分解例题及解析_英语定语从句讲解、典型例题解析和课后检测

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定语从句知识点众多,面对中考,只需要记住以下两个口诀,就能拿到分。

口诀一:

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口诀二:

既有人时又有物,还有序数最高级,

不定代,不用which,全用that。

这两个口诀怎么理解呢,请看分解?

一、什么叫定语?

定语:修饰名词或代词的词、短语或句子称为定语。定语可由名词、形容词、物主代词、数词、副词、介词短语、不定式、分词等来充当。

例如:

Guilin is a beautifulcity.

(形容词做定语修饰city)

China is a developing country. 

(现在分词做定语修饰country)

America is a developed country. 

(过去分词做定语修饰country)

There are thirty women teachers in our school. 

(名词做定语修饰teachers)

His maths is very good.

(形容词性物主代词做定语修饰maths)

I am the last person to leave the classroom. 

(不定式做定语修饰person)

The teaching plan for next term has been worked out. 

(动名词做定语修饰plan)

He is reading an article about how to leam German. 

(介词短语做定语修饰article)

二、什么叫定语从句?

概念:在复合句中修饰名词或代词的句子。定语从句一般应放在所修饰的词之后。定语从句所修饰的词称为先行词,引导定语从句的词称为关系词。关系词位于先行词和定语从句之间,在意义上代替先行词,既起连接作用,又在从句中,充当一个成分。含有定语从句复合句的基本结构为: 先行词+关系词+定语从句。关系词分为关系代词和关系副词。初中阶段只需要掌握由关系代词引导的定语从句。

请看分解:

Mary is a beautiful girl.

                 形容词作定语修饰girl 

Mary is a girl who has long hair.

句子作定语修饰girl, 叫做定语从句

合并句子:

1.The woman is a manager.

2.The woman is waiting for a bus.

→ The woman who is waiting for a bus is a manager.

1.Emily is a girl.    

2.Emily has big eyes. 

→ Emily is a girl who has big eyes.

基本结构:先行词 + 关系词 + 定语从句

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关系词判断步骤

首先,要辨别出先行词。

♦ 如果先行词是指人,关系词就选用who, that, whom, whose 

♦ 如果先行词指物, 关系词选用 which, that, whose 

然后,要确定关系词在从句中的成分,请看:

口诀一: 

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注意:当关系代词在从句中做宾语时,关系代词通常可以省略。

【例题精讲】

1.Xiandao Lake in Yangxin is the famous place _______ we'll visit next week.

A.that  B.who  C.what  D.whom

【解析】第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是the famouse place, 第二部,先行词the famouse place是指物,引导词只能用which/that/whose, 结合四个选项,排除B,C,D.所以答案是A。

2.When some women were dancing to loud music in a park in New York, the people ______ lived nearby called the police.

A.who  B.whom  C.whose  D.which

【解析】第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是the people, 第二部,先行词the people是指人,引导词只能用who, whom, that, whose, 结合四个选项,排除D,第三步,看关系词在从句中的成分,我们知道,关系词位于先行词和定语从句之间,在意义上代替先行词,既起连接作用,又在从句中,充当一个成分,从the people ________ lived nearby这个句子看出,先行词在从句中做主语。所以答案是A。

3.Do you know the man _____ is talking to Miss Wu?

A.he  B.whom  C.who  D.which

【解析】第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是the man, 第二部,先行词the man是指人,引导词只能用who, whom, that, whose, 结合四个选项,排除A/D,第三步,看关系词在从句中的成分,我们知道,关系词位于先行词和定语从句之间,在意义上代替先行词,既起连接作用,又在从句中,充当一个成分,从the man ________ is talking to Miss Wu这个句子看出,先行词在从句中做主语。所以答案是C。

4.Could you tell me the result of the discussion ______ you had made in the meeting just now?

A.that  B.when  C.how  D.who

【解析】第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是the discussion, 第二部,先行词the discussion是指物,引导词只能用which/that/whose, 结合四个选项,排除B,C,D,所以答案是A。

5.I really like the photo of my family _____ my sister took in the city park last year.

A.which  B.who  C.what  D.whom

【解析】第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是the photo of my family, 第二部,先行词the photo of my family是指物,引导词只能用which/that/whose, 结合四个选项,排除B/C/D,所以答案是A。

只能用 that, 不能用 which 的情况:

注意:这里是指用that代替which,不是who。

口诀二:

既有人时又有物,还有序数最高级,

不定代,不用which,全用that。

1)先行词是并列词组既有人又有物时

2)先行词被形容词最高级修饰

3)先行词为数词或被序数词修饰时,

4)先行词everything, anything, nothing, something, nothing, few, little, much, the one, none等不定代词时,

5)先行词 the only, the very, the same, the last, all, no, some, any, little, few, much等修饰时,

6)在以who,which开头的句子中为了避免重复, 只用that。

【例题精讲】

1.I like the second football match _____ was held last year.

A.which   B.who   C.that   D./

【解析】第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是match, 第二部,先行词match是指物,引导词只能用which/that/whose, 结合四个选项,排除B,第三步,看关系词在从句中的成分,从match _________ was held last year这个句子看出,先行词在从句中做主语,答案A/C/D都有可能。第四步,先行词前有修饰词the second,根据口诀二,可以判断答案是C。

2.It is the most beautiful city ______ I have ever visited.

