysql.com/doc/internals/en/sending-more-than-16mbyte.html
            if bytes_to_read == 0xffffff:
                continue
            if bytes_to_read < MAX_PACKET_LEN:
                break

        packet = packet_type(buff, self.encoding)
        packet.check_error()
        return packet

    def _read_bytes(self, num_bytes):
        self._sock.settimeout(self._read_timeout)
        while True:
            try:
                data = self._rfile.read(num_bytes)
                break
            except (IOError, OSError) as e:
                if e.errno == errno.EINTR:
                    continue
                self._force_close()
                raise err.OperationalError(
                    CR.CR_SERVER_LOST,
                    "Lost connection to MySQL server during query (%s)" % (e,))
        if len(data) < num_bytes:
            self._force_close()
            raise err.OperationalError(
                CR.CR_SERVER_LOST, "Lost connection to MySQL server during query")
        return data

    def _write_bytes(self, data):
        self._sock.settimeout(self._write_timeout)
        try:
            self._sock.sendall(data)
        except IOError as e:
            self._force_close()
            raise err.OperationalError(
                CR.CR_SERVER_GONE_ERROR,
                "MySQL server has gone away (%r)" % (e,))

    def _read_query_result(self, unbuffered=False):
        self._result = None
        if unbuffered:
            try:
                result = MySQLResult(self)
                result.init_unbuffered_query()
            except:
                result.unbuffered_active = False
                result.connection = None
                raise
        else:
            result = MySQLResult(self)
            result.read()
        self._result = result
        if result.server_status is not None:
            self.server_status = result.server_status
        return result.affected_rows

    def insert_id(self):
        if self._result:
            return self._result.insert_id
        else:
            return 0

    def _execute_command(self, command, sql):
        """
        :raise InterfaceError: If the connection is closed.
        :raise ValueError: If no username was specified.
        """
        if not self._sock:
            raise err.InterfaceError("(0, '')")

        # If the last query was unbuffered, make sure it finishes before
        # sending new commands
        if self._result is not None:
            if self._result.unbuffered_active:
                warnings.warn("Previous unbuffered result was left incomplete")
                self._result._finish_unbuffered_query()
            while self._result.has_next:
                self.next_result()
            self._result = None

        if isinstance(sql, text_type):
            sql = sql.encode(self.encoding)

        packet_size = min(MAX_PACKET_LEN, len(sql) + 1)  # +1 is for command

        # tiny optimization: build first packet manually instead of
        # calling self..write_packet()
        prelude = struct.pack('<iB', packet_size, command)
        packet = prelude + sql[:packet_size-1]
        self._write_bytes(packet)
        if DEBUG: dump_packet(packet)
        self._next_seq_id = 1

        if packet_size < MAX_PACKET_LEN:
            return

        sql = sql[packet_size-1:]
        while True:
            packet_size = min(MAX_PACKET_LEN, len(sql))
            self.write_packet(sql[:packet_size])
            sql = sql[packet_size:]
            if not sql and packet_size < MAX_PACKET_LEN:
                break

    def _request_authentication(self):
        # https://dev.mysql.com/doc/internals/en/connection-phase-packets.html#packet-Protocol::HandshakeResponse
        if int(self.server_version.split('.', 1)[0]) >= 5:
            self.client_flag |= CLIENT.MULTI_RESULTS

        if self.user is None:
            raise ValueError("Did not specify a username")

        charset_id = charset_by_name(self.charset).id
        if isinstance(self.user, text_type):
            self.user = self.user.encode(self.encoding)

        data_init = struct.pack('<iIB23s', self.client_flag, MAX_PACKET_LEN, charset_id, b'')

        if self.ssl and self.server_capabilities & CLIENT.SSL:
            self.write_packet(data_init)

            self._sock = self.ctx.wrap_socket(self._sock, server_hostname=self.host)
            self._rfile = _makefile(self._sock, 'rb')
            self._secure = True

