联合循环——12(通讯系统)

一、SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition)

数据采集与监视控制系统是以计算机为基础的DCS与电力自动化监控系统;它应用领域很广,可以应用于电力、冶金、石油、化工、燃气、铁路等领域的数据采集与监视控制以及过程控制等诸多领域。 在电力系统中,SCADA系统应用最为广泛,技术发展也最为成熟。它在远动系统中占重要地位,可以对现场的运行设备进行监视和控制,以实现数据采集、设备控制、测量、参数调节以及各类信号报警等各项功能,即我们所知的"四遥"功能。RTU(远程终端单元),FTU(馈线终端单元)是它的重要组成部分,在现今的变电站综合自动化建设中起了相当重要的作用。
在这里插入图片描述

转自知乎:

SCADA,指的是电力的监控系统;DCS,指的是过程控制系统;还有FGS,指的是火灾及消防监控系统。
SCADA,它的现场层面有大量的开关量需要监视,有许多电参量需要监视,有许多遥控操作需要执行。
SCADA的特点是:信号变化快。例如开关量变位仅仅才数毫秒;参量众多,例如开关量可达千计,模拟量采集可达百计,遥控量少一些,但也有百计。
SCADA的测控对象电压等级高。例如中压610kV开关柜及中压开关,总进线35110kV的GIS高压开关,还有各种电力变压器等等。所以SCADA面临的问题是强电磁干扰和速度快这两个问题。
SCAD往往利用继保装置来采集信息,而信息的传递往往采用光纤。
再看DCS,它的特点是:传感器参量变化相对较慢。例如温度、流量、压力、力矩、液位等等,变化不象SCADA的信号如此迅速,同时DCS采集装置放置环境的电磁干扰不太强烈。
有了这么一段说明,我们就可以看出两者的区别了。
SCAD所有采集到的信号以及遥控信号都通过通信管理机转发,这台通信管理机既可以用工控机来做,也可以用PLC来做。但目前,通信管理机已经全面的倒向PLC,工控机已经很少了。
网络拓扑图
在图示熔化车间配电系统网络拓扑图内,我们看到了10kV的继保装置,看到了电力变压器,还有大量的低压测控仪表及电动机综合保护装置,它们都经过RS485总线连接到通信管理机,也即人机界面HMI中。
这里的HMI既可以用工控机做,也可以用PLC做。在PLC的情况下,需要配套P.LC的人机界面。
从通信管理机往上,一般采用工业以太网,通信介质为光缆。采用光缆的目的性很明确,一者是为了信息传输更加快捷,二者是为了电气隔离,避免把变电站内的强电磁骚扰引入到上层系统。
那么PLC和工控机到底何者为佳?答案是PLC,因为工控机不能抵御强电磁环境下的骚扰。
一般地,某公司推出了自己的监控系统,该公司将面临着一道关卡,就是电磁骚扰的EMC测控。
应用在变电站、配电室中的PLC,,以及所有配套设备,例如遥信开关量、遥测量和遥控量的RTU采集装置,还有所有的电力仪表和继保装置,都必须通过EMC测试。
EMC测试是很严酷的,其中又以电源侧的群脉冲最为残酷。
在学校里的学生们,他们做的各种各样看起来功能十分到位的毕业设计单片机测控装置,在测试时我让他们把板子靠近接触器。当接触器打开时会出现电弧,看看这些板子还能不能工作,结果100%的板子都烧掉了。如此看来,学生做的板子估计EMC是零级。笑!
在上海测试站,看见待测的某装置当场烧起来,是一点也不奇怪的。
EMC共有四个等级,等级越高,抗骚扰能力越强。
居家配电电器一般过1级或者2级,工控装备也就是DCS一般过2级,但变电所里的设备一般需要通过3级,甚至还有4级的。
工控机最多只能过2级,而高档的PLC一般能过3级。
说完硬件,再说软件。
PLC的软件相比工控机要强壮得多。PLC在执行时按程序条的先后秩序一条条执行,若某条程序无法执行,PLC不会停下来等,它会执行下一条。这样一来,PLC程序的突出特点是不容易出现死锁。
SCADA的软件一般比较短小。例如我编写的PLC测控程序最大不超过4K。
下图是我编写的用于北京地铁的PLC程序。此程序共计400多行3146个字节,执行时间为1.2584毫秒,而循环时间则为40毫秒。这里的循环时间指的是读若干台电力仪表数据区所用的循环时间。
在这里插入图片描述
这里用到的程序和梯形图不一样,它满足IEC61131-3语言,是包括梯形图在内的PLC通用语言。
由于PLC程序短小精悍,抗电磁骚扰能力又强,所以在变电站内自然就把PLC作为通信管理机的首选了。
那么DCS行不行呢?答案是不行。DCS下的测控程序很复杂,参量又多,它必须送到高层系统中去做进一步的计算和判断才行。
不过,从传递通信信息来看,不管是DCS,还是SCADA,通信管理机的任务都是一样的。

