ironpython是什么意思_IronPython .NET Integration官方文档翻译笔记

http://ironpython.net/documentation/dotnet/这是原文地址

以下笔记仅记录阅读过程中我认为有必要记录的内容,大多数都是依赖翻译软件的机翻,配合个人对代码的理解写出的笔记,个别不是很确定的,会在句首标注   猜测:

另外,这篇文档,也就是官方文档中其实只讲了怎么在Python里用.Net,感觉这篇文档是写给Python开发者看的,但是很奇怪,在百度上也能搜到在.Net中使用Python的例子,不知道那些人的资料是从哪里得来的,我搜遍了官网提供的所有文档和wiki始终

找不到关于在.Net中如何使用的例子,好诡异。。。

在ironPython 中想使用.Net的API必须先导入 CLR,借用CLR导入.Net的类,最常用的是下面这种导法

>>> import clr

>>> clr.AddReference("System.Xml")

All .NET assemblies have a unique version number which allows using a specific version of a given assembly. The following code will load the version of System.Xml.dll that ships with .NET 2.0 and .NET 3.5:

同样支持输入更详细的程序集信息来导入指定版本的.Net类

>>> import clr

>>> clr.AddReference("System.Xml, Version=2.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089")

在CLR引入.Net大类之后,就可以使用Python代码正式导入这些类,在IronPython中,会将这些.Net 转化为Python类来对待,但如果使用类示例对比,会发现无论你对比的是.Net类还是Python类,都成立。

可以使用import 直接导入命名空间下所有东西,也可以用from x import x【,x...】的语法选择性的导入个别需要被用到的类

>>> import System

>>> System #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

>>> System.Collections #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

The types in the namespaces are exposed as Python types, and are accessed as attributes of the namespace. The following code accesses the System.Environment class from mscorlib.dll:

>>> import System

>>> System.Environment

Just like with normal Python modules, you can also use all the other forms of import as well:

>>> from System import Environment

>>> Environment

>>> from System import *

>>> Environment

在ironPython里你可以用这样的语法来表示.net中的泛型

>>> from System.Collections.Generic import List, Dictionary

>>> int_list = List[int]()

>>> str_float_dict = Dictionary[str, float]()

Note that there might exist a non-generic type as well as one or more generic types with the same name [1]. In this case, the name can be used without any indexing to access the non-generic type, and it can be indexed with different number of types to access the generic type with the corresponding number of type parameters. The code below accesses System.EventHandler and also System.EventHandler

在.Net中很多类型都有泛型和非泛型版本,比如下面这个例子,用泛型和非泛型版本你将访问不同类型的对象,使用python的dir方法可以明显看出检索出来的方法属性列表是不同的

>>> from System import EventHandler, EventArgs

>>> EventHandler # this is the combo type object

>>> # Access the non-generic type

>>> dir(EventHandler) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

['BeginInvoke', 'Clone', 'DynamicInvoke', 'EndInvoke', ...

>>> # Access the generic type with 1 type paramter

>>> dir(EventHandler[EventArgs]) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

['BeginInvoke', 'Call', 'Clone', 'Combine', ...

很多时候在IronPython 中并不支持一口气导入整个命名空间里所有东西

.NET types are exposed as Python classes. Like Python classes, you usually cannot import all the attributes of .NET types using from  import *:

>>> from System.Guid import *

Traceback (most recent call last):

File "", line 1, in

ImportError: no module named Guid

You can import specific members, both static and instance:

你通常只能这样玩,需要什么,导入什么

>>> from System.Guid import NewGuid, ToByteArray

>>> g = NewGuid()

>>> ToByteArray(g) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

Array[Byte](...

Note that if you import a static property, you will import the value when the import executes, not a named object to be evaluated on every use as you might mistakenly expect:

当你导入个别静态属性时,其实你只是导入了一个值类型,如果你用全名称来对比,你会发现无法对等(这句话意思其实有点难理解,反正看代码就知道大概意思)

>>> from System.DateTime import Now

>>> Now #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

>>> # Let's make it even more obvious that "Now" is evaluated only once

>>> a_second_ago = Now

>>> import time

>>> time.sleep(1)

>>> a_second_ago is Now

True

>>> a_second_ago is System.DateTime.Now

False

Some .NET types only have static methods, and are comparable to namespaces. C# refers to them as static classes , and requires such classes to have only static methods. IronPython allows you to import all the static methods of such static classes. System.Environment is an example of a static class:

有些.net类只包含静态方法,你可以像这样导入

>>> from System.Environment import *

>>> Exit is System.Environment.Exit

True

Nested types are also imported:

>>> SpecialFolder is System.Environment.SpecialFolder

True

However, properties are not imported:

然而你会发现只有静态方法被导进来了,静态属性并没有被导进来(这和上一段看起来有点矛盾,难理解。不过写代码的时候自己试一试就知道能不能行得通了)

>>> OSVersion

Traceback (most recent call last):

File "", line 1, in

NameError: name 'OSVersion' is not defined

>>> System.Environment.OSVersion #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

下面这段大概是说在IronPython里导入.Net类型,如果用类型对比你会发现,他即可当做.Net类也可以当做Python类

.NET represents types using System.Type. However, when you access a .NET type in Python code, you get a Python type object [2]:

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray

>>> ba = BitArray(5)

>>> isinstance(type(ba), type)

True

This allows a unified (Pythonic) view of both Python and .NET types. For example, isinstance works with .NET types as well:

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray

>>> isinstance(ba, BitArray)

True

If need to get the System.Type instance for the .NET type, you need to use clr.GetClrType. Conversely, you can use clr.GetPythonType to get a type object corresponding to a System.Type object.

The unification also extends to other type system entities like methods. .NET methods are exposed as instances of method:

这段很难理解,看不懂

>>> type(BitArray.Xor)

>>> type(ba.Xor)

下面这条我猜他是想说如果按照实例来对比.Net类可以等于Python类,但按照类型来对比,两者并不对等

Note that the Python type corresponding to a .NET type is a sub-type of type:

>>> isinstance(type(ba), type)

True

>>> type(ba) is type

False

This is an implementation detail.

这段说的是从.Net那边导进来的类,你不能随意删除里面的方法和属性

.NET types behave like builtin types (like list), and are immutable. i.e. you cannot add or delete descriptors from .NET types:

>>> del list.append

Traceback (most recent call last):

File "", line 1, in

AttributeError: cannot delete attribute 'append' of builtin type 'list'

>>>

>>> import System

>>> del System.DateTime.ToByteArray

Traceback (most recent call last):

File "", line 1, in

TypeError: can't set attributes of built-in/extension type 'DateTime'

下面这段是说你可以把.Net类用Python的语法来实例化,也可以调用new方法来实例化,我觉得在python里new看着特别扭,还是入乡随俗吧。

.NET types are exposed as Python classes, and you can do many of the same operations on .NET types as with Python classes. In either cases, you create an instance by calling the type:

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray

>>> ba = BitArray(5) # Creates a bit array of size 5

IronPython also supports inline initializing of the attributes of the instance. Consider the following two lines:

>>> ba = BitArray(5)

>>> ba.Length = 10

The above two lines are equivalent to this single line:

>>> ba = BitArray(5, Length = 10)

You can also call the __new__ method to create an instance:

>> ba = BitArray.__new__(BitArray, 5)

在python里使用.Net类型其实和在.Net中使用方式相似(可以说一模一样)

Invoking .NET instance methods works just like invoking methods on a Python object using the attribute notation:

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray

>>> ba = BitArray(5)

>>> ba.Set(0, True) # call the Set method

>>> ba[0]

True

IronPython also supports named arguments:

也支持命名参数

>>> ba.Set(index = 1, value = True)

>>> ba[1]

True

IronPython also supports dict arguments:

他还支持字典式传参,这招在.Net里是没有的,通过下面这个例子你会发现,你可以在使用过程中逐步收集参数,按照顺序放入集合里,最后再丢进一个方法。

>>> args = [2, True] # list of arguments

>>> ba.Set(*args)

>>> ba[2]

True

IronPython also supports keyword arguments:

也支持使用键值对字典给方法传参(爽)

>>> args = { "index" : 3, "value" : True }

>>> ba.Set(**args)

>>> ba[3]

True

在IronPython里如果传入的参数不符合方法需要的参数类型,那么它会结合.Net和Python的综合规则来进行强制转化,比如下面这个例子,他会把string转成数字,数字大于1就等于bool的true,然后None是Python里的null等同于false

When the argument type does not exactly match the parameter type expected by the .NET method, IronPython tries to convert the argument. IronPython uses conventional .NET conversion rules like conversion operators , as well as IronPython-specific rules. This snippet shows how arguments are converted when calling theSet(System.Int32, System.Boolean) method:

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray

>>> ba = BitArray(5)

>>> ba.Set(0, "hello") # converts the second argument to True.