        data = data_init + self.user + b'\0'

        authresp = b''
        plugin_name = None

        if self._auth_plugin_name in ('', 'mysql_native_password'):
            authresp = _auth.scramble_native_password(self.password, self.salt)
        elif self._auth_plugin_name == 'caching_sha2_password':
            plugin_name = b'caching_sha2_password'
            if self.password:
                if DEBUG:
                    print("caching_sha2: trying fast path")
                authresp = _auth.scramble_caching_sha2(self.password, self.salt)
            else:
                if DEBUG:
                    print("caching_sha2: empty password")
        elif self._auth_plugin_name == 'sha256_password':
            plugin_name = b'sha256_password'
            if self.ssl and self.server_capabilities & CLIENT.SSL:
                authresp = self.password + b'\0'
            elif self.password:
                authresp = b'\1'  # request public key
            else:
                authresp = b'\0'  # empty password

        if self.server_capabilities & CLIENT.PLUGIN_AUTH_LENENC_CLIENT_DATA:
            data += lenenc_int(len(authresp)) + authresp
        elif self.server_capabilities & CLIENT.SECURE_CONNECTION:
            data += struct.pack('B', len(authresp)) + authresp
        else:  # pragma: no cover - not testing against servers without secure auth (>=5.0)
            data += authresp + b'\0'

        if self.db and self.server_capabilities & CLIENT.CONNECT_WITH_DB:
            if isinstance(self.db, text_type):
                self.db = self.db.encode(self.encoding)
            data += self.db + b'\0'

        if self.server_capabilities & CLIENT.PLUGIN_AUTH:
            data += (plugin_name or b'') + b'\0'

        if self.server_capabilities & CLIENT.CONNECT_ATTRS:
            connect_attrs = b''
            for k, v in self._connect_attrs.items():
                k = k.encode('utf8')
                connect_attrs += struct.pack('B', len(k)) + k
                v = v.encode('utf8')
                connect_attrs += struct.pack('B', len(v)) + v
            data += struct.pack('B', len(connect_attrs)) + connect_attrs

        self.write_packet(data)
        auth_packet = self._read_packet()

        # if authentication method isn't accepted the first byte
        # will have the octet 254
        if auth_packet.is_auth_switch_request():
            if DEBUG: print("received auth switch")
            # https://dev.mysql.com/doc/internals/en/connection-phase-packets.html#packet-Protocol::AuthSwitchRequest
            auth_packet.read_uint8() # 0xfe packet identifier
            plugin_name = auth_packet.read_string()
            if self.server_capabilities & CLIENT.PLUGIN_AUTH and plugin_name is not None:
                auth_packet = self._process_auth(plugin_name, auth_packet)
            else:
                # send legacy handshake
                data = _auth.scramble_old_password(self.password, self.salt) + b'\0'
                self.write_packet(data)
                auth_packet = self._read_packet()
        elif auth_packet.is_extra_auth_data():
            if DEBUG:
                print("received extra data")
            # https://dev.mysql.com/doc/internals/en/successful-authentication.html
            if self._auth_plugin_name == "caching_sha2_password":
                auth_packet = _auth.caching_sha2_password_auth(self, auth_packet)
            elif self._auth_plugin_name == "sha256_password":
                auth_packet = _auth.sha256_password_auth(self, auth_packet)
            else:
                raise err.OperationalError("Received extra packet for auth method %r", self._auth_plugin_name)

        if DEBUG: print("Succeed to auth")

