C++学习第三章

1、函数对象

#include <string>

//1、函数对象在使用时,可以像普通函数那样调用, 可以有参数,可以有返回值
class MyAdd
{
public :
	int operator()(int v1,int v2)
	{
		return v1 + v2;
	}
};

void test01()
{
	MyAdd myAdd;
	cout << myAdd(10, 10) << endl;
}

//2、函数对象可以有自己的状态
class MyPrint
{
public:
	MyPrint()
	{
		count = 0;
	}
	void operator()(string test)
	{
		cout << test << endl;
		count++; //统计使用次数
	}

	int count; //内部自己的状态
};
void test02()
{
	MyPrint myPrint;
	myPrint("hello world");
	myPrint("hello world");
	myPrint("hello world");
	cout << "myPrint调用次数为: " << myPrint.count << endl;
}

//3、函数对象可以作为参数传递
void doPrint(MyPrint &mp , string test)
{
	mp(test);
}

void test03()
{
	MyPrint myPrint;
	doPrint(myPrint, "Hello C++");
}

int main() {

	//test01();
	//test02();
	test03();

	system("pause");

	return 0;
}

2、谓词

  • 如果operator()接受一个参数,那么叫做一元谓词
  • 如果operator()接受两个参数,那么叫做二元谓词
  • 一元谓词实例:
  • `#include
    #include

//1.一元谓词
struct GreaterFive{
bool operator()(int val) {
return val > 5;
}
};

void test01() {

vector<int> v;
for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++)
{
	v.push_back(i);
}

vector<int>::iterator it = find_if(v.begin(), v.end(), GreaterFive());
if (it == v.end()) {
	cout << "没找到!" << endl;
}
else {
	cout << "找到:" << *it << endl;
}

}

int main() {

test01();

system("pause");

return 0;

}`
二元谓词实例:

#include <vector>
#include <algorithm>
//二元谓词
class MyCompare
{
public:
	bool operator()(int num1, int num2)
	{
		return num1 > num2;
	}
};

void test01()
{
	vector<int> v;
	v.push_back(10);
	v.push_back(40);
	v.push_back(20);
	v.push_back(30);
	v.push_back(50);

	//默认从小到大
	sort(v.begin(), v.end());
	for (vector<int>::iterator it = v.begin(); it != v.end(); it++)
	{
		cout << *it << " ";
	}
	cout << endl;
	cout << "----------------------------" << endl;

	//使用函数对象改变算法策略,排序从大到小
	sort(v.begin(), v.end(), MyCompare());
	for (vector<int>::iterator it = v.begin(); it != v.end(); it++)
	{
		cout << *it << " ";
	}
	cout << endl;
}

int main() {

	test01();

	system("pause");

	return 0;
}

3、 算术仿函数

仿函数原型:

  • template<class T> T plus<T> //加法仿函数
  • template<class T> T minus<T> //减法仿函数
  • template<class T> T multiplies<T> //乘法仿函数
  • template<class T> T divides<T> //除法仿函数
  • template<class T> T modulus<T> //取模仿函数
  • template<class T> T negate<T> //取反仿函数

实例:

#include <functional>
//negate
void test01()
{
	negate<int> n;
	cout << n(50) << endl;
}

//plus
void test02()
{
	plus<int> p;
	cout << p(10, 20) << endl;
}

int main() {

	test01();
	test02();

	system("pause");

	return 0;
}

4、 关系仿函数

仿函数原型:

  • template<class T> bool equal_to<T> //等于
  • template<class T> bool not_equal_to<T> //不等于
  • template<class T> bool greater<T> //大于
  • template<class T> bool greater_equal<T> //大于等于
  • template<class T> bool less<T> //小于
  • template<class T> bool less_equal<T> //小于等于

实例:

#include <functional>
#include <vector>
#include <algorithm>

class MyCompare
{
public:
	bool operator()(int v1,int v2)
	{
		return v1 > v2;
	}
};
void test01()
{
	vector<int> v;

	v.push_back(10);
	v.push_back(30);
	v.push_back(50);
	v.push_back(40);
	v.push_back(20);

	for (vector<int>::iterator it = v.begin(); it != v.end(); it++) {
		cout << *it << " ";
	}
	cout << endl;

	//自己实现仿函数
	//sort(v.begin(), v.end(), MyCompare());
	//STL内建仿函数  大于仿函数
	sort(v.begin(), v.end(), greater<int>());

	for (vector<int>::iterator it = v.begin(); it != v.end(); it++) {
		cout << *it << " ";
	}
	cout << endl;
}

int main() {

	test01();

	system("pause");

	return 0;
}

5、逻辑仿函数

  • template<class T> bool logical_and<T> //逻辑与
  • template<class T> bool logical_or<T> //逻辑或
  • template<class T> bool logical_not<T> //逻辑非

