【8086汇编基础】04--中断

8086汇编语言初学者教程(第四部分) 

中断 
 

中断是一系列功能调用。这些功能调用使得编程更加容易。

比如,你想在打印机上输出一个字符,你只需要简单的调用

中断,它将帮你完成所有的事情。另外还有控制磁盘和其他

硬件工作的中断。我们将这些功能调用称作软件中断。

不同的硬件同样可以触发中断,这些中断称作硬件中断。这里

我们只介绍软件中断(
software interrupts)。
 

触发一个软件中断,需要使用INT指令,它的使用方式非常简单
 

INT value


上面value的取值范围是从 0  255 (或者0到0ffh),通常我们

使用十六进制。

你也许猜测只有256个中断调用,但是这是不正确的。因为每一

个中断都有子功能。

在调用一个中断的子功能之前,需要设置AH寄存器。


每一个中断最多可以拥有256个子功能(于是,我们有

256*256=65536个功能调用)。一般情况下使用AH寄存器,但是

一些情况下可能使用另外的寄存器。通常,其他的寄存器

是用来传递数据和参数的。

下面的例子调用了 INT 10h中断0Eh子功能输出字符串‘Hello!'。

这个功能作用是在屏幕上显示一个字符,然后光标进一,如果

需要还滚屏。
 

#MAKE_COM# ; 生成com文件的指令
ORG 100h
;我们使用的这个子功能没有返回值,
;所以我们只用设置就可以了。

MOV AH, 0Eh ; 选择子功能
;int 10h/0eh 子功能,输出放在
;AL寄存器中的ASCII码对应的字符

MOV AL, 'H' ; ASCII码: 72
INT 10h ; 输出

MOV AL, 'e' ; ASCII 码: 101
INT 10h ; 输出

MOV AL, 'l' ; ASCII 码: 108
INT 10h ; 输出

MOV AL, 'l' ; ASCII 码: 108
INT 10h ; 输出

MOV AL, 'o' ; ASCII 码: 111
INT 10h ; 输出

MOV AL, '!' ; ASCII 码: 33
INT 10h ; 输出

RET ; 返回操作系统


将上述程序拷贝粘贴到Emu8086代码编辑器,点击

[Compile and Emulate] 按钮,运行!

  关于中断更多的知识,请查阅下面的英文文档:

Interrupts currently supported by emulator



Quick reference:

INT 10h/00h
INT 10h/01h
INT 10h/02h
INT 10h/03h
INT 10h/05h
INT 10h/06h
INT 10h/07h
INT 10h/08h
INT 10h/09h
INT 10h/0Ah
INT 10h/0Eh
INT 10h/13h
INT 10h/1003h
INT 11h
INT 12h
INT 13h/00h
INT 13h/02h
INT 13h/03h
INT 15h/86h
INT 16h/00h
INT 16h/01h
INT 19h
INT 1Ah/00h
INT 21h





A list of supported interrupts with descriptions:

 


INT 10h / AH = 00h - set video mode.

input:
AL = desired video mode.

These video modes are supported:

00h - Text mode 40x25, 16 colors, 8 pages.

03h - Text mode 80x25, 16 colors, 8 pages.

 


INT 10h / AH = 01h - set text-mode cursor shape.

input:
CH = cursor start line (bits 0-4) and options (bits 5-7).
CL = bottom cursor line (bits 0-4).

When bits 6-5 of CH are set to  00, the cursor is visible, to hide a cursor set these bits to  01 (this CH value will hide a cursor: 28h - 0 0101000b). Bit 7 should always be zero.

 


INT 10h / AH = 02h - set cursor position.

input:
DH = row.
DL = column.
BH = page number (0..7).

 


INT 10h / AH = 03h - get cursor position and size.

input:
BH = page number.
return:
DH = row.
DL = column.
CH = cursor start line.
CL = cursor bottom line.

 


INT 10h / AH = 05h - select active video page.

input:
AL = new page number (0..7).
the activated page is displayed.

   


INT 10h / AH = 06h - scroll up window.
INT 10h / AH = 07h - scroll down window.

input:
AL = number of lines by which to scroll (00h = clear entire window).
BH =  attribute used to write blank lines at bottom of window.
CH, CL = row, column of window's upper left corner.
DH, DL = row, column of window's lower right corner.

 


INT 10h / AH = 08h - read character and attribute at cursor position.

input:
BH = page number.
return:
AH =  attribute.
AL = character.

 


INT 10h / AH = 09h - write character and attribute at cursor position.

input:
AL = character to display.
BH = page number.
BL =  attribute.
CX = number of times to write character.

 


INT 10h / AH = 0Ah - write character only at cursor position.

input:
AL = character to display.
BH = page number.
CX = number of times to write character.

 


INT 10h / AH = 0Eh - teletype output.

input:
AL = character to write.

This functions displays a character on the screen, advancing the cursor and scrolling the screen as necessary. The printing is always done to current active page. 