    def _process_auth(self, plugin_name, auth_packet):
        handler = self._get_auth_plugin_handler(plugin_name)
        if handler:
            try:
                return handler.authenticate(auth_packet)
            except AttributeError:
                if plugin_name != b'dialog':
                    raise err.OperationalError(2059, "Authentication plugin '%s'"
                              " not loaded: - %r missing authenticate method" % (plugin_name, type(handler)))
        if plugin_name == b"caching_sha2_password":
            return _auth.caching_sha2_password_auth(self, auth_packet)
        elif plugin_name == b"sha256_password":
            return _auth.sha256_password_auth(self, auth_packet)
        elif plugin_name == b"mysql_native_password":
            data = _auth.scramble_native_password(self.password, auth_packet.read_all())
        elif plugin_name == b"mysql_old_password":
            data = _auth.scramble_old_password(self.password, auth_packet.read_all()) + b'\0'
        elif plugin_name == b"mysql_clear_password":
            # https://dev.mysql.com/doc/internals/en/clear-text-authentication.html
            data = self.password + b'\0'
        elif plugin_name == b"dialog":
            pkt = auth_packet
            while True:
                flag = pkt.read_uint8()
                echo = (flag & 0x06) == 0x02
                last = (flag & 0x01) == 0x01
                prompt = pkt.read_all()

                if prompt == b"Password: ":
                    self.write_packet(self.password + b'\0')
                elif handler:
                    resp = 'no response - TypeError within plugin.prompt method'
                    try:
                        resp = handler.prompt(echo, prompt)
                        self.write_packet(resp + b'\0')
                    except AttributeError:
                        raise err.OperationalError(2059, "Authentication plugin '%s'" \
                                  " not loaded: - %r missing prompt method" % (plugin_name, handler))
                    except TypeError:
                        raise err.OperationalError(2061, "Authentication plugin '%s'" \
                                  " %r didn't respond with string. Returned '%r' to prompt %r" % (plugin_name, handler, resp, prompt))
                else:
                    raise err.OperationalError(2059, "Authentication plugin '%s' (%r) not configured" % (plugin_name, handler))
                pkt = self._read_packet()
                pkt.check_error()
                if pkt.is_ok_packet() or last:
                    break
            return pkt
        else:
            raise err.OperationalError(2059, "Authentication plugin '%s' not configured" % plugin_name)

        self.write_packet(data)
        pkt = self._read_packet()
        pkt.check_error()
        return pkt

    def _get_auth_plugin_handler(self, plugin_name):
        plugin_class = self._auth_plugin_map.get(plugin_name)
        if not plugin_class and isinstance(plugin_name, bytes):
            plugin_class = self._auth_plugin_map.get(plugin_name.decode('ascii'))
        if plugin_class:
            try:
                handler = plugin_class(self)
            except TypeError:
                raise err.OperationalError(2059, "Authentication plugin '%s'"
                    " not loaded: - %r cannot be constructed with connection object" % (plugin_name, plugin_class))
        else:
            handler = None
        return handler

    # _mysql support
    def thread_id(self):
        return self.server_thread_id[0]

    def character_set_name(self):
        return self.charset

    def get_host_info(self):
        return self.host_info

    def get_proto_info(self):
        return self.protocol_version

    def _get_server_information(self):
        i = 0
        packet = self._read_packet()
        data = packet.get_all_data()

        self.protocol_version = byte2int(data[i:i+1])
        i += 1

        server_end = data.find(b'\0', i)
        self.server_version = data[i:server_end].decode('latin1')
        i = server_end + 1

        self.server_thread_id = struct.unpack('<I', data[i:i+4])
        i += 4

        self.salt = data[i:i+8]
        i += 9  # 8 + 1(filler)

        self.server_capabilities = struct.unpack('<H', data[i:i+2])[0]
        i += 2

        if len(data) >= i + 6:
            lang, stat, cap_h, salt_len = struct.unpack('<BHHB', data[i:i+6])
            i += 6
            # TODO: deprecate server_language and server_charset.
            # mysqlclient-python doesn't provide it.
            self.server_language = lang
            try:
                self.server_charset = charset_by_id(lang).name
            except KeyError:
                # unknown collation
                self.server_charset = None

            self.server_status = stat
            if DEBUG: print("server_status: %x" % stat)

            self.server_capabilities |= cap_h << 16
            if DEBUG: print("salt_len:", salt_len)
            salt_len = max(12, salt_len - 9)