>>> ba[0]

True

>>> ba.Set(1, None) # converts the second argument to False.

>>> ba[1]

False

See appendix-type-conversion-rules for the detailed conversion rules. Note that some Python types are implemented as .NET types and no conversion is required in such cases. See builtin-type-mapping for the mapping.

Some of the conversions supported are:

Python argument type.NET method parameter typeint

System.Int8, System.Int16

float

System.Float

tuple with only elements of type T

System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable

function, method

System.Delegate and any of its sub-classes

在IronPython中同样支持.net中的函数重载,解释器会自动匹配最适合的那个重载

.NET supports overloading methods by both number of arguments and type of arguments. When IronPython code calls an overloaded method, IronPython tries to select one of the overloads at runtime based on the number and type of arguments passed to the method, and also names of any keyword arguments. In most cases, the expected overload gets selected. Selecting an overload is easy when the argument types are an exact match with one of the overload signatures:

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray

>>> ba = BitArray(5) # calls __new__(System.Int32)

>>> ba = BitArray(5, True) # calls __new__(System.Int32, System.Boolean)

>>> ba = BitArray(ba) # calls __new__(System.Collections.BitArray)

The argument types do not have be an exact match with the method signature. IronPython will try to convert the arguments if an unamibguous conversion exists to one of the overload signatures. The following code calls __new__(System.Int32) even though there are two constructors which take one argument, and neither of them accept a float as an argument:

猜测:即使调用一个不存在的重载,IronPython也允许将参数强转后找到最适合匹配的那个重载

>>> ba = BitArray(5.0)

However, note that IronPython will raise a TypeError if there are conversions to more than one of the overloads:

猜测:注意,如果传入的参数需要被进行1次以上的强转才能找到匹配的话,那么将报错

>>> BitArray((1, 2, 3))

Traceback (most recent call last):

File "", line 1, in

TypeError: Multiple targets could match: BitArray(Array[Byte]), BitArray(Array[bool]), BitArray(Array[int])

If you want to control the exact overload that gets called, you can use the Overloads method on method objects:

你也可以强制指定接下来的代码必须匹配函数的哪种重载,例如下面代码,最后一次试图只传入1个参数,那么将会报错

>>> int_bool_new = BitArray.__new__.Overloads[int, type(True)]

>>> ba = int_bool_new(BitArray, 5, True) # calls __new__(System.Int32, System.Boolean)

>>> ba = int_bool_new(BitArray, 5, "hello") # converts "hello" to a System.Boolan

>>> ba = int_bool_new(BitArray, 5)

Traceback (most recent call last):

File "", line 1, in

TypeError: __new__() takes exactly 2 arguments (1 given)

TODO - Example of indexing Overloads with an Array, byref, etc using Type.MakeByrefType

猜测:在IronPython中允许一种特殊的调用方式,不同.Net,在.net中我们只能调用子类中实现了接口或者虚方法的方法,但在IronPython中允许直接调用接口中的方法或者虚类中的虚方法,解释器能自动找到匹配的那个实现,例如下面的代码,因为string继承

object所以也有Clone方法,调用ICloneable的虚方法Clone,传入参数string,那么解释器会去string类型里寻找Clone方法

It is sometimes desirable to invoke an instance method using the unbound class instance method and passing an explicit self object as the first argument. For example, .NET allows a class to declare an instance method with the same name as a method in a base type, but without overriding the base method. SeeSystem.Reflection.MethodAttributes.NewSlot for more information. In such cases, using the unbound class instance method syntax allows you chose precisely which slot you wish to call:

>>> import System

>>> System.ICloneable.Clone("hello") # same as : "hello".Clone()

'hello'

The unbound class instance method syntax results in a virtual call, and calls the most derived implementation of the virtual method slot:

猜测:所以object的GetHashCode和String的GetHashCode是一样的,因为string 继承于object,但是string的GetHashCode方法和RunTimeHelpers类中的GetHashCode不同,猜测,可能是因为具体实现不同,解释器能够通过IL代码分辨出实现是否一致?

>>> s = "hello"

>>> System.Object.GetHashCode(s) == System.String.GetHashCode(s)

True

>>> from System.Runtime.CompilerServices import RuntimeHelpers

>>> RuntimeHelpers.GetHashCode(s) == System.String.GetHashCode(s)

False

猜测:下面这段大概是讲.Net里方法的实现分为显式和隐式两种,比如说在.Net里如果显式实现方法,那么我们只能用接口才能调用,如果隐式实现,那么直接在实现类或者接口中都可以调用。

但是IronPython中似乎没有这种限制,只要实现了,就都可以调用。最后一节推测大概是说,如果实现类中存在同名的方法(显式实现),那么最好还是用接口来调用,才准确无误。

.NET allows a method with a different name to override a base method implementation or interface method slot. This is useful if a type implements two interfaces with methods with the same name. This is known as explicity implemented interface methods. For example, Microsoft.Win32.RegistryKey implementsSystem.IDisposable.Dispose explicitly:

>>> from Microsoft.Win32 import RegistryKey

>>> clr.GetClrType(RegistryKey).GetMethod("Flush") #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

>>> clr.GetClrType(RegistryKey).GetMethod("Dispose")

>>>

In such cases, IronPython tries to expose the method using its simple name - if there is no ambiguity:

>>> from Microsoft.Win32 import Registry

>>> rkey = Registry.CurrentUser.OpenSubKey("Software")

>>> rkey.Dispose()

However, it is possible that the type has another method with the same name. In that case, the explicitly implemented method is not accessible as an attribute. However, it can still be called by using the unbound class instance method syntax:

>>> rkey = Registry.CurrentUser.OpenSubKey("Software")

>>> System.IDisposable.Dispose(rkey)

在这里Python和.Net调用静态方法的方式是一样的

Invoking static .NET methods is similar to invoking Python static methods:

>>> System.GC.Collect()

Like Python static methods, the .NET static method can be accessed as an attribute of sub-types as well:

.Net的静态方法会以Python的规则,方法会被认为是一个类的一个属性,推测:下面这2个类的同名方法如果实现是一样的,那么对比起来结果就是一样的

>>> System.Object.ReferenceEquals is System.GC.ReferenceEquals

True

TODO What happens if the sub-type has a static method with the same name but a different signature? Are both overloads available or not?

展示如何调用泛型方法

Generic methods are exposed as attributes which can be indexed with type objects. The following code calls System.Activator.CreateInstance

>>> from System import Activator, Guid

>>> guid = Activator.CreateInstance[Guid]()

下面这段展示了在IronPython中也支持泛型的自动推断功能,比如最后一段

Enumerable.Any[int](list, lambda x : x < 2)

Enumerable.Any(list, lambda x : x < 2)

解释器会自动匹配适合的泛型,写的时候就可以省略泛型,另外让我惊奇的是这里头居然也支持lambda,真是屌爆了

In many cases, the type parameter can be inferred based on the arguments passed to the method call. Consider the following use of a generic method [3]:

>>> from System.Collections.Generic import IEnumerable, List

>>> list = List[int]([1, 2, 3])

>>> import clr

>>> clr.AddReference("System.Core")

>>> from System.Linq import Enumerable

>>> Enumerable.Any[int](list, lambda x : x < 2)

True

With generic type parameter inference, the last statement can also be written as:

>>> Enumerable.Any(list, lambda x : x < 2)

True

See appendix for the detailed rules.

下面这段大概是说在IronPython里没有像很多高级语言中有 ref和out的概念,在IronPython中对于这种输出引用有两种玩法,一种隐式的一种显式的

The Python language passes all arguments by-value. There is no syntax to indicate that an argument should be passed by-reference like there is in .NET languages like C# and VB.NET via the ref and out keywords. IronPython supports two ways of passing ref or out arguments to a method, an implicit way and an explicit way.

