图片的 base64 编码

原文链接:http://www.cnblogs.com/mina-huojian66/p/6282402.html

图片的 base64 编码就是将一幅图片编码成一串字符串,使用该字符串代替图像地址。
我们所看到的网页上的图片,都是需要消耗一个 http 请求下载而来的;(所有才有了 csssprites 技术<雪碧图>的应运而生,但是 csssprites 有自身的局限性)。
明确使用 base64 的一个前提:
  如果图片足够小(总体积小于20kb:http://web.jobbole.com/89907/)且因为用处的特殊性无法被制作成雪碧图(CssSprites),在整个网站的复用性很高且基本不会被更新
若大尺寸的图片使用 base 64 的话,会导致数据太大,加载过慢。

base64: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

上图百度的图片大小:540*258px,但是base64的编码确实太长,字符串编码足足有 10504个;

缺点:图片被编码之后,生成的字符串编码大小一般而言都会比原文件稍大一些。即便 base64 编码能够被 gzip 压缩,压缩率能达到 50% 以上,那么一个元素的 css 样式编写居然超过了 5000多个字符,那对 网页的可读性将会造成十分大的影响,代码的冗余使得在此使用 base64 编码将得不偿失。

优点:页面的背景图 background-image 。在很多地方,我们会制作一个很小的图片大概是几px*几px,然后平铺它页面当背景图。因为是背景图的缘故,所以无法将它放入雪碧图,而它却存在网站的很多页面,这种图片往往只有几十字节,却需要一个 http 请求;这个时候,它就可被转化为 base64 编码,耶:)~

转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/mina-huojian66/p/6282402.html

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