        # reserved
        i += 10

        if len(data) >= i + salt_len:
            # salt_len includes auth_plugin_data_part_1 and filler
            self.salt += data[i:i+salt_len]
            i += salt_len

        i+=1
        # AUTH PLUGIN NAME may appear here.
        if self.server_capabilities & CLIENT.PLUGIN_AUTH and len(data) >= i:
            # Due to Bug#59453 the auth-plugin-name is missing the terminating
            # NUL-char in versions prior to 5.5.10 and 5.6.2.
            # ref: https://dev.mysql.com/doc/internals/en/connection-phase-packets.html#packet-Protocol::Handshake
            # didn't use version checks as mariadb is corrected and reports
            # earlier than those two.
            server_end = data.find(b'\0', i)
            if server_end < 0: # pragma: no cover - very specific upstream bug
                # not found \0 and last field so take it all
                self._auth_plugin_name = data[i:].decode('utf-8')
            else:
                self._auth_plugin_name = data[i:server_end].decode('utf-8')

    def get_server_info(self):
        return self.server_version

    Warning = err.Warning
    Error = err.Error
    InterfaceError = err.InterfaceError
    DatabaseError = err.DatabaseError
    DataError = err.DataError
    OperationalError = err.OperationalError
    IntegrityError = err.IntegrityError
    InternalError = err.InternalError
    ProgrammingError = err.ProgrammingError
    NotSupportedError = err.NotSupportedError


class MySQLResult(object):

    def __init__(self, connection):
        """
        :type connection: Connection
        """
        self.connection = connection
        self.affected_rows = None
        self.insert_id = None
        self.server_status = None
        self.warning_count = 0
        self.message = None
        self.field_count = 0
        self.description = None
        self.rows = None
        self.has_next = None
        self.unbuffered_active = False

    def __del__(self):
        if self.unbuffered_active:
            self._finish_unbuffered_query()

    def read(self):
        try:
            first_packet = self.connection._read_packet()

            if first_packet.is_ok_packet():
                self._read_ok_packet(first_packet)
            elif first_packet.is_load_local_packet():
                self._read_load_local_packet(first_packet)
            else:
                self._read_result_packet(first_packet)
        finally:
            self.connection = None

    def init_unbuffered_query(self):
        """
        :raise OperationalError: If the connection to the MySQL server is lost.
        :raise InternalError:
        """
        self.unbuffered_active = True
        first_packet = self.connection._read_packet()

        if first_packet.is_ok_packet():
            self._read_ok_packet(first_packet)
            self.unbuffered_active = False
            self.connection = None
        elif first_packet.is_load_local_packet():
            self._read_load_local_packet(first_packet)
            self.unbuffered_active = False
            self.connection = None
        else:
            self.field_count = first_packet.read_length_encoded_integer()
            self._get_descriptions()

            # Apparently, MySQLdb picks this number because it's the maximum
            # value of a 64bit unsigned integer. Since we're emulating MySQLdb,
            # we set it to this instead of None, which would be preferred.
            self.affected_rows = 18446744073709551615

    def _read_ok_packet(self, first_packet):
        ok_packet = OKPacketWrapper(first_packet)
        self.affected_rows = ok_packet.affected_rows
        self.insert_id = ok_packet.insert_id
        self.server_status = ok_packet.server_status
        self.warning_count = ok_packet.warning_count
        self.message = ok_packet.message
        self.has_next = ok_packet.has_next

    def _read_load_local_packet(self, first_packet):
        if not self.connection._local_infile:
            raise RuntimeError(
                "**WARN**: Received LOAD_LOCAL packet but local_infile option is false.")
        load_packet = LoadLocalPacketWrapper(first_packet)
        sender = LoadLocalFile(load_packet.filename, self.connection)
        try:
            sender.send_data()
        except:
            self.connection._read_packet()  # skip ok packet
            raise