下面展示的第一种是隐式的,直接调用方法,比如说原来.Net字典里的TryGetValue方法,原本要传入一个key和一个out引用参数,返回bool结果表示有没找到,但是在IronPython中隐式实现只要直接调用方法,传入key就行了,返回一个元组类型的返回值,里面包含了方法返回值和引用输出返回值。

In the implicit way, an argument is passed normally to the method call, and its (potentially) updated value is returned from the method call along with the normal return value (if any). This composes well with the Python feature of multiple return values. System.Collections.Generic.Dictionary has a method bool TryGetValue(K key, out value). It can be called from IronPython with just one argument, and the call returns a tuple where the first element is a boolean and the second element is the value (or the default value of 0.0 if the first element is False):

>>> d = { "a":100.1, "b":200.2, "c":300.3 }

>>> from System.Collections.Generic import Dictionary

>>> d = Dictionary[str, float](d)

>>> d.TryGetValue("b")

(True, 200.2)

>>> d.TryGetValue("z")

(False, 0.0)

下面展示的是显式实现,说明里说假如方法存在多种重载的话,这种方式很好用,例如下面的例子,使用CLR的方法生成一个float类型的引用对象,传给方法,然后就和.Net玩法一模一样了,方法还是只返回bool,输出的值将通过引用对象的Value属性来读取,有点像.Net里的可空类型

In the explicit way, you can pass an instance of clr.Reference[T] for the ref or out argument, and its Value field will get set by the call. The explicit way is useful if there are multiple overloads with ref parameters:

>>> import clr

>>> r = clr.Reference[float]()

>>> d.TryGetValue("b", r)

True

>>> r.Value

200.2

目前IronPython对于扩展方法的支持还不好,不能像C#那样直接调用,只能通过静态方法来调用,例如,假设string有一个substring方法是后来扩展的,在c#你可以写成"sadsad".substring(...),但是在IronPython你只能写成System.String.SubString("sadsad")

Extension methods are currently not natively supported by IronPython. Hence, they cannot be invoked like instance methods. Instead, they have to be invoked like static methods.

下面这段大概是说,在.Net里有索引器的概念,我们可以像下面这样去方便的访问集合中的某个对象,

.NET indexers are exposed as __getitem__ and __setitem__. Thus, the Python indexing syntax can be used to index .NET collections (and any type with an indexer):

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray

>>> ba = BitArray(5)

>>> ba[0]

False

>>> ba[0] = True

>>> ba[0]

True

但是,也支持使用比较麻烦老土的get和set来访问对象,就像下面这样

The indexer can be called using the unbound class instance method syntax using __getitem__ and __setitem__. This is useful if the indexer is virtual and is implemented as an explicitly-implemented interface method:

>>> BitArray.__getitem__(ba, 0)

True

这段看不懂

Note that a default indexer is just a property (typically called Item) with one argument. It is considered as an indexer if the declaraing type uses DefaultMemberAttribute to declare the property as the default member.

See property-with-parameters for information on non-default indexers.

在.Net中一个属性都有一对Get和Set方法,所以在Python中调用.Net属性进行读写,实际上后台操作也是调用属性的get和set方法来进行

.NET properties are exposed similar to Python attributes. Under the hood, .NET properties are implemented as a pair of methods to get and set the property, and IronPython calls the appropriate method depending on whether you are reading or writing to the properity:

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray

>>> ba = BitArray(5)

>>> ba.Length # calls "BitArray.get_Length()"

5

>>> ba.Length = 10 # calls "BitArray.set_Length()"

上面的代码相当于下面的代码,效果一样

To call the get or set method using the unbound class instance method syntax, IronPython exposes methods called GetValue and SetValue on the property descriptor. The code above is equivalent to the following:

>>> ba = BitArray(5)

>>> BitArray.Length.GetValue(ba)

5

>>> BitArray.Length.SetValue(ba, 10)

下面这段大概是说在IronPython里索引.Net类型中的集合数组的方式以及访问属性的方式,直接访问属性,调用get/set, 调用 对象.Item[?]的方式访问对象

.NET properties are exposed similar to Python attributes. Under the hood, .NET properties are implemented as a pair of methods to get and set the property, and IronPython calls the appropriate method depending on whether you are reading or writing to the properity:

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray

>>> ba = BitArray(5)

>>> ba.Length # calls "BitArray.get_Length()"

5

>>> ba.Length = 10 # calls "BitArray.set_Length()"

To call the get or set method using the unbound class instance method syntax, IronPython exposes methods called GetValue and SetValue on the property descriptor. The code above is equivalent to the following:

>>> ba = BitArray(5)

>>> BitArray.Length.GetValue(ba)

5

>>> BitArray.Length.SetValue(ba, 10)

COM and VB.NET support properties with paramters. They are also known as non-default indexers. C# does not support declaring or using properties with parameters.

IronPython does support properties with parameters. For example, the default indexer above can also be accessed using the non-default format as such:

>>> ba.Item[0]

False

.net的事件可以使用+= 和-=的形式进行注册和卸载,在IronPython中同样支持这种玩法,下面的代码里用python 代码按照.Net的格式定义了一个回调函数,居然也能注册到.Net事件里去,真爽

.NET events are exposed as objects with __iadd__ and __isub__ methods which allows using += and -= to subscribe and unsubscribe from the event. The following code shows how to subscribe a Python function to an event using +=, and unsubscribe using -=

>>> from System.IO import FileSystemWatcher

>>> watcher = FileSystemWatcher(".")

>>> def callback(sender, event_args):

... print event_args.ChangeType, event_args.Name

>>> watcher.Created += callback

>>> watcher.EnableRaisingEvents = True

>>> import time

>>> f = open("test.txt", "w+"); time.sleep(1)

Created test.txt

>>> watcher.Created -= callback

>>>

>>> # cleanup

>>> import os

>>> f.close(); os.remove("test.txt")

You can also subscribe using a bound method:

你也可以这样写,下面代码把回调写在一个类里头而已,感觉并没有什么卵用,看起来更麻烦了

>>> watcher = FileSystemWatcher(".")

>>> class MyClass(object):

... def callback(self, sender, event_args):

... print event_args.ChangeType, event_args.Name

>>> o = MyClass()

>>> watcher.Created += o.callback

>>> watcher.EnableRaisingEvents = True

>>> f = open("test.txt", "w+"); time.sleep(1)

Created test.txt

>>> watcher.Created -= o.callback

>>>

>>> # cleanup

>>> f.close(); os.remove("test.txt")

You can also explicitly create a delegate instance to subscribe to the event. Otherwise, IronPython automatically does it for you. [4]:

也可以显示定义一个委托

>>> watcher = FileSystemWatcher(".")

>>> def callback(sender, event_args):

... print event_args.ChangeType, event_args.Name

>>> from System.IO import FileSystemEventHandler

>>> delegate = FileSystemEventHandler(callback)

>>> watcher.Created += delegate

>>> watcher.EnableRaisingEvents = True

>>> import time

>>> f = open("test.txt", "w+"); time.sleep(1)

Created test.txt

>>> watcher.Created -= delegate

>>>

>>> # cleanup

>>> f.close(); os.remove("test.txt")

他说显示定义委托可以使程序内存占用更少,不知为何。。。难道他指的是装箱和拆箱过程的性能损耗?

The only advantage to creating an explicit delegate is that it is uses less memory. You should consider it if you subscribe to lots of events, and notice excessive System.WeakReference objects.

下面这段主要展示了怎么使用python语法实例化.net数组和索引数组中的值

IronPython supports indexing of System.Array with a type object to access one-dimensional strongly-typed arrays:

>>> System.Array[int]

IronPython also adds a __new__ method that accepts a IList to initialize the array. This allows using a Python list literal to initialize a .NET array:

>>> a = System.Array[int]([1, 2, 3])

Further, IronPython exposes __getitem__ and __setitem__ allowing the array objects to be indexed using the Python indexing syntax:

>>> a[2]

3

假如用GetValue索引一个负数,会报错,你只能像a[-1]这种索引方式才不会报错

Note that the indexing syntax yields Python semantics. If you index with a negative value, it results in indexing from the end of the array, whereas .NET indexing (demonstrated by calling GetValue below) raises a System.IndexOutOfRangeException exception:

>>> a.GetValue(-1)

Traceback (most recent call last):

File "", line 1, in

IndexError: Index was outside the bounds of the array.