实例:

#include <vector>
#include <functional>
#include <algorithm>
void test01()
{
	vector<bool> v;
	v.push_back(true);
	v.push_back(false);
	v.push_back(true);
	v.push_back(false);

	for (vector<bool>::iterator it = v.begin();it!= v.end();it++)
	{
		cout << *it << " ";
	}
	cout << endl;

	//逻辑非  将v容器搬运到v2中,并执行逻辑非运算
	vector<bool> v2;
	v2.resize(v.size());
	transform(v.begin(), v.end(),  v2.begin(), logical_not<bool>());
	for (vector<bool>::iterator it = v2.begin(); it != v2.end(); it++)
	{
		cout << *it << " ";
	}
	cout << endl;
}

int main() {

	test01();

	system("pause");

	return 0;
}

6、for_each遍历算法

#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>

//普通函数
void print01(int val) 
{
	cout << val << " ";
}
//函数对象
class print02 
{
 public:
	void operator()(int val) 
	{
		cout << val << " ";
	}
};

//for_each算法基本用法
void test01() {

	vector<int> v;
	for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) 
	{
		v.push_back(i);
	}

	//遍历算法
	for_each(v.begin(), v.end(), print01);
	cout << endl;

	for_each(v.begin(), v.end(), print02());
	cout << endl;
}

int main() {

	test01();

	system("pause");

	return 0;
}

7、transform运输容器(从一个容器转到另外一个容器)

#include<vector>
#include<algorithm>

//常用遍历算法  搬运 transform

class TransForm
{
public:
	int operator()(int val)
	{
		return val;
	}

};

class MyPrint
{
public:
	void operator()(int val)
	{
		cout << val << " ";
	}
};

void test01()
{
	vector<int>v;
	for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++)
	{
		v.push_back(i);
	}

	vector<int>vTarget; //目标容器

	vTarget.resize(v.size()); // 目标容器需要提前开辟空间

	transform(v.begin(), v.end(), vTarget.begin(), TransForm());

	for_each(vTarget.begin(), vTarget.end(), MyPrint());
}

int main() {

	test01();

	system("pause");

	return 0;
}

8、查找算法

  • find //查找元素
  • find_if //按条件查找元素
  • adjacent_find //查找相邻重复元素
  • binary_search //二分查找法
  • count //统计元素个数
  • count_if //按条件统计元素个数

8.1 find

#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>
#include <string>
void test01() {

	vector<int> v;
	for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
		v.push_back(i + 1);
	}
	//查找容器中是否有 5 这个元素
	vector<int>::iterator it = find(v.begin(), v.end(), 5);
	if (it == v.end()) 
	{
		cout << "没有找到!" << endl;
	}
	else 
	{
		cout << "找到:" << *it << endl;
	}
}

class Person {
public:
	Person(string name, int age) 
	{
		this->m_Name = name;
		this->m_Age = age;
	}
	//重载==
	bool operator==(const Person& p) 
	{
		if (this->m_Name == p.m_Name && this->m_Age == p.m_Age) 
		{
			return true;
		}
		return false;
	}

public:
	string m_Name;
	int m_Age;
};

void test02() {

	vector<Person> v;

	//创建数据
	Person p1("aaa", 10);
	Person p2("bbb", 20);
	Person p3("ccc", 30);
	Person p4("ddd", 40);

	v.push_back(p1);
	v.push_back(p2);
	v.push_back(p3);
	v.push_back(p4);

	vector<Person>::iterator it = find(v.begin(), v.end(), p2);
	if (it == v.end()) 
	{
		cout << "没有找到!" << endl;
	}
	else 
	{
		cout << "找到姓名:" << it->m_Name << " 年龄: " << it->m_Age << endl;
	}
}

8.2 find_if

#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>
#include <string>
void test01() {

	vector<int> v;
	for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
		v.push_back(i + 1);
	}
	//查找容器中是否有 5 这个元素
	vector<int>::iterator it = find(v.begin(), v.end(), 5);
	if (it == v.end()) 
	{
		cout << "没有找到!" << endl;
	}
	else 
	{
		cout << "找到:" << *it << endl;
	}
}

class Person {
public:
	Person(string name, int age) 
	{
		this->m_Name = name;
		this->m_Age = age;
	}
	//重载==
	bool operator==(const Person& p) 
	{
		if (this->m_Name == p.m_Name && this->m_Age == p.m_Age) 
		{
			return true;
		}
		return false;
	}

public:
	string m_Name;
	int m_Age;
};

void test02() {

	vector<Person> v;

