Format函数—字符串格式化

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Format函数:

作用:格式化输出字符串
格式:
‘’.format(value[,format_spec=’ ‘])
示例:
#位置匹配
>>> sun = ‘sunhziwen’
>>> s =43
>>> ‘my name is {}.’.format(sun)
‘my name is sunhziwen.’
>>> ‘my name is {1},I’m {0} years old.’.format(s,sun)
“my name is sunhziwen,I’m 43 years old.”
#关键字或字典
>>> s = {‘name’:‘sunzhiwen’, ‘age’:25}
>>> ‘my name is {name},I’m {age} years old.’.format(s) #字典
“my name is sunzhiwen,I’m 25 years old.”
>>> ‘my name is {name},I’m {age} years old.’.format(name=‘sunzhiwen’,age=23)
“my name is sunzhiwen,I’m 23 years old.”
#对齐
>>> print(’{:^14}’.format(“sunzhiwen”))
sunzhiwen
>>> print(’{:>14}’.format(“sunzhiwen”))
sunzhiwen
>>> print(’{:>14}’.format(“sunzhiwen”))
*****sunzhiwen
>>> print(’{:<14}’.format(“sunzhiwen”))
sunzhiwen
>>> print(’{:
<14}’.format(“sunzhiwen”))
sunzhiwen
*
#精度:
>>> print(’{:.4f}’.format(3.14))
3.1400
>>> print(’{:.4f}’.format(3.141592656469))
3.1416
#进制转换
>>> print(’{:b}’.format(250))
11111010
>>> print(’{😮}’.format(250))
372
>>> print(’{:d}’.format(250))
250
>>> print(’{:x}’.format(250))
fa
#千分位分隔符
>>> print(’{:,}’.format(100000000000000))
100,000,000,000,000
>>> print(’{:,}’.format(123456489.21335498))
123,456,489.21335497

字符串格式化

作用:格式化输出字符串
运算符
%
格式
格式化字符串%参数值

格式化字符串%(参数值1,参数值2,…)
示例
fmt = ‘姓名:%s, 年龄:%d’
name = ‘张飞’
age = 20
print(fmt % (name, age))

占位符和类型码

占位符类型吗 意义
%s 字符串
%r 字符串使用repr,而不是str
%c 整数转为单个字符
        >>> "%c" %20013     #返回值:'中',类似于chr(20013)
        %d                  十进制整数
            >>> "%d" %10        #返回值:'10'
        %o                  八进制整数
            >>> "%o" %10        #返回值:'12'
        %x                  十六进制整数(字符a-F小写)
            >>> "%x" %10        #返回值:'a'
        %X                  十六进制整数(字符A-F大写)
            >>> "%X" %10        #返回值:'A'

        %e                  指数型浮点数(e小写),如2.9e+10
            >>> "%e" %29979000000.0    #返回值:'2.997900e+10'
        %E                  指数型浮点数(E大写),如2.9E+10
            >>> "%E" %29979000000.0    #返回值:'2.997900E+10'
        %f,                 %F  浮点十进制形式
            >>> "%f" %29979000000.0   #返回值:'29979000000.000000'
            >>> "%F" %29979000000.0   #返回值:'29979000000.000000'
            >>> "%F" %2.997e+10       #返回值:'29970000000.000000'
        %g,                 %G  十进制形式浮点或指数浮点自动转换
            >>> "%g" %12.123                        #返回值:'12.123'
            >>> "%g" %12545361564531.123321564      #返回值:'1.25454e+13'
        %%                  等同于一个%字符
            >>> "利率为%f%%" %1.8                    #返回值:'利率为1.800000%'
    占位符%和类型码之间的格式语法:
        % [格式语法] 类型码 (a,s,f等)
            **格式语法:**
                -       左对齐
                +       右对齐
                0       补零
                宽度(十进制数字)
                宽度.精度(十进制数字)                #f,F
            **示例:**
                >>> "%10d" %123                   #返回值:'       123'
                >>> "%-10d" %123                  #返回值:'123       '
               >>> "%10s" %123                   #返回值:'       123'
                >>> "%10s" %'abc'                 #返回值:'       abc'
                >>> "%-5s" %'abc'                 #返回值:'abc  '
                >>> "%+10d" %123                  #返回值:      +123'
                >>> "%010d" %123                  #返回值:'0000000123'
                >>> "%0010d" %123                 #返回值:'0000000123'
                >>> "%020.5f" %123.123545689      #返回值:'00000000000123.12355'
                >>> "%0-20.5f" %123.123545689     #返回值:'123.12355           '
                >>> "%-020.5f" %123.123545689     #返回值:'123.12355           '
                >>> "%+020.5f" %123.123545689     #返回值:'+0000000000123.12355'
                >>> "%4.4f" %3.1415926            #返回值:'3.1416'
                >>> "%2.4f" %3.1415926            #返回值:'3.1416'
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