>>> a[-1]

3

同样也支持python 中的数组分割语法

Similarly, slicing is also supported:

>>> a[1:3]

Array[int]((2, 3))

raise语句支持抛出.net和python中的异常

raise can raise both Python exceptions as well as .NET exceptions:

>>> raise ZeroDivisionError()

Traceback (most recent call last):

File "", line 1, in

ZeroDivisionError

>>> import System

>>> raise System.DivideByZeroException()

Traceback (most recent call last):

File "", line 1, in

ZeroDivisionError: Attempted to divide by zero.

except关键字也可以catch两种语言中的异常

The except keyword can catch both Python exceptions as well as .NET exceptions:

>>> try:

... import System

... raise System.DivideByZeroException()

... except System.DivideByZeroException:

... print "This line will get printed..."

...

This line will get printed...

>>>

前面有一个例子讲过,如果引用.Net对象,是不允许删除和修改对象中的成员,在下面例子中,也一样,如果是python的异常ZeroDivisionError,那么这是一个python类,允许随意修改,比如在里面加一个foo属性,但是换成System.DivideByZeroException就

不行了,因为这是一个.Net对象,如果试图修改,就会报错

IronPython implements the Python exception mechanism on top of the .NET exception mechanism. This allows Python exception thrown from Python code to be caught by non-Python code, and vice versa. However, Python exception objects need to behave like Python user objects, not builtin types. For example, Python code can set arbitrary attributes on Python exception objects, but not on .NET exception objects:

>>> e = ZeroDivisionError()

>>> e.foo = 1 # this works

>>> e = System.DivideByZeroException()

>>> e.foo = 1

Traceback (most recent call last):

File "", line 1, in

AttributeError: 'DivideByZeroException' object has no attribute 'foo'

下面这段写了一大堆,大概意思就是说如果在IrinPython中,你写的是python代码,那只会catch到python类型的异常,.Net则是catch到.Net类型的异常,但是,通过捕获到的异常对象的clsException对象可以得到两种语言公共的异常类,这是靠CLS(公共语言系统)来维护的。

To support these two different views, IronPython creates a pair of objects, a Python exception object and a .NET exception object, where the Python type and the .NET exception type have a unique one-to-one mapping as defined in the table below. Both objects know about each other. The .NET exception object is the one that actually gets thrown by the IronPython runtime when Python code executes a raise statement. When Python code uses the except keyword to catch the Python exception, the Python exception object is used. However, if the exception is caught by C# (for example) code that called the Python code, then the C# code naturally catches the .NET exception object.

The .NET exception object corresponding to a Python exception object can be accessed by using the clsException attribute (if the module has excecuted import clr):

>>> import clr

>>> try:

... 1/0

... except ZeroDivisionError as e:

... pass

>>> type(e)

>>> type(e.clsException)

推测:下面这段大概是说通过clsException对象中的Data可以索引到异常对应的Python版的异常

IronPython is also able to access the Python exception object corresponding to a .NET exception object [5], thought this is not exposed to the user [6].

The Python exception object corresponding to a .NET exception object is accessible (to the IronPython runtime) via the System.Exception.Data property. Note that this is an implementation detail and subject to change:

>>> e.clsException.Data["PythonExceptionInfo"] #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

下面是2种语言的常见异常类型对照表

... except via the DLR Hosting API ScriptEngine.GetService().GetExceptionMessagePython exception.NET exceptionException

System.Exception

SystemExit

IP.O.SystemExit

StopIteration

System.InvalidOperationException subtype

StandardError

System.SystemException

KeyboardInterrupt

IP.O.KeyboardInterruptException

ImportError

IP.O.PythonImportError

EnvironmentError

IP.O.PythonEnvironmentError

IOError

System.IO.IOException

OSError

S.R.InteropServices.ExternalException

WindowsError

System.ComponentModel.Win32Exception

EOFError

System.IO.EndOfStreamException

RuntimeError

IP.O.RuntimeException

NotImplementedError

System.NotImplementedException

NameError

IP.O.NameException

UnboundLocalError

IP.O.UnboundLocalException

AttributeError

System.MissingMemberException

SyntaxError

IP.O.SyntaxErrorException (System.Data has something close)

IndentationError

IP.O.IndentationErrorException

TabError

IP.O.TabErrorException

TypeError

Microsoft.Scripting.ArgumentTypeException

AssertionError

IP.O.AssertionException

LookupError

IP.O.LookupException

IndexError

System.IndexOutOfRangeException

KeyError

S.C.G.KeyNotFoundException

ArithmeticError

System.ArithmeticException

OverflowError

System.OverflowException

ZeroDivisionError

System.DivideByZeroException

FloatingPointError

IP.O.PythonFloatingPointError

ValueError

ArgumentException

UnicodeError

IP.O.UnicodeException

UnicodeEncodeError

System.Text.EncoderFallbackException

UnicodeDecodeError

System.Text.DecoderFallbackException

UnicodeTranslateError

IP.O.UnicodeTranslateException

ReferenceError

IP.O.ReferenceException

SystemError

IP.O.PythonSystemError

MemoryError

System.OutOfMemoryException

Warning

System.ComponentModel.WarningException

UserWarning

IP.O.PythonUserWarning

DeprecationWarning

IP.O.PythonDeprecationWarning

PendingDeprecationWarning

IP.O.PythonPendingDeprecationWarning

SyntaxWarning

IP.O.PythonSyntaxWarning

OverflowWarning

IP.O.PythonOverflowWarning

RuntimeWarning

IP.O.PythonRuntimeWarning

FutureWarning

IP.O.PythonFutureWarning

下面又讲了一大堆,大概意思就是演示了一下如何在一段代码中既捕获.Net异常又捕获Python异常,最后证实了两种异常在CLS中,其实.net才是大哥,它才是参照标准。

Given that raise results in the creation of both a Python exception object and a .NET exception object, and given that rescue can catch both Python exceptions and .NET exceptions, a question arises of which of the exception objects will be used by the rescue keyword. The answer is that it is the type used in the rescue clause. i.e. if the rescue clause uses the Python exception, then the Python exception object will be used. If the rescue clause uses the .NET exception, then the .NET exception object will be used.

The following example shows how 1/0 results in the creation of two objects, and how they are linked to each other. The exception is first caught as a .NET exception. The .NET exception is raised again, but is then caught as a Python exception:

>>> import System

>>> try:

... try:

... 1/0

... except System.DivideByZeroException as e1:

... raise e1

... except ZeroDivisionError as e2:

... pass

>>> type(e1)

>>> type(e2)

>>> e2.clsException is e1

True

下面这段说的是如果Python用户定义了一个Python类继承.Net的Exception对象,然后代码中捕获到了这个异常,然后用.Net异常信息的读取方式去访问异常信息,你将啥也看不到,在下文中异常信息应该是"some message",但是用.net的方式访问,你只会看到

'Python Exception: MyException'

Python user-defined exceptions get mapped to System.Exception. If non-Python code catches a Python user-defined exception, it will be an instance of System.Exception, and will not be able to access the exception details:

>>> # since "Exception" might be System.Exception after "from System import *"

>>> if "Exception" in globals(): del Exception

>>> class MyException(Exception):

... def __init__(self, value):

... self.value = value

... def __str__(self):

... return repr(self.value)

>>> try:

... raise MyException("some message")

... except System.Exception as e:

... pass

>>> clr.GetClrType(type(e)).FullName

'System.Exception'

>>> e.Message

'Python Exception: MyException'

那么在.Net中调用IronPython脚本时,如何才能得知脚本运行过程中抛出的Python异常呢?可以使用ScriptEngine.GetService().GetExceptionMessage方法来获取

In this case, the non-Python code can use the ScriptEngine.GetService().GetExceptionMessage DLR Hosting API to get the exception message.

下面是枚举类型的使用示例

.NET enumeration types are sub-types of System.Enum. The enumeration values of an enumeration type are exposed as class attributes:

print System.AttributeTargets.All # access the value "All"

IronPython also supports using the bit-wise operators with the enumeration values:

也支持 位操作符

>>> import System

>>> System.AttributeTargets.Class | System.AttributeTargets.Method

下面这一大段说了一大堆,很复杂,机器翻译困难,看了半天也不知他讲什么,推测:大概是在讲,在IronPython中不要试图修改.Net类型中的值类型,否则会发生很多意想不到的结果

Python expects all mutable values to be represented as a reference type. .NET, on the other hand, introduces the concept of value types which are mostly copied instead of referenced. In particular .NET methods and properties returning a value type will always return a copy.