A.where  B.that  C.when  D.which

【解析】先行词city前有修饰词the most beautiful形容词最高级,根据口诀二,既有人时又有物,还有序数最高级,不定代,不用which,全用that。可以直接判断答案是B。

定语从句的主谓一致

定语从句中关系代词作主语时,其谓语动词单复数形式应该与先行词保持一致。即先行词 是单数时,从句的谓语动词用单数,先行词是复数时,从句的谓语动词用复数。

【例题精讲】

People _______ overweight need more water than thin people.

A.who is     B.which are

C.that is     D.who are

【解析】第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是People, 第二部,先行词People是指人,引导词只能用who/whom/that/whose, 结合四个选项,排除B,第三步,观察答案A/C/D,考虑定语从句的主谓一致原则,people是一个集体名词,意为“人们”,排除答案A/C,所以答案是D。

【好题精练】

1.Insects, mice, frogs, dogs and monkeys were some of the animals _______ first went into space.

A.whom  B.what  C.that  D.whose

2.China is getting better at making hi-tech products __________ can be bought in all parts of th eworld.

A.who    B.which    C.what

3. ---- Have you get ready for the soccer game?

---- Yes, I’ve done everything ____ I can to win the game.

A.who    B.that    C.which

4.---- The boy ________ lost is crying there.

---- How do you know he gets lost?

A.whose    B.who    C.who’s

5.Not all children _______ watch this video will become a scientist, but some may become interested in science.

A.whom  B.which  C.who  D.whose

6. Du Fuguo is a hero _____  is known to millions of Chinese people.

A.who     B.which     C.what

7.---- Do you know the boy over there?

---- The one _______ is holding a ball? Oh, that’s my neighbor Phil.

A.what   B.which   C.who  D.不填

8.Mr Brown is a teacher ________ is strict with all his students.

A.which    B.who    C.where

9.--- Tomorrow is Father’s Day. What’s your surprise for your father?

--- The first thing _____ I will do is to make a card for him.

A.who  B.where  C.whose  D.that

10.I prefer music ________ has great lyrics.

A.who  B.whose  C.that  D./

参考答案

1.【解析】根据口诀一,第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是the animals, 第二部,先行词the animals是指物,引导词只能用which, that, whose, 结合四个选项,排除A/B,第三步,看关系词在从句中的成分,我们知道,关系词位于先行词和定语从句之间,在意义上代替先行词,既起连接作用,又在从句中,充当一个成分,从the animals _______ first went into space这个句子看出,先行词在从句中做主语。所以答案是C。

2.【解析】根据口诀一,第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是hi-tech products, 第二部,先行词hi-tech products是指物,引导词只能用which, that, whose, 结合四个选项,排除A/C,所以答案是B。

3.【解析】根据口诀一,第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是everything。第二部,先行词everything是不定代词,根据口诀二,不定代,不用which,全用that。所以答案是B。

4.【解析】根据口诀一,第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是the boy, 第二步,先行词the boy是指人,引导词只能用who, whom, that, whose,第三步,看关系词在从句中的成分,我们知道,关系词位于先行词和定语从句之间,在意义上代替先行词,既起连接作用,又在从句中,充当一个成分,从The boy _______ lost这个句子看出,先行词在从句中做主语, 排除答案A。最后发现句子除了缺少主语,还缺少连系动词,所以答案是C。

5.【解析】根据口诀一,第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是children, 第二步,先行词children是指人,引导词只能用who, whom, that, whose,排除答案B。第三步,看关系词在从句中的成分,我们知道,关系词位于先行词和定语从句之间,在意义上代替先行词,既起连接作用,又在从句中,充当一个成分,从children _______ watch this video这个句子看出,先行词在从句中做主语, 排除答案A/D。所以答案是C。

6.【解析】根据口诀一,第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是hero, 第二步,先行词hero是指人,引导词只能用who, whom, that, whose,排除答案B/C。所以答案是A。

7.【解析】根据口诀一,第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是The one, 第二步,先行词The one其实看不出来是指人还是指物,后面的Holding a ball证明是指人,所以引导词只能用who, whom, that, whose,排除答案A/ B。第三步,观察关系代词在从句中做主语,所以不能省略。所以答案是C。

8.【解析】根据口诀一,第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是teacher, 第二步,先行词teacher是指人,所以引导词只能用who, whom, that, whose,排除答案A/C。所以答案是B。

9.【解析】根据口诀一,第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是thing, 第二步,先行词thing是指物,所以引导词只能用which, that, whose,排除答案A/ B。第三步,关系代词在从句中做do的宾语,所以先行词只能是which或that。根据口诀二,观察关系代词前有the first 修饰,所以只能用that。所以答案是D。

10.【解析】根据口诀一,第一步,先辨别出先行词,此题的先行词是music,第二步,先行词music是指物,所以引导词只能用which, that, whose,排除A,第三步,关系代词在从句中做主语,所以先行词不能省略且只能是which或that,排除B/D。所以答案是C。

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