        ok_packet = self.connection._read_packet()
        if not ok_packet.is_ok_packet(): # pragma: no cover - upstream induced protocol error
            raise err.OperationalError(2014, "Commands Out of Sync")
        self._read_ok_packet(ok_packet)

    def _check_packet_is_eof(self, packet):
        if not packet.is_eof_packet():
            return False
        #TODO: Support CLIENT.DEPRECATE_EOF
        # 1) Add DEPRECATE_EOF to CAPABILITIES
        # 2) Mask CAPABILITIES with server_capabilities
        # 3) if server_capabilities & CLIENT.DEPRECATE_EOF: use OKPacketWrapper instead of EOFPacketWrapper
        wp = EOFPacketWrapper(packet)
        self.warning_count = wp.warning_count
        self.has_next = wp.has_next
        return True

    def _read_result_packet(self, first_packet):
        self.field_count = first_packet.read_length_encoded_integer()
        self._get_descriptions()
        self._read_rowdata_packet()

    def _read_rowdata_packet_unbuffered(self):
        # Check if in an active query
        if not self.unbuffered_active:
            return

        # EOF
        packet = self.connection._read_packet()
        if self._check_packet_is_eof(packet):
            self.unbuffered_active = False
            self.connection = None
            self.rows = None
            return

        row = self._read_row_from_packet(packet)
        self.affected_rows = 1
        self.rows = (row,)  # rows should tuple of row for MySQL-python compatibility.
        return row

    def _finish_unbuffered_query(self):
        # After much reading on the MySQL protocol, it appears that there is,
        # in fact, no way to stop MySQL from sending all the data after
        # executing a query, so we just spin, and wait for an EOF packet.
        while self.unbuffered_active:
            packet = self.connection._read_packet()
            if self._check_packet_is_eof(packet):
                self.unbuffered_active = False
                self.connection = None  # release reference to kill cyclic reference.

    def _read_rowdata_packet(self):
        """Read a rowdata packet for each data row in the result set."""
        rows = []
        while True:
            packet = self.connection._read_packet()
            if self._check_packet_is_eof(packet):
                self.connection = None  # release reference to kill cyclic reference.
                break
            rows.append(self._read_row_from_packet(packet))

        self.affected_rows = len(rows)
        self.rows = tuple(rows)

    def _read_row_from_packet(self, packet):
        row = []
        for encoding, converter in self.converters:
            try:
                data = packet.read_length_coded_string()
            except IndexError:
                # No more columns in this row
                # See https://github.com/PyMySQL/PyMySQL/pull/434
                break
            if data is not None:
                if encoding is not None:
                    data = data.decode(encoding)
                if DEBUG: print("DEBUG: DATA = ", data)
                if converter is not None:
                    data = converter(data)
            row.append(data)
        return tuple(row)

    def _get_descriptions(self):
        """Read a column descriptor packet for each column in the result."""
        self.fields = []
        self.converters = []
        use_unicode = self.connection.use_unicode
        conn_encoding = self.connection.encoding
        description = []

        for i in range_type(self.field_count):
            field = self.connection._read_packet(FieldDescriptorPacket)
            self.fields.append(field)
            description.append(field.description())
            field_type = field.type_code
            if use_unicode:
                if field_type == FIELD_TYPE.JSON:
                    # When SELECT from JSON column: charset = binary
                    # When SELECT CAST(... AS JSON): charset = connection encoding
                    # This behavior is different from TEXT / BLOB.
                    # We should decode result by connection encoding regardless charsetnr.
                    # See https://github.com/PyMySQL/PyMySQL/issues/488
                    encoding = conn_encoding  # SELECT CAST(... AS JSON)
                elif field_type in TEXT_TYPES:
                    if field.charsetnr == 63:  # binary
                        # TEXTs with charset=binary means BINARY types.
                        encoding = None
                    else:
                        encoding = conn_encoding
                else:
                    # Integers, Dates and Times, and other basic data is encoded in ascii
                    encoding = 'ascii'
            else:
                encoding = None
            converter = self.connection.decoders.get(field_type)
            if converter is converters.through:
                converter = None
            if DEBUG: print("DEBUG: field={}, converter={}".format(field, converter))
            self.converters.append((encoding, converter))

