WPF+MVVM学习总结 DataGrid简单案例

一、WPF概要

WPF(Windows Presentation Foundation)是微软推出的基于Windows 的用户界面框架,属于.NET Framework 3.0的一部分。它提供了统一的编程模型、语言和框架,真正做到了分离界面设计人员与开发人员的工作;同时它提供了全新的多媒体交互用户图形界面。

1.1、 MVVM简介

   在WPF中,MVVM(View-ViewModel-Model)开发模型用的很多,它具有低耦合,可重用行,相对独立的设计和逻辑。所以备受广大开发者的喜爱。View 说白了就是前台界面,ViewModel 是连接层(类似于MVC中的Controller),他将Model 层和View层结合起来,并封装好命令,供View层绑定,Model层提供类的对象,供ViewModel可以轻松的访问数据库。MVVM是典型的WPF设计模式,view通过命令将所有用户的输入传递给viewmodel。view通过数据绑定从viewmodel中获得数据。model不了解viewmodel的情况,viewmodel不了解view的情况

 

二、简单案例DataGrid Binding显示数据

1.Model:Model就是一个class,是对现实中事物的抽象,开发过程中涉及到的事物都可以抽象为Model,例如客户,客户的姓名、编号、电话、住址等属性也对应了class中的Property,客户的下订单、付款等行为对应了class中的方法。

2. View:View很好理解,就是视图界面。

3. ViewModel:上面说过Model抽象,那么ViewModel就是对View的抽象。显示的数据对应着ViewMode中的Property,执行的命令对应着ViewModel中的Command。

(通过一个例子来解释MVVM 让我使用MVVM创建一个简单的用户管理应用程序。按部就班我们必须首先定义Model(模式),然后定义ViewModel,最后定义View。)

2.1、创建Model

public class User
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// 编号
        /// </summary>
        public int ID { get; set; }
        /// <summary>
        /// 姓名
        /// </summary>
        public string Name { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 年龄
        /// </summary>
        public int Age { get; set; }

        /// <summary>
        /// 性别
        /// </summary>
        public string Sex { get; set; }
        /// <summary>
        /// 备注
        /// </summary>
        public string Remarks { get; set; }
    }

2.2、创建ViewModel

字面上看,ViewModel的意思是“视图 模型”,也可以被认为是view的抽象,但是它也是一个特殊化的模式,并且其view可以使用数据绑定。最新的角色,ViewModel包含了一个数据传送器,即将Model中的数据传送到View中。ViewModel中同样包含了一些命令,这样可以使得View可以与Model进行交互。

public class UserViewModel : INotifyPropertyChanged
    {
        public event PropertyChangedEventHandler PropertyChanged;

        public void RaisePropertyChanged(string propertyName)
        {
            if (propertyName != null)
            {
                PropertyChanged.Invoke(this, new PropertyChangedEventArgs(propertyName));
            }
        }
    }

在ViewModel中增加一个类UserViewModel ,这个类用来实现INotifyPropertyChanged接口。

public class ShowDataViewModel : UserViewModel
    {
        //数据源
        ObservableCollection<User> _mylist = new ObservableCollection<User>();
        public ObservableCollection<User> mylist
        {

            get { return _mylist; }
            set
            {
                _mylist = value;
                RaisePropertyChanged("mylist");
            }
        }
     //构造函数
        public ShowDataViewModel()
        {
            mylist.Add(new User() { ID = 1, Name = "张三", Age = 20, Sex = "", Remarks = "" });
            mylist.Add(new User() { ID = 2, Name = "李四", Age = 21, Sex = "", Remarks = "" });
            mylist.Add(new User() { ID = 3, Name = "王五", Age = 22, Sex = "", Remarks = "" });
            mylist.Add(new User() { ID = 4, Name = "赵六", Age = 24, Sex = "", Remarks = "" });
        }
        
    }

在创建一个类ShowDataViewModel,继承UserViewModel 添加测试数据

2.3、创建View

View在MAML中定义的,并且在后台不用写代码,View不应该含有任何的逻辑。它仅仅通过数据绑定就能达到显示。

<Window x:Class="WpfApplication1.MainWindow"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
        xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
        xmlns:local="clr-namespace:WpfApplication1"
        mc:Ignorable="d"
        xmlns:vm="clr-namespace:WpfApplication1.ViewModel"
        Title="MainWindow" Height="350" Width="413">
    <Window.DataContext>
        <vm:ShowDataViewModel/>
    </Window.DataContext>
    <Grid Margin="0,0,2,0">
        <DataGrid x:Name="dataGrid" AutoGenerateColumns="False" HorizontalAlignment="Left" VerticalAlignment="Top" ItemsSource="{Binding mylist}">
            <DataGrid.Columns>
            <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding ID}" Header="编号"/>
            <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding Name}" Header="姓名" Width="100"/>
            <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding Age}" Header="年龄"/>
            <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding Sex}" Header="性别" Width="60"/>
            <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding Remarks}" Header="备注" Width="172"/>
        </DataGrid.Columns>
          </DataGrid>
    </Grid>
</Window>
xmlns:vm="clr-namespace:WpfApplication1.ViewModel"
<Window.DataContext>
        <vm:ShowDataViewModel/>
    </Window.DataContext>

