Question 1: "Share and share alike" is an oft-cited tenet of the free software movement. How much money are you allowed to charge for distributing software that is licensed under the Gnu General Public License (GPL)?
Correct Answer: As much as you want
Your Answer: As much as you want
The free software movement isn't about money; it's about freedom -- including the freedom of software developers to charge money for their work. Just remember that your customers will have just as much right to distribute your software as you do, and to charge as much or as little as they choose.
Question 2: Commercial open source emerged as a prominent business model in the wake of commercial Linux's success. Which of the following was the first commercial Linux distribution?
Correct Answer: Yggdrasil
Your Answer: Slackware
Yggdrasil Computing released its first bootable Linux distribution in December 1992, predating Slackware by around six months. The "beta" Yggdrasil release shipped in February 1993 at a retail price of $60.
Question 3: Created by Linus Torvalds, Linux has always relied on a community-based development model. Roughly what portion of the code in the modern Linux kernel was actually authored by Linus Torvalds himself?
Correct Answer: Less than 10 percent
Your Answer: Less than 10 percent
These days, the bulk of the Linux kernel is made up of contributions from around the world. The amount of code to which Linus himself can lay claim is estimated at around 2 percent.
Question 4: Richard Stallman, the founder of the free software movement, has occasionally criticized the open source movement. How does open source differ from free software?
Correct Answer: None of the above
Your Answer: None of the above
Richard Stallman is known to argue the finer points of free software, and he occasionally even clashes with other free software advocates, such as Linus Torvalds. But while the open source and free software movements may have their differences, they agree on principles more often than not.
Question 5: The free software movement and the open source movement occasionally differ when it comes to software license terms, but the two philosophies also share much in common. Which of the following is both an open source license and a free software license?
Correct Answer: All of the above
Your Answer: All of the above
In practice, most popular free software licenses are open source licenses and vice versa. The definition of open source is broader than the definition of free software, but all of the licenses listed here fit within both.
Question 6: Some free software licenses -- such as the GPL -- include a concept known as "copyleft," which states that all modified and extended versions of the software must use the same license. Which of the following free software licenses includes a copyleft clause?
Correct Answer: Common Public License
Your Answer: MIT License
The Free Software Foundation advocates strongly for copyleft, but copyleft is not necessary to meet the definition of free software. Of the licenses listed, all are free software licenses, but only IBM's Common Public License includes a copyleft clause.
Question 7: Software licenses can include a lot of legal mumbo-jumbo, as anyone who has skimmed through the license in a software installer knows. How many separate clauses make up the typical BSD-style open source license?
Correct Answer: 3
Your Answer: 3
Software licenses can be complex, but they don't have to be. The Modified BSD license is considered one of the more permissive free software licenses, and it consists of just three clauses.
Question 8: Access to source code is one of the fundamental tenets of free and open source software. If you make changes to a GPL-licensed program, when are you required to make your modified source code available, and to whom must you make it available?
Correct Answer: If you distribute your modified version, you must make your source code available to your users
Your Answer: If you distribute your modified version, you must make your source code available to your users
It's a popular misconception that the GPL requires developers to distribute any and all changes they make to GPL-licensed code. In reality, they only need to share their modified source code if they distribute their modified programs to others.
Question 9: The Open Source Initiative maintains a list of software licenses that meet the definition of an open source license. How many individual open source licenses have been approved by the OSI as of 2010?
Correct Answer: Between 50 and 100
Your Answer: Between 10 and 50
The proliferation of open source licenses has been a problem, but it's one the community is working to address. Some companies have even withdrawn their own licenses in the interest of eliminating customers' legal legwork. There are still too many licenses, but it's not out of control.
Question 10: Each open source license has terms that differ somewhat from the others. How is the TAPR license different from most other open source licenses?
Correct Answer: It is designed for hardware projects, rather than software
Your Answer: It allows code to be used in proprietary programs
Open source software has caught on like gangbusters, but open source principles have been slow to take off in the hardware market. The TAPR Open Hardware License seeks to change that by spelling out explicit terms that apply to open hardware projects.
Question 11: The Gnu Project started with one software license, but now it uses several. What is the difference between the GPL and the LGPL?