This can be confusing from a Python programmer’s perspective since a subsequent update to a field of such a value type will occur on the local copy, not within whatever enclosing object originally provided the value type.

While most .NET value types are designed to be immutable, and the .NET design guidelines recommend value tyeps be immutable, this is not enforced by .NET, and so there do exist some .NET valuetype that are mutable. TODO - Example.

For example, take the following C# definitions:

struct Point {

# Poorly defined struct - structs should be immutable

public int x;

public int y;

}

class Line {

public Point start;

public Point end;

public Point Start { get { return start; } }

public Point End { get { return end; } }

}

If line is an instance of the reference type Line, then a Python programmer may well expect "line.Start.x = 1" to set the x coordinate of the start of that line. In fact the property Start returned a copy of the Point value type and it’s to that copy the update is made:

print line.Start.x # prints ‘0’

line.Start.x = 1

print line.Start.x # still prints ‘0’

This behavior is subtle and confusing enough that C# produces a compile-time error if similar code is written (an attempt to modify a field of a value type just returned from a property invocation).

Even worse, when an attempt is made to modify the value type directly via the start field exposed by Line (i.e. “`line.start.x = 1`”), IronPython will still update a local copy of the Point structure. That’s because Python is structured so that “foo.bar” will always produce a useable value: in the case above “line.start” needs to return a full value type which in turn implies a copy.

C#, on the other hand, interprets the entirety of the “`line.start.x = 1`” statement and actually yields a value type reference for the “line.start” part which in turn can be used to set the “x” field in place.

This highlights a difference in semantics between the two languages. In Python “line.start.x = 1” and “foo = line.start; foo.x = 1” are semantically equivalent. In C# that is not necessarily so.

So in summary: a Python programmer making updates to a value type embedded in an object will silently have those updates lost where the same syntax would yield the expected semantics in C#. An update to a value type returned from a .NET property will also appear to succeed will updating a local copy and will not cause an error as it does in the C# world. These two issues could easily become the source of subtle, hard to trace bugs within a large application.

In an effort to prevent the unintended update of local value type copies and at the same time preserve as pythonic and consistent a view of the world as possible, direct updates to value type fields are not allowed by IronPython, and raise a ValueError:

>>> line.start.x = 1 #doctest: +SKIP

Traceback (most recent call last):

File , line 0, in input##7

ValueError Attempt to update field x on value type Point; value type fields can not be directly modified

This renders value types “mostly” immutable; updates are still possible via instance methods on the value type itself.

推测:大概是说在ironPython里不能直接使用C#里的System.MarshalByRefObject实例,但是可以通过非绑定类的实例来调用,这个文档通篇下来经常使用非绑定类这个词,一直看不明白到底指的是什么样的类。

IronPython cannot directly use System.MarshalByRefObject instances. IronPython uses reflection at runtime to determine how to access an object. However, System.MarshalByRefObject instances do not support reflection.

You can use unbound-class-instance-method syntax to call methods on such proxy objects.

python方法可以被转化为委托,传给事件参数用

Python functions and bound instance methods can be converted to delegates:

>>> from System import EventHandler, EventArgs

>>> def foo(sender, event_args):

... print event_args

>>> d = EventHandler(foo)

>>> d(None, EventArgs()) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

ironPython支持委托的参数签名和事件要求的委托参数签名不一致,比如下例,使用了Python语法里的“无限无名参数”

IronPython also allows the signature of the Python function or method to be different (though compatible) with the delegate signature. For example, the Python function can use keyword arguments:

>>> def foo(*args):

... print args

>>> d = EventHandler(foo)

>>> d(None, EventArgs()) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

(None, )

本来事件没有返回值,但是在这里也支持委托可以写返回值(这是Python的语法),但实际运作过程中,返回的值会被忽略

If the return type of the delegate is void, IronPython also allows the Python function to return any type of return value, and just ignores the return value:

>>> def foo(*args):

... return 100 # this return value will get ignored

>>> d = EventHandler(foo)

>>> d(None, EventArgs())

如果委托实际返回的返回值类型和事件要求的返回值类型不符合,那么解释器会尝试强转后再返回

If the return value is different, IronPython will try to convert it:

>>> def foo(str1, str2):

... return 100.1 # this return value will get converted to an int

>>> d = System.Comparison[str](foo)

>>> d("hello", "there")

100

TODO - Delegates with out/ref parameters

支持Python类继承或实现.net的类或接口

Sub-classing of .NET types and interfaces is supported using class. .NET types and interfaces can be used as one of the sub-types in the class construct:

>>> class MyClass(System.Attribute, System.ICloneable, System.IComparable):

... pass

.Net里不支持多重继承,但Python里支持这么干,但是如下代码,你支持继承多个Python类,而不能继承多个.Net类,不管继承多少个,其中只能有一个.Net类

.NET does not support multiple inheritance while Python does. IronPython allows using multiple Python classes as subtypes, and also multiple .NET interfaces, but there can only be one .NET class (other than System.Object) in the set of subtypes:

>>> class MyPythonClass1(object): pass

>>> class MyPythonClass2(object): pass

>>> class MyMixedClass(MyPythonClass1, MyPythonClass2, System.Attribute):

... pass

和.Net一样,可以利用反射来验证一个类是否是某个类的子类

Instances of the class do actually inherit from the specified .NET base type. This is important because this means that statically-typed .NET code can access the object using the .NET type. The following snippet uses Reflection to show that the object can be cast to the .NET sub-class:

>>> class MyClass(System.ICloneable):

... pass

>>> o = MyClass()

>>> import clr

>>> clr.GetClrType(System.ICloneable).IsAssignableFrom(o.GetType())

True

下面又说Python并没有真正继承.Net子类,见类型映射表?  看着好玄乎

Note that the Python class does not really inherit from the .NET sub-class. See type-mapping.

基类方法可以被用Python方法重写

Base type methods can be overriden by defining a Python method with the same name:

>>> class MyClass(System.ICloneable):

... def Clone(self):

... return MyClass()

>>> o = MyClass()

>>> o.Clone() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

推测:下面意思可能是说,Python语法虽然允许你不真正实现接口方法,编译上通过,但实际运行的时候会报错,说实例中并不存在这个方法,所以我们必须要写出具体实现

IronPython does require you to provide implementations of interface methods in the class declaration. The method lookup is done dynamically when the method is accessed. Here we see that AttributeError is raised if the method is not defined:

>>> class MyClass(System.ICloneable): pass

>>> o = MyClass()

>>> o.Clone()

Traceback (most recent call last):

File "", line 1, in

AttributeError: 'MyClass' object has no attribute 'Clone'

推测:下面大概是说在Python里不支持像.Net那样的方法重载,如果你写了一个Python类继承.Net类型,想要实现方法重载,那么只能定义一个同方法名,但是参数列表支持无数个参数的形式来变相的定义出方法重载的效果,例如下面这个例子

*args在Python 语法中表示接受任意个不限类型的参数

Python does not support method overloading. A class can have only one method with a given name. As a result, you cannot override specific method overloads of a .NET sub-type. Instead, you need to use define the function accepting an arbitrary argument list (see _tut-arbitraryargs), and then determine the method overload that was invoked by inspecting the types of the arguments:

>>> import clr

>>> import System

>>> StringComparer = System.Collections.Generic.IEqualityComparer[str]

>>>

>>> class MyComparer(StringComparer):

... def GetHashCode(self, *args):

... if len(args) == 0:

... # Object.GetHashCode() called

... return 100

...

... if len(args) == 1 and type(args[0]) == str:

... # StringComparer.GetHashCode() called

... return 200

...

... assert("Should never get here")

...

>>> comparer = MyComparer()

>>> getHashCode1 = clr.GetClrType(System.Object).GetMethod("GetHashCode")

>>> args = System.Array[object](["another string"])

>>> getHashCode2 = clr.GetClrType(StringComparer).GetMethod("GetHashCode")

>>>

>>> # Use Reflection to simulate a call to the different overloads

>>> # from another .NET language

>>> getHashCode1.Invoke(comparer, None)

100

>>> getHashCode2.Invoke(comparer, args)

200

Note

Determining the exact overload that was invoked may not be possible, for example, if None is passed in as an argument.