引入一下命名空间完成上面绑定然后给DataGrid 绑定一下ItemsSource不用运行就能直接看到数据在控件上面显示 

以上就完成了简单的数据显示 

三、DataGrid的增改删功能

3.1、数据绑定

3.1.1、wpf中的数据绑定

在wpf中界面中绑定了数据源后,数据在界面上的修改能反映到绑定源

<Window x:Class="WpfApplication1.MainWindow"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
        xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
        xmlns:local="clr-namespace:WpfApplication1"
        mc:Ignorable="d"
        xmlns:vm="clr-namespace:WpfApplication1.ViewModel"
        Title="MainWindow" Height="337" Width="419">
    <Window.DataContext>
        <vm:ShowDataViewModel/>
    </Window.DataContext>
    <Grid Margin="0,0,2,182">
        <DataGrid x:Name="dataGrid" SelectionUnit="FullRow" IsReadOnly="True" AutoGenerateColumns="False" HorizontalAlignment="Left" VerticalAlignment="Top" ItemsSource="{Binding mylist}" Height="135" Margin="1,0,0,-11">
            <DataGrid.Columns>
                <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding ID}" Header="编号"/>
                <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding Name}" Header="姓名" Width="100"/>
                <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding Age}" Header="年龄"/>
                <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding Sex}" Header="性别" Width="60"/>
                <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding Remarks}" Header="备注" Width="172"/>
            </DataGrid.Columns>
        </DataGrid>
        <Label x:Name="labID" Content="编号:" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="17,152,0,-53"/>
        <TextBox x:Name="txtID"  IsEnabled ="False"  Text="{Binding ID}" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Height="22" Margin="63,154,0,-52" TextWrapping="Wrap" Width="60"/>
        <Label x:Name="labName" Content="姓名:" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="143,154,0,-55" />
        <TextBox x:Name="txtName" Text="{Binding Name}" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Height="22" Margin="189,152,0,-50" TextWrapping="Wrap" Width="62"/>
        <Label x:Name="labPAge" Content="年龄:" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="273,152,0,-53" VerticalAlignment="Top" RenderTransformOrigin="-0.233,0.68"/>
        <TextBox x:Name="txtAge" Text="{Binding Age}" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Height="22" Margin="319,152,0,-50" TextWrapping="Wrap" Width="58"/>
        <Label x:Name="labSex" Content="性别:" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="17,188,0,-89" RenderTransformOrigin="-0.233,0.68"/>
        <ComboBox Text="{Binding Sex}"  SelectedIndex="0" x:Name="comboBox" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="63,191,0,-88" Width="61">
            <ComboBoxItem Tag="1" Content="男"/>
            <ComboBoxItem Tag="2" Content="女"/>
        </ComboBox>
        <Label x:Name="labRemarks" Content="备注:" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="144,187,0,-88" VerticalAlignment="Top" RenderTransformOrigin="-0.233,0.68"/>
        <TextBox x:Name="txtRemarks" Text="{Binding Remarks}" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Height="22" Margin="189,184,0,-82" TextWrapping="Wrap" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="188" RenderTransformOrigin="0.5,0.5"/>
        <Button x:Name="butSave" Command="{Binding AddCommand}" Content="新增" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="70,240,0,-135" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="69" Height="19" RenderTransformOrigin="0.466,0.941"/>
        <Button x:Name="butUpdate" Command="{Binding UpdateCommand}" Content="修改" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="160,240,0,-135" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="69" Height="19" RenderTransformOrigin="0.466,0.941"/>
        <Button x:Name="butDelete" Command="{Binding DeleteCommand}" Content="删除" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="250,240,0,-135" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="69" Height="19" RenderTransformOrigin="0.466,0.941"/>
    </Grid>
</Window>
View Code

3.2、命令绑定

在上面代码我们给按钮 Command 绑定了 Add Update Delete,接下来我们就开始实现功能

我们新建一个文件DelegateCommands.cs  实现接口ICommand

public class DelegateCommands : ICommand
    {
        public Action<object> ExecuteCommand = null;

        public Func<object, bool> CanExecuteCommand = null;

        //当命令可执行状态发生改变时,应当被激发
        public event EventHandler CanExecuteChanged;