 


INT 10h / AH = 13h - write string.

input:
AL = write mode:
     bit 0: update cursor after writing;
     bit 1: string contains  attributes.
BH = page number.
BL =  attribute if string contains only characters (bit 1 of AL is zero).
CX = number of characters in string (attributes are not counted).
DL,DH = column, row at which to start writing.
ES:BP points to string to be printed.


 


INT 10h / AX = 1003h - toggle intensity/blinking.

input:
BL = write mode:
     0: enable intensive colors.
     1: enable blinking (not supported by emulator!).
BH = 0 (to avoid problems on some adapters).

 


 
Bit color table:
Character attribute is 8 bit value, low 4 bits set foreground color, high 4 bits set background color. Background blinking not supported.


HEX    BIN        COLOR

0      0000      black
1      0001      blue
2      0010      green
3      0011      cyan
4      0100      red
5      0101      magenta
6      0110      brown
7      0111      light gray
8      1000      dark gray
9      1001      light blue
A      1010      light green
B      1011      light cyan
C      1100      light red
D      1101      light magenta
E      1110      yellow
F      1111      white

 



INT 11h - get BIOS equipment list.

return:
AX = BIOS equipment list word, actually this call returns the contents of the word at 0040h:0010h.

Currently this function can be used to determine the number of installed number of floppy disk drives.

Bit fields for BIOS-detected installed hardware:
Bit(s)	Description
 15-14  number of parallel devices.
 13     not supported.
 12     game port installed.
 11-9   number of serial devices.
 8      reserved.
 7-6    number of floppy disk drives (minus 1):
          00 single floppy disk;
          01 two floppy disks;
          10 three floppy disks;
          11 four floppy disks.
 5-4    initial video mode:
          00 EGA,VGA,PGA, or other with on-board video BIOS;
          01 40x25 CGA color;
          10 80x25 CGA color (emulator default);
          11 80x25 mono text.
 3    not supported.
 2    not supported.
 1    math coprocessor installed.
 0    set when booted from floppy (always set by emulator).

 



INT 12h - get memory size.

return:
AX = kilobytes of contiguous memory starting at absolute address 00000h, this call returns the contents of the word at 0040h:0013h.


Floppy drives are emulated using FLOPPY_0(..3) files. 

 



INT 13h / AH = 00h - reset disk system, (currently this call doesn't do anything). 

   



INT 13h / AH = 02h - read disk sectors into memory.
INT 13h / AH = 03h - write disk sectors.

input:
AL = number of sectors to read/write (must be nonzero)
CH = cylinder number (0..79).
CL = sector number (1..18).
DH = head number (0..1).
DL = drive number (0..3 , depends on quantity of FLOPPY_? files).
ES:BX points to data buffer.
return:
CF set on error.
CF clear if successful.
AH = status (0 - if successful).
AL = number of sectors transferred. 
Note: each sector has  512 bytes.

 



INT 15h / AH = 86h - BIOS wait function.

input:
CX:DX = interval in microseconds
return:
CF clear if successful (wait interval elapsed),
CF set on error or when wait function is already in progress.

Note:
the resolution of the wait period is 977 microseconds on many systems, Emu8086 uses 1000 microseconds period.


 



INT 16h / AH = 00h - get keystroke from keyboard (no echo).

return:
AH = BIOS scan code.
AL = ASCII character.
(if a keystroke is present, it is removed from the keyboard buffer).

 



INT 16h / AH = 01h - check for keystroke in keyboard buffer.

return:
ZF = 1 if keystroke is not available.
ZF = 0 if keystroke available.
AH = BIOS scan code.
AL = ASCII character.
(if a keystroke is present, it is not removed from the keyboard buffer).

 



INT 19h - system reboot.

Usually, the BIOS will try to read sector 1, head 0, track 0 from drive A: to 0000h:7C00h. Emulator just stops the execution, to boot from floppy drive select from the menu:  'Virtual Drive' -> 'Boot from Floppy'

 



INT 1Ah / AH = 00h - get system time.

return:
CX:DX = number of clock ticks since midnight.
AL = midnight counter, advanced each time midnight passes.

Notes:
There are approximately 18.20648 clock ticks per second,
and 1800B0h per 24 hours. 
AL is not set by emulator yet!  




MS-DOS can not be loaded completely in emulator yet, so I made an emulation for some basic DOS interrupts also:

INT 20h - exit to operating system.

INT 21h / AH=09h - output of a string at DS:DX.

INT 21h / AH=0Ah - input of a string to DS:DX, fist byte is buffer size, second byte is number of chars actually read.

INT 21h / AH=4Ch - exit to operating system.

INT 21h / AH=01h - read character from standard input, with echo, result is stored in AL.

INT 21h / AH=02h - write character to standard output, DL = character to write, after execution AL = DL.

 

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转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/QuLory/archive/2012/11/07/2758054.html

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