	//创建数据
	Person p1("aaa", 10);
	Person p2("bbb", 20);
	Person p3("ccc", 30);
	Person p4("ddd", 40);

	v.push_back(p1);
	v.push_back(p2);
	v.push_back(p3);
	v.push_back(p4);

	vector<Person>::iterator it = find(v.begin(), v.end(), p2);
	if (it == v.end()) 
	{
		cout << "没有找到!" << endl;
	}
	else 
	{
		cout << "找到姓名:" << it->m_Name << " 年龄: " << it->m_Age << endl;
	}
}

8.3、 adjacent_find查找相邻重复元素

#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>

void test01()
{
	vector<int> v;
	v.push_back(1);
	v.push_back(2);
	v.push_back(5);
	v.push_back(2);
	v.push_back(4);
	v.push_back(4);
	v.push_back(3);

	//查找相邻重复元素
	vector<int>::iterator it = adjacent_find(v.begin(), v.end());
	if (it == v.end()) {
		cout << "找不到!" << endl;
	}
	else {
		cout << "找到相邻重复元素为:" << *it << endl;
	}
}

8.5、 binary_search 查找指定元素是否存在

#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>

void test01()
{
	vector<int>v;

	for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++)
	{
		v.push_back(i);
	}
	//二分查找
	bool ret = binary_search(v.begin(), v.end(),2);
	if (ret)
	{
		cout << "找到了" << endl;
	}
	else
	{
		cout << "未找到" << endl;
	}
}

int main() {

	test01();

	system("pause");

	return 0;
}

8.6、count 统计元素个数

#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>

//内置数据类型
void test01()
{
	vector<int> v;
	v.push_back(1);
	v.push_back(2);
	v.push_back(4);
	v.push_back(5);
	v.push_back(3);
	v.push_back(4);
	v.push_back(4);

	int num = count(v.begin(), v.end(), 4);

	cout << "4的个数为: " << num << endl;
}

//自定义数据类型
class Person
{
public:
	Person(string name, int age)
	{
		this->m_Name = name;
		this->m_Age = age;
	}
	bool operator==(const Person & p)
	{
		if (this->m_Age == p.m_Age)
		{
			return true;
		}
		else
		{
			return false;
		}
	}
	string m_Name;
	int m_Age;
};

void test02()
{
	vector<Person> v;

	Person p1("刘备", 35);
	Person p2("关羽", 35);
	Person p3("张飞", 35);
	Person p4("赵云", 30);
	Person p5("曹操", 25);

	v.push_back(p1);
	v.push_back(p2);
	v.push_back(p3);
	v.push_back(p4);
	v.push_back(p5);
    
    Person p("诸葛亮",35);

	int num = count(v.begin(), v.end(), p);
	cout << "num = " << num << endl;
}
int main() {

	//test01();

	test02();

	system("pause");

	return 0;
}
 统计自定义数据类型时候,需要配合重载 `operator==`

8.7、count_if 按条件统计元素个数

#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>

class Greater4
{
public:
	bool operator()(int val)
	{
		return val >= 4;
	}
};

//内置数据类型
void test01()
{
	vector<int> v;
	v.push_back(1);
	v.push_back(2);
	v.push_back(4);
	v.push_back(5);
	v.push_back(3);
	v.push_back(4);
	v.push_back(4);

	int num = count_if(v.begin(), v.end(), Greater4());

	cout << "大于4的个数为: " << num << endl;
}

//自定义数据类型
class Person
{
public:
	Person(string name, int age)
	{
		this->m_Name = name;
		this->m_Age = age;
	}

	string m_Name;
	int m_Age;
};

class AgeLess35
{
public:
	bool operator()(const Person &p)
	{
		return p.m_Age < 35;
	}
};
void test02()
{
	vector<Person> v;

	Person p1("刘备", 35);
	Person p2("关羽", 35);
	Person p3("张飞", 35);
	Person p4("赵云", 30);
	Person p5("曹操", 25);

	v.push_back(p1);
	v.push_back(p2);
	v.push_back(p3);
	v.push_back(p4);
	v.push_back(p5);

	int num = count_if(v.begin(), v.end(), AgeLess35());
	cout << "小于35岁的个数:" << num << endl;
}


int main() {

	//test01();

	test02();

	system("pause");

	return 0;
}
**总结:**按值统计用count,按条件统计用count_if
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