Python里没有相关的语法用来表示引用类型,如果你用Python重写.Net中的方法,那么原本参数列表中的输出/引用类型将被解释为一个CLR引用类型,其实这个概念前面内容中有一个例子里有提到,看下面这个例子你会发现,在调用

python重写的方法时原本传入的那个参数集合中最后一个自动被定义为一个CLR引用类型,调用方法后,读取那个对象的值就可以得到输出结果,同样,在重写方法的过程中,我们也必须以  参数名.Value的形式给这个CLR引用类型的变量赋值

Python does not have syntax for specifying whether a method paramter is passed by-reference since arguments are always passed by-value. When overriding a .NET method with ref or out parameters, the ref or out paramter is received as a clr.Reference[T] instance. The incoming argument value is accessed by reading theValue property, and the resulting value is specified by setting the Value property:

>>> import clr

>>> import System

>>> StrFloatDictionary = System.Collections.Generic.IDictionary[str, float]

>>>

>>> class MyDictionary(StrFloatDictionary):

... def TryGetValue(self, key, value):

... if key == "yes":

... value.Value = 100.1 # set the *out* parameter

... return True

... else:

... value.Value = 0.0 # set the *out* parameter

... return False

... # Other methods of IDictionary not overriden for brevity

...

>>> d = MyDictionary()

>>> # Use Reflection to simulate a call from another .NET language

>>> tryGetValue = clr.GetClrType(StrFloatDictionary).GetMethod("TryGetValue")

>>> args = System.Array[object](["yes", 0.0])

>>> tryGetValue.Invoke(d, args)

True

>>> args[1]

100.1

当你用Python重写一个.Net中的泛型方法时原本泛型<>括号里的类型,在ironPython中将被当成是一组类型参数来对待,就像下面这个例子T1,T2被写成参数放在convert方法的参数列表里的,后面调用的时候,用clr的方法传入类型参数生成了一个

泛型方法,这个文档通篇大量使用clr的反射方法来调用.net,我不知道是否必须这样做才能调用,如果是的话,那可真是太麻烦了, 而且性能绝对不咋地

When you override a generic method, the type parameters get passed in as arguments. Consider the following generic method declaration:

// csc /t:library /out:convert.dll convert.cs

public interface IMyConvertible {

T1 Convert(T2 arg);

}

The following code overrides the generic method Convert:

>>> import clr

>>> clr.AddReference("convert.dll")

>>> import System

>>> import IMyConvertible

>>>

>>> class MyConvertible(IMyConvertible):

... def Convert(self, t2, T1, T2):

... return T1(t2)

>>>

>>> o = MyConvertible()

>>> # Use Reflection to simulate a call from another .NET language

>>> type_params = System.Array[System.Type]([str, float])

>>> convert = clr.GetClrType(IMyConvertible).GetMethod("Convert")

>>> convert_of_str_float = convert.MakeGenericMethod(type_params)

>>> args = System.Array[object]([100.1])

>>> convert_of_str_float.Invoke(o, args)

'100.1'

Note

Generic method receive information about the method signature being invoked, whereas normal method overloads do not. The reason is that .NET does not allow normal method overloads to differ by the return type, and it is usually possible to determine the argument types based on the argument values. However, with generic methods, one of the type parameters may only be used as the return type. In that case, there is no way to determine the type paramter.

这段看不懂,好像是在说如果一个.Net的方法被python重写,就不能用python的方式去调用,那该怎么调才行呢?

When you call a method from Python, and the method overrides a .NET method from a base type, the call is performed as a regular Python call. The arguments do not undergo conversion, and neither are they modified in any way like being wrapped with clr.Reference. Thus, the call may need to be written differently than if the method was overriden by another language. For example, trying to call TryGetValue on the MyDictionary type from the overriding-ref-args section as shown below results in a TypeError, whereas a similar call works with System.Collections.Generic.Dictionary[str, float]:

>>> result, value = d.TryGetValue("yes")

Traceback (most recent call last):

File "", line 1, in

TypeError: TryGetValue() takes exactly 3 arguments (2 given)

下面这段大概是说.net里属性都会有一对get set方法,这些方法是被包含在属性原数据定义里的,如果用python重写.net类的属性,只需要重写get_属性名 就可以实现对属性返回值的修改,推测:而set方法似乎是只读的,不让重写?

.NET properties are backed by a pair of .NET methods for reading and writing the property. The C# compiler automatically names them as get_ and set_. However, .NET itself does not require any specific naming pattern for these methods, and the names are stored in the the metadata associated with the property definition. The names can be accessed using the GetGetMethod and GetSetMethods of the System.Reflection.PropertyInfo class:

>>> import clr

>>> import System

>>> StringCollection = System.Collections.Generic.ICollection[str]

>>> prop_info = clr.GetClrType(StringCollection).GetProperty("Count")

>>> prop_info.GetGetMethod().Name

'get_Count'

>>> prop_info.GetSetMethod() # None because this is a read-only property

>>>

Overriding a virtual property requires defining a Python method with the same names as the underlying getter or setter .NET method:

>>>

>>> class MyCollection(StringCollection):

... def get_Count(self):

... return 100

... # Other methods of ICollection not overriden for brevity

>>>

>>> c = MyCollection()

>>> # Use Reflection to simulate a call from another .NET language

>>> prop_info.GetGetMethod().Invoke(c, None)

100

如果要重写.net事件,你得这么干,似乎比重写属性复杂一些,先要重写事件名,然后重写事件对应的add和remove方法

Events have underlying methods which can be obtained using EventInfo.GetAddMethod and EventInfo.GetRemoveMethod

>>> from System.ComponentModel import IComponent

>>> import clr

>>> event_info = clr.GetClrType(IComponent).GetEvent("Disposed")

>>> event_info.GetAddMethod().Name

'add_Disposed'

>>> event_info.GetRemoveMethod().Name

'remove_Disposed'

To override events, you need to define methods with the name of the underlying methods:

>>> class MyComponent(IComponent):

... def __init__(self):

... self.dispose_handlers = []

... def Dispose(self):

... for handler in self.dispose_handlers:

... handler(self, EventArgs())

...

... def add_Disposed(self, value):

... self.dispose_handlers.append(value)

... def remove_Disposed(self, value):

... self.dispose_handlers.remove(value)

... # Other methods of IComponent not implemented for brevity

>>>

>>> c = MyComponent()

>>> def callback(sender, event_args):

... print event_args

>>> args = System.Array[object]((System.EventHandler(callback),))

>>> # Use Reflection to simulate a call from another .NET language

>>> event_info.GetAddMethod().Invoke(c, args)

>>>

>>> c.Dispose() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

如果你想让一个继承自.net的python子类调用它基类的构造函数,那你需要像下面这样重写一个*args参数的__new__构造,然后自己写一堆判断去调用基类的构造重载。。。

这篇文档看到这里,我觉得用IronPython,我们只要调.net就好了,不要去改写它。。。这会给你带来很多不必要的麻烦。。。尽可能用.net去写代码给python调,不要在python里写.net,太麻烦了,破规矩很多

.NET constructors can be overloaded. To call a specific base type constructor overload, you need to define a __new__ method (not __init__) and call __new__ on the .NET base type. The following example shows how a sub-type of System.Exception choses the base constructor overload to call based on the arguments it receives:

>>> import System

>>> class MyException(System.Exception):

... def __new__(cls, *args):

... # This could be implemented as:

... # return System.Exception.__new__(cls, *args)

... # but is more verbose just to make a point

... if len(args) == 0:

... e = System.Exception.__new__(cls)

... elif len(args) == 1:

... message = args[0]

... e = System.Exception.__new__(cls, message)

... elif len(args) == 2:

... message, inner_exception = args

... if hasattr(inner_exception, "clsException"):

... inner_exception = inner_exception.clsException

... e = System.Exception.__new__(cls, message, inner_exception)

... return e

>>> e = MyException("some message", IOError())

推测:下面这段文档写的很矛盾,第一段给了一段代码说IronPython中如果不在子类中直接调用Protected类型的方法会不让访问,但第二段内容中又指出说实际上在python中并没有private protected等等这些概念的存在,并且方法是可以动态添加和删除的,

的确,学过python都知道这个特点,但文档之前的片段中有提到过ironPython中对于来源于.Net的类型是不允许动态修改方法和属性的,这两段岂不是矛盾了?到底哪种说法才是真的?