        //用于判断命令是否可以执行
        public bool CanExecute(object parameter)
        {
            if (CanExecuteCommand != null)
            {
                return this.CanExecuteCommand(parameter);
            }
            else
            {
                return true;
            }
        }
        //命令执行
        public void Execute(object parameter)
        {
            if (this.ExecuteCommand != null) this.ExecuteCommand(parameter);
        }
    
    }

回到ShowDataViewModel.cs 定义下面命令

 public DelegateCommands AddCommand { get; set; }
 public DelegateCommands UpdateCommand { get; set; }
 public DelegateCommands DeleteCommand { get; set; } 

把操作对应的方法写好

#region 方法
        private void Binding()
        {
            ShowList.Clear();
            mylist.ToList().ForEach(p => ShowList.Add(p));
        }
        public void addStudent(object parameter)
        {
            int id = mylist[mylist.Count-1].ID;
            mylist.Add(new User() { ID= id + 1, Name=Name,Age=Age,Sex=Sex,Remarks=Remarks});
            Binding();
        }
        public void updateStudent(object parameter)
        {
            if (ID == 0)
            {
                MessageBox.Show("请选择修改项");
                return;
            }
            foreach (var item in mylist)
            {
                if (item.ID==user.ID)
                {
                    item.ID =ID;
                    item.Name = Name;
                    item.Sex = Sex;
                    item.Remarks = Remarks;
                    item.Age = Age;
                    break;
                }
            }
            Binding();
        }
        public void deleteStudent(object parameter)
        {
            if (ID == 0)
            {
                MessageBox.Show("请选择删除项");
                return;
            }
            User user1 = mylist.Single(p => p.ID == ID);
            mylist.Remove(user1);
            Binding();
        }
        #endregion
View Code

在进行绑定一下这样我们就能实现增删改了

 public ShowDataViewModel()
        {
            AddCommand = new DelegateCommands();
            AddCommand.ExecuteCommand = new Action<object>(addStudent);

            UpdateCommand = new DelegateCommands();
            UpdateCommand.ExecuteCommand = new Action<object>(updateStudent);//修改方法

            DeleteCommand = new DelegateCommands();
            DeleteCommand.ExecuteCommand = new Action<object>(deleteStudent);//修改方法

                mylist.Add(new User() { ID = 1, Name = "张三", Age = 20, Sex = "", Remarks = "" });
                mylist.Add(new User() { ID = 2, Name = "李四", Age = 21, Sex = "", Remarks = "" });
                mylist.Add(new User() { ID = 3, Name = "王五", Age = 22, Sex = "", Remarks = "" });
                mylist.Add(new User() { ID = 4, Name = "赵六", Age = 24, Sex = "", Remarks = "" });

            Binding();
        }

 

3.3、事件绑定

如果我们想点击控件里面的一行,下面对应的文本框就显示我们该怎么样呢?

回到View给DataGrid绑定事件 首先我们需要给项目添加引用:System.Windows.Interactivity 并且给页面引用命名空间

xmlns:i="clr-namespace:System.Windows.Interactivity;assembly=System.Windows.Interactivity"
<DataGrid  SelectionUnit="FullRow" AutoGenerateColumns="False" IsReadOnly="True" ItemsSource="{Binding ShowList,Mode=TwoWay}" x:Name="dataGrid" VerticalAlignment="Top" Height="182" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Width="408">
            <i:Interaction.Triggers>
                <i:EventTrigger EventName="SelectionChanged" >
                    <i:InvokeCommandAction Command="{Binding SelectionChangedCommand}" CommandParameter="{Binding ElementName=dataGrid}" />
                </i:EventTrigger>
            </i:Interaction.Triggers>
            <DataGrid.Columns>
                <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding ID}" Header="编号"/>
                <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding Name}" Header="姓名" Width="100"/>
                <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding Age}" Header="年龄"/>
                <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding Sex}" Header="性别" Width="60"/>
                <DataGridTextColumn Binding="{Binding Remarks}" Header="备注" Width="172"/>
            </DataGrid.Columns>
        </DataGrid>

我们在这里CommandParameter参数传的是控件dataGrid

然后我们去ViewModel  ShowDataViewModel.cs

public ICommand SelectionChangedCommand
        {
            get
            {
                return new DelegateCommand<DataGrid>((datagrid) =>
                {
                    if (datagrid.SelectedItems.Count > 0)
                    {
                        user =(User)datagrid.SelectedItems[0];
                        ID = user.ID;
                        Name = user.Name;
                        Age = user.Age;
                        Sex = user.Sex;
                        Remarks = user.Remarks;
                }
                });
        }
        }

上一步 需添加引用 Microsoft.Practices.Prism.dll 这样就完成了

这样一个小案例就完成了。

转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/sbgh/p/6841285.html

相关资源:刘铁锰MVVM代码示例
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