概念:


1 关系代词引导的定语从句 

2 关系副词引导的定语从句 

3 判断关系代词与关系副词 

4 限制性和非限制性定语从句

5 介词+关系词 

6 as, which 非限定性定语从句 

7 先行词和关系词二合一 

8 what/whatever; that/what

9 关系代词that 的用法


定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。


关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。

关系副词有:when, where, why等。


一.关系代词引导的定语从句 

关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。


1)who, whom, that

这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下:

Is he the man who/that wants to see you?

他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)

He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.

他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)


2) Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换), 例如:

hey rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down.  

那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。


Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 

请递给我那本绿皮的书。


3)which, that

它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如:

A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语)

The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 

你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作宾语)


二. 关系副词引导的定语从句 

    关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。

1)when, where, why

      关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用,例如:

     There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。

     Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。

     Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 

      这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?


2)that代替关系副词

  that可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和"介词+ which"引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略,例如:

  His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。

  He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。


三. 判断关系代词与关系副词 

     方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如:

This is the mountain village where I stayed last year.

I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.


收藏于 2009-08-18