不过下面这2段代码自己在ipy里敲了试了一下,结论就是对于protected类型,确实不能直接调用,必须定义一个类继承以后才能调用。下面文档第一段中说“除非是一个private绑定”,意思难道是说只有protected不行,如果是private就可以访问到了?有机会谁去试一下。

Normally, IronPython does not allow access to protected members (unless you are using private-binding). For example, accessing MemberwiseClone causes a TypeError since it is a protected method:

>>> import clr

>>> import System

>>> o = System.Object()

>>> o.MemberwiseClone()

Traceback (most recent call last):

File "", line 1, in

TypeError: cannot access protected member MemberwiseClone without a python subclass of object

IronPython does allow Python sub-types to access protected members of .NET base types. However, Python does not enforce any accessibility rules. Also, methods can be added and removed dynamically from a class. Hence, IronPython does not attempt to guard access to protected members of .NET sub-types. Instead, it always makes the protected members available just like public members:

>>> class MyClass(System.Object):

... pass

>>> o = MyClass()

>>> o.MemberwiseClone() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

这段看不懂在说啥

A class definition in Python does not map directly to a unique .NET type. This is because the semantics of classes is different between Python and .NET. For example, in Python it is possible to change the base types just by assigning to the __bases__ attribute on the type object. However, the same is not possible with .NET types. Hence, IronPython implements Python classes without mapping them directly to .NET types. IronPython does use some .NET type for the objects, but its members do not match the Python attributes at all. Instead, the Python class is stored in a .NET field called .class, and Python instance attributes are stored in a dictionary that is stored in a .NET field called .dict [7]

>>> import clr

>>> class MyClass(object):

... pass

>>> o = MyClass()

>>> o.GetType().FullName #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

'IronPython.NewTypes.System.Object_...'

>>> [field.Name for field in o.GetType().GetFields()]

['.class', '.dict', '.slots_and_weakref']

>>> o.GetType().GetField(".class").GetValue(o) == MyClass

True

>>> class MyClass2(MyClass):

... pass

>>> o2 = MyClass2()

>>> o.GetType() == o2.GetType()

True

Also see Type-system unification (type and System.Type)

These field names are implementation details, and could change.

这段看不懂

It is sometimes required to have control over the .NET type generated for the Python class. This is because some .NET APIs expect the user to define a .NET type with certain attributes and members. For example, to define a pinvoke method, the user is required to define a .NET type with a .NET method marked withDllImportAttribute , and where the signature of the .NET method exactly describes the target platform method.

Starting with IronPython 2.6, IronPython supports a low-level hook which allows customization of the .NET type corresponding to a Python class. If the metaclass of a Python class has an attribute called __clrtype__, the attribute is called to generate a .NET type. This allows the user to control the the details of the generated .NET type. However, this is a low-level hook, and the user is expected to build on top of it.

The ClrType sample available in the IronPython website shows how to build on top of the __clrtype__ hook.

推测:这段大概是说ironPython中的代码主要是由ipy动态解释的,但是如果要从.net中运行ironpython代码有别的方式

Statically-typed languages like C# and VB.Net can be compiled into an assembly that can then be used by other .NET code. However, IronPython code is executed dynamically using ipy.exe. If you want to run Python code from other .NET code, there are a number of ways of doing it.

推测:大概是说.net可以使用DLR Hosting Api来执行ironPython代码

The DLR Hosting APIs allow a .NET application to embed DLR languages like IronPython and IronRuby, load and execute Python and Ruby code, and access objects created by the Python or Ruby code.

看不懂

The pyc sample can be used to compile IronPython code into an assembly. The sample builds on top of clr-CompileModules. The assembly can then be loaded and executed using Python-ImportModule. However, note that the MSIL in the assembly is not CLS-compliant and cannot be directly accessed from other .NET languages.

推测:因为有在.Net里用过IronPython,这段可以这样理解,就说在.Net里执行IronPython代码,假如返回值是一个ironpython对象,或者你要从.Net访问一个ironPython对象,那你要用一个dynamic类型的变量来接收

Starting with .NET 4.0, C# and VB.Net support access to IronPython objects using the dynamic keyword. This enables cleaner access to IronPython objects. Note that you need to use the hosting-apis to load IronPython code and get the root object out of it.

下面这段大概是介绍 Python和.Net特征统一化在IronPython中的一些体现,比如支持python的doc功能读.Net的API文档,又或者读不到就直接通过反射来读取一些关于这个类的信息

Type system integration.

See "Type-system unification (type and System.Type)"

Also see extensions-to-python-types and extensions-to-dotnet-types

List comprehension works with any .NET type that implements IList

with works with with any System.Collections.IEnumerable or System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable

pickle and ISerializable

__doc__ on .NET types and members:

__doc__ uses XML comments if available. XML comment files are installed if TODO. As a result, help can be used:

>>> help(System.Collections.BitArray.Set) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE

Help on method_descriptor:

Set(...)

Set(self, int index, bool value)

Sets the bit at a specific

position in the System.Collections.BitArray to

the specified value.

index:

The zero-based index of the

bit to set.

value:

The Boolean value to assign

to the bit.

If XML comment files are not available, IronPython generates documentation by reflecting on the type or member:

>>> help(System.Collections.Generic.List.Enumerator.Current) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE

Help on getset descriptor System.Collections.Generic in mscorlib, Version=2.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089.Enumerator.Current:

Current

Get: T Current(self)

import clr exposes extra functionality on some Python types to make .NET features accessible:

method objects of any builtin or .NET types:

instance method

Overloads(t1 [, t2...])

type objects

instance method

__getitem__(t1 [, t2...]) - creates a generic instantiation

推测:这段大概是在介绍.Net被引入到ironPython后被扩展了一些方法,使其更加Python化

IronPython also adds extensions to .NET types to make them more Pythonic. The following instance methods are exposed on .NET objects (and .NET classes where explicitly mentioned):

Types with op_Implicit

TODO

Types with op_Explicit

TODO

Types inheriting from a .NET class or interface

.NET base-typeSynthesized Python method(s)System.Object

all methods of object eg. __class__, __str__, __hash__, __setattr__

System.IDisposable

__enter__, __exit__

System.Collections.IEnumerator

next

System.Collections.ICollection System.Collections.Generic.ICollection

__len__

System.Collections.IEnumerable System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable System.Collections.IEnumerator System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerator

__iter__

System.IFormattable

__format__

System.Collections.IDictionary System.Collections.Generic.IDictionary System.Collections.Generic.ICollection System.Collections.Generic.IList System.Collections.IEnumerable System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable System.Collections.IEnumerator System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerator

__contains__

System.Array

Class methods:

Indexing of the type object with a type object to access a specific array type

__new__(l) where l is IList (or supports __getitem__?)

__getitem__, __setitem__, __slice__

System.Delegate

Class method : __new__(type, function_or_bound_method)

__call__

System.Enum

__or__ TODO ?

Types with a .NET operator method name

.NET operator methodSynthesized Python methodop_Addition, Add

__add__

Compare

__cmp__

get_ [8]

__getitem__

set_ [9]

__setitem__where the type also has a property , and a DefaultMemberAttribute for where the type also has a property , and a DefaultMemberAttribute for

TODO - This is currently just copied from IronRuby, and is known to be incorrect

Object equality and hashing are fundamental properties of objects. The Python API for comparing and hashing objects is __eq__ (and __ne__) and __hash__ respectively. The CLR APIs are System.Object.Equals and System.Object.GetHashCode respectively. IronPython does an automatic mapping between the two concepts so that Python objects can be compared and hashed from non-Python .NET code, and __eq__ and __hash__ are available in Python code for non-Python objects as well.

When Python code calls __eq__ and __hash__

If the object is a Python object, the default implementations of __eq__ and __hash__ get called. The default implementations call System.Object.ReferenceEquals and System.Runtime.CompileServices.RuntimeHelpers.GetHashCode respectively.

If the object is a CLR object, System.Object.Equals and System.Object.GetHashCode respectively get called on the .NET object.

If the object is a Python subclass object inheriting from a CLR class, the CLR's class's implementation of System.Object.Equals and System.Object.GetHashCode will get called if the Python subclass does not define __eq__ and __hash__. If the Python subclass defines __eq__ and __hash__, those will be called instead.

When static MSIL code calls System.Object.Equals and System.Object.GetHashCode

If the object is a Python objects, the Python object will direct the call to __eq__ and __hash__. If the Python object has implementations for these methods, they will be called. Otherwise, the default implementation mentioned above gets called.