        eof_packet = self.connection._read_packet()
        assert eof_packet.is_eof_packet(), 'Protocol error, expecting EOF'
        self.description = tuple(description)


class LoadLocalFile(object):
    def __init__(self, filename, connection):
        self.filename = filename
        self.connection = connection

    def send_data(self):
        """Send data packets from the local file to the server"""
        if not self.connection._sock:
            raise err.InterfaceError("(0, '')")
        conn = self.connection

        try:
            with open(self.filename, 'rb') as open_file:
                packet_size = min(conn.max_allowed_packet, 16*1024)  # 16KB is efficient enough
                while True:
                    chunk = open_file.read(packet_size)
                    if not chunk:
                        break
                    conn.write_packet(chunk)
        except IOError:
            raise err.OperationalError(1017, "Can't find file '{0}'".format(self.filename))
        finally:
            # send the empty packet to signify we are done sending data
            conn.write_packet(b'')
connectios.py

五、使用pymysql操作数据库

import pymysql

# host = '127.0.0.1'
# user = 'fred_li'
# password = '835y1354'
# db = 'schoolinfo'

config={
    'host':'127.0.0.1',
    'user':'fred_li',
    'passwd':'835y1354',
    'db':'schoolinfo'
}

con=pymysql.connect(**config)

# 如果使用事务引擎,可以设置自动提交,或者每次执行完sql后手动提交
con.autocommit(1)     # con.autocommit(True)
'''
def autocommit(self, value):
    self.autocommit_mode = bool(value)    # bool(1)=True   bool(0)=False
    current = self.get_autocommit()
    if value != current:
        self._send_autocommit_mode()
'''

# # 使用cursor()方法获取操作游标
# cursor=con.cursor()
# 
# # 使用execute()执行sql语句
# cursor.execute('select * from classes')
# 
# # 使用fetchone()方法接收一条数据
# res=cursor.fetchone()
# print(res)
# 
# # 使用fetchall()方法接收所有数据
# res1=cursor.fetchall()
# print(res1)
# 
# # 使用fetchmany()方法接收指定rows的数据
# res2=cursor.fetchmany(10)
# for item in res2:
#     print(item)


# 查询时返回列表字典结构
cursor=con.cursor(cursor=pymysql.cursors.DictCursor)

cursor.execute('select * from classes')
print(cursor.fetchall())
'''
[{'id': 1, 'classname': '周末一期'}, {'id': 2, 'classname': '脱产一期'}, {'id': 3, 'classname': '脱产三期'}]
'''

# 关闭连接
# step1 关闭cursor
cursor.close()

# step2 关闭con
con.close()
import pymysql

# host = '127.0.0.1'
# user = 'fred_li'
# password = '835y1354'
# db = 'schoolinfo'

config={
    'host':'127.0.0.1',
    'user':'fred_li',
    'passwd':'835y1354',
    'db':'schoolinfo'
}

try:
    con = pymysql.connect(**config)
    cur=con.cursor(cursor=pymysql.cursors.DictCursor)
except Exception as e:
    print('connection db error',e)

try:
    cur.execute('select * from classes')
except Exception as e:
    print('not found table',e)

finally:
    cur.close()
    con.close()

六、pymysql  fetchone() / fetchall()  中文乱码问题

res=cursor.fetchone()
print(res)
'''
(1, '????')
'''

'''
此时需要在连接数据库时指定字符集:
    注意:必须要和数据库表的字符集一致
config={
    'host':'127.0.0.1',
    'user':'fred_li',
    'passwd':'835y1354',
    'db':'schoolinfo',
    'charset':'utf8mb4'
}
'''

 

转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/lichunke/p/9990043.html

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