Correct Answer: The LGPL permits code linking by proprietary programs, while the GPL does not
Your Answer: The LGPL allows you to charge customers money for your software, while the GPL does not
The Free Software Foundation created the LGPL as a compromise between the GPL and more permissive licenses, such as the BSD license. Its terms are mostly the same as the GPL's, but it stipulates that programs merely linking to LGPL-licensed code need not themselves use the same license.
Question 12: One of the newer licenses in the Free Software Foundation's arsenal is known as the Gnu Affero GPL. What is the main difference between the Gnu Affero GPL and the regular GPL?
Correct Answer: The Affero GPL adds a clause that pertains to software as a service (SaaS)
Your Answer: The Affero GPL loosens the requirements for distributing source code
SaaS creates a problem for free software because service providers use software in a hosted environment without actually distributing it. The Affero GPL adds a clause to the GPL requiring that the source code of the hosted application be made available to any network user of that application.
Question 13: Free software and open source licenses are contracts, whose terms are laid out in legal language. Upon what body of law do the concepts of open source and free software rely?
Correct Answer: Copyright law
Your Answer: Copyright law
Lots of free software authors would be content to release their code to the public domain, but because copyright is automatic in many countries, it can be hard to know what's really in the public domain and what isn't. Free and open source software licenses remedy this by granting a specific license to use the software under copyright law.
Question 14: Any contract is only valid to the extent that it will be upheld by the courts. Which of the following companies has been found guilty of violating the GPL in a court of law?
Correct Answer: Skype
Your Answer: EMC
Worldwide, the body of case law governing open source is still slim, but in 2007 the VoIP software provider Skype was found guilty of violating the GPL by a regional court in Munich, Germany.
Question 15: Just because you include a license with your software doesn't mean everyone will honor your terms. As of 2010, how many GPL violations have been discovered to date?
Correct Answer: Hundreds
Your Answer: Hundreds
In November 2009, the Free Software Foundation's Bradley M. Kuhn observed that he had found one new case of a company violating the GPL every day since August, on average, with no end in sight. Whether intentional or unintentional, free software license violations are fairly commonplace.
Question 16: Free and open source software has deep roots in computing history. What was the first software to be licensed under an early version of the GPL?
Correct Answer: Emacs
Your Answer: Emacs
Richard Stallman's famous text editor, Emacs, was the first application to be released under a formal free software license. In fact, the earliest draft of the license called it the "Gnu Emacs General Public License."
Question 17: Over the years, free software developers have often named their programs with recursive acronyms, where the first letter of the acronym stands for the acronym itself. Which of the following names is not a recursive acronym?
Correct Answer: Yacc
Your Answer: Linux
"Linux" stands for "Linux is not Unix"; "Gnu" stands for "Gnu's not Unix"; and "Wine" stands for "Wine is not an emulator." "Yacc," on the other hand, stands for "yet another compiler compiler," and it was the first example of "yet another" venerable software acronym tradition.
Question 18: As the open source movement has caught on, proprietary software companies have occasionally had a change of heart when it comes to software licensing. Which of the following formerly proprietary software products was open-sourced first?
Correct Answer: Doom
Your Answer: Ingres
Netscape made a big splash -- and threw a big party -- when it released the source code to its Web browser in 1998. But id Software had already released the code to its 3-D first person shooting game, Doom, the previous year.
Question 19: To guide a community, you first need to organize. Which of the following open source and free software organizations was founded first?
Correct Answer: Free Software Foundation
Your Answer: Free Software Foundation
How old is the free software movement? Probably older than you think. The Free Software Foundation was originally founded as a fund-raising organization way back in 1985.
Question 20: Eric S. Raymond's essay "The Cathedral and the Bazaar" is often cited as one of the seminal documents of the open source movement. What is Raymond comparing in this essay?
Correct Answer: Centralized development vs. community-based development
Your Answer: Copyright vs. copyleft
Raymond was inspired by the software development model used by Linus Torvalds for the Linux kernel, in which many individual developers met in a bazaar-like mingling of minds and efforts. By comparison, he argued, most other software had been built much like the cathedrals of Europe, through centralized control.