If the object is a Python subclass object inheriting from a CLR class, the CLR's class's implementation of System.Object.Equals and System.Object.GetHashCode will get called if the Python subclass does not define __eq__ and __hash__. If the Python subclass defines __eq__ and __hash__, those will be called instead.

The CLR expects that System.Object.GetHashCode always returns the same value for a given object. If this invariant is not maintained, using the object as a key in a System.Collections.Generic.Dictionary will misbehave. Python allows __hash__ to return different results, and relies on the user to deal with the scenario of using the object as a key in a Hash. The mapping above between the Python and CLR concepts of equality and hashing means that CLR code that deals with Python objects has to be aware of the issue. If static MSIL code uses a Python object as a the key in a Dictionary, unexpected behavior might happen.

To reduce the chances of this happenning when using common Python types, IronPython does not map __hash__ to GetHashCode for Array and Hash. For other Python classes, the user can provide separate implementations for __eq__ and Equals, and __hash__ and GetHashCode if the Python class is mutable but also needs to be usable as a key in a Dictionary.

如果对一个Python对象使用 ToString,即便按照 Python的玩法,你重写了__str__方法,你调用ToString解释器还是会去调用.Net里的那个toString方法,并不会调用你定义的这个__str__方法,推测:也就是说只要一个类是继承自.Net的,那他的规则就是按照

.Net的来,如果是纯Python的就按照python的规则来?

Calling ToString on Python objects calls the default System.Object.ToString implementation, even if the Python type defines __str__:

>>> class MyClass(object):

... def __str__(self):

... return "__str__ result"

>>> o = MyClass()

>>> # Use Reflection to simulate a call from another .NET language

>>> o.GetType().GetMethod("ToString").Invoke(o, None) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

'IronPython.NewTypes.System.Object_...'

所有Python对象都自带__repr__和__str__方法

All Python user types have __repr__ and __str__:

>>> class MyClass(object):

... pass

>>> o = MyClass()

>>> o.__repr__() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

''

>>> o.__str__() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

'IronPython.NewTypes.System.Object_...'

>>> str(o) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

''

For .NET types which do not override ToString, IronPython provides __repr__ and __str__ methods which behave similar to those of Python user types [10]:

推测:不重写.Net对象的 ToString方法的对象,它让你可以把它当成Python对象来处理,如果你想改写Tostring就重写它的__repr__和_-str__方法就好了?

>>> from System.Collections import BitArray

>>> ba = BitArray(5)

>>> ba.ToString() # BitArray inherts System.Object.ToString()

'System.Collections.BitArray'

>>> ba.__repr__() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

''

>>> ba.__str__() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

''

For .NET types which do override ToString, IronPython includes the result of ToString in __repr__, and maps ToString directly to __str__:

推测:如果ToString得不到你想要的结果,那么结果可能包含在__repr__和__str__ 方法里头?

>>> e = System.Exception()

>>> e.ToString()

"System.Exception: Exception of type 'System.Exception' was thrown."

>>> e.__repr__() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

""

>>> e.__str__() #doctest:

"System.Exception: Exception of type 'System.Exception' was thrown."

For Python types that override ToString, __str__ is mapped to the ToString override:

对于一个重写了ToString方法的Python对象,调用__str__方法将会直接映射到ToString方法的结果,好乱。。。

>>> class MyClass(object):

... def ToString(self):

... return "ToString implemented in Python"

>>> o = MyClass()

>>> o.__repr__() #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

''

>>> o.__str__()

'ToString implemented in Python'

>>> str(o) #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

''

它又说这看起来有点矛盾,好像在下面这个地址可以得到答案?

There is some inconsistency in handling of __str__ that is tracked by http://ironpython.codeplex.com/WorkItem/View.aspx?WorkItemId=24973

这段感觉对平时工作没什么用,就不去理解了,关于COM对象使用的

IronPython supports accessing OleAutomation objects (COM objects which support dispinterfaces).

IronPython does not support the win32ole library, but Python code using win32ole can run on IronPython with just a few modifications.

如何使用COM对象

Different languages have different ways to create a COM object. VBScript and VBA have a method called CreateObject to create an OleAut object. JScript has a method called TODO. There are multiple ways of doing the same in IronPython.

The first approach is to use System.Type.GetTypeFromProgID and System.Activator.CreateInstance . This method works with any registered COM object:

>>> import System

>>> t = System.Type.GetTypeFromProgID("Excel.Application")

>>> excel = System.Activator.CreateInstance(t)

>>> wb = excel.Workbooks.Add()

>>> excel.Quit()

The second approach is to use clr.AddReferenceToTypeLibrary to load the type library (if it is available) of the COM object. The advantage is that you can use the type library to access other named values like constants:

>>> import System

>>> excelTypeLibGuid = System.Guid("00020813-0000-0000-C000-000000000046")

>>> import clr

>>> clr.AddReferenceToTypeLibrary(excelTypeLibGuid)

>>> from Excel import Application

>>> excel = Application()

>>> wb = excel.Workbooks.Add()

>>> excel.Quit()

Finally, you can also use the interop assembly. This can be generated using the tlbimp.exe tool. The only advantage of this approach was that this was the approach recommeded for IronPython 1. If you have code using this approach that you developed for IronPython 1, it will continue to work:

>>> import clr

>>> clr.AddReference("Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel")

>>> from Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel import ApplicationClass

>>> excel = ApplicationClass()

>>> wb = excel.Workbooks.Add()

>>> excel.Quit()

One you have access to a COM object, it can be used like any other objects. Properties, methods, default indexers and events all work as expected.

There is one important detail worth pointing out. IronPython tries to use the type library of the OleAut object if it can be found, in order to do name resolution while accessing methods or properties. The reason for this is that the IDispatch interface does not make much of a distinction between properties and method calls. This is because of Visual Basic 6 semantics where "excel.Quit" and "excel.Quit()" have the exact same semantics. However, IronPython has a strong distinction between properties and methods, and methods are first class objects. For IronPython to know whether "excel.Quit" should invoke the method Quit, or just return a callable object, it needs to inspect the typelib. If a typelib is not available, IronPython assumes that it is a method. So if a OleAut object has a property called "prop" but it has no typelib, you would need to write "p = obj.prop()" in IronPython to read the property value.

Calling a method with "out" (or in-out) parameters requires explicitly passing in an instance of "clr.Reference", if you want to get the updated value from the method call. Note that COM methods with out parameters are not considered Automation-friendly [11]. JScript does not support out parameters at all. If you do run into a COM component which has out parameters, having to use "clr.Reference" is a reasonable workaround:

>>> import clr

>>> from System import Type, Activator

>>> command_type = Type.GetTypeFromProgID("ADODB.Command")

>>> command = Activator.CreateInstance(command_type)

>>> records_affected = clr.Reference[int]()

>>> command.Execute(records_affected, None, None) #doctest: +SKIP

>>> records_affected.Value

0

Another workaround is to leverage the inteorp assembly by using the unbound class instance method syntax of "outParamAsReturnValue = InteropAssemblyNamespace.IComInterface(comObject)".

Note that the Office APIs in particular do have "VARIANT*" parameters, but these methods do not update the value of the VARIANT. The only reason they were defined with "VARIANT*" parameters was for performance since passing a pointer to a VARIANT is faster than pushing all the 4 DWORDs of the VARIANT onto the stack. So you can just treat such parameters as "in" parameters.

The type library has names of constants. You can use clr.AddReferenceToTypeLibrary to load the type library.

IronPython does not fully support COM objects which do not support dispinterfaces since they appear likey proxy objects [12]. You can use the unbound class method syntax to access them.

This was supported in IronPython 1, but the support was dropped in version 2.

再往后几条内容不怎么重要了就不抄进来了,本篇笔记到此结束

内容来源于网络如有侵权请私信删除

  • 0
    点赞
  • 0
    评论
  • 0
    收藏
  • 一键三连
    一键三连
  • 扫一扫,分享海报

表情包
插入表情
评论将由博主筛选后显示,对所有人可见 | 还能输入1000个字符
©️2021 CSDN 皮肤主题: 1024 设计师:白松林 返回首页
实付
使用余额支付
点击重新获取
扫码支付
钱包余额 0

抵扣说明:

1.余额是钱包充值的虚拟货币,按照1:1的比例进行支付金额的抵扣。
2.余额无法直接购买下载,可以购买VIP、C币套餐、付费专栏及课程。

余额充值