转自维基百科:

Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is a control system architecture comprising computers, networked data communications and graphical user interfaces (GUI) for high-level process supervisory management, while also comprising other peripheral devices like programmable logic controllers (PLC) and discrete proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers to interface with process plant or machinery. The use of SCADA has been considered also for management and operations of project-driven-process in construction.
The operator interfaces which enable monitoring and the issuing of process commands, like controller set point changes, are handled through the SCADA computer system. The subordinated operations, e.g. the real-time control logic or controller calculations, are performed by networked modules connected to the field sensors and actuators.

The SCADA concept was developed to be a universal means of remote-access to a variety of local control modules, which could be from different manufacturers and allowing access through standard automation protocols. In practice, large SCADA systems have grown to become very similar to distributed control systems in function, while using multiple means of interfacing with the plant. They can control large-scale processes that can include multiple sites, and work over large distances as well as small distance. It is one of the most commonly-used types of industrial control systems, in spite of concerns about SCADA systems being vulnerable to cyberwarfare/cyberterrorism attacks.

1.1 SCADA系统组成

(1)NPCC(National Power Control Center)
(2)LDC (Load Dispatch Center)
(3)RCC (Regional Control Center)
(4)DRC (Disaster Recovery Center)
(5)RTU(Remote Terminal/Telemetry/Telecontrol Unit)
A RTU is a microprocessor based device that monitors and controls field devices, that then connects to plant control or SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) systems.
If you do a search on the definition of a RTU, you may find many results that state a RTU is much more powerful than a PLC as the RTU can have several inputs and outputs. Well, as you know, so can the PLC.

The RTU does have some potential benefits over the PLC.

二、DCS (Distributed Control System)

分散控制系统,按电厂运行逻辑根据各种模拟数据量,经过电厂运行的逻辑实现对各种执行部件的控制,这个是一个综合的系统,光能准确采集各种数据和能够正确发出控制指令时基本功能,关键是对各种数据的分析和判断,通常使用在升压站。

三、PLC (Programmable Logical Controller)

在工业自动化和控制系统的网络体系结构中,PLC作为重要的底层控制部件,通常应用在SCADA和DCS系统中,用于实现工业设备的具体操作与工艺控制。

四、NCS (Network Control System)

电力网络计算机监控系统,通常使用在厂用变系统。

五、ECS (Electric Control System)

电厂厂用电气监控管理系统,通常使用在机组。

六、IOT (Internet Of Things 物联网)

The internet of things, or IoT, is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.

A thing in the internet of things can be a person with a heart monitor implant, a farm animal with a biochip transponder, an automobile that has built-in sensors to alert the driver when tire pressure is low or any other natural or man-made object that can be assigned an Internet Protocol (IP) address and is able to transfer data over a network.

Increasingly, organizations in a variety of industries are using IoT to operate more efficiently, better understand customers to deliver enhanced customer service, improve decision-making and increase the value of the business.

七、SAS (Substation Automation System)

变电站自动化系统是一个模块化、集成化的大型应用软件系统。功能包括数据访问、数据储存及管理、应用开发、图形处理、数据分析、报告编制、运筹学方法、计量经济学与预测等等。高压变电站,比如220kV/400kV/500kV高压变电站会配备一套自动化系统,该系统包含硬件和软件,主要功能是数据采集、存储、逻辑分析和运算,也能自动发出报警、跳闸等指令,并且能把本站数据上传至调度中心

八、FGS (Fire & Gas Detection & Protection Systems)

The Fire and Gas Detection system provides early and reliable detection of the fire or gas, continuously monitor all areas where a fire or an accumulation of a flammable or explosive gas mixture may occur. On detection of any of these events the Fire and Gas Detection system shall alert personnel and initiate timely executive action to minimize the consequences.

It is an element of the unit Integrated Control and Safety System (ICSS) and is defined as emergency electrical equipment, and as such its reliability and availability must be ensured. In order to achieve this assurance the necessary levels of equipment redundancy and system self-test shall be incorporated and a high level of QA / QC shall be carried out on all phases of the FGS design / construction / installation and commissioning.

Generally, techniques of redundancy and replication shall be used to avoid common mode failure points such that one fault in the system does not make the system inoperable. This applies to both the Control System and field devices. SIL analysis methods, as described in IEC 61508/61511 shall in general not be used for the design of the FGS, as risk has already been reduced to ALARP level by the ESD system.

The FGS continuously monitors heat, infrared flame, smoke, temperature, manual alarm call-points and toxic or combustible gas levels with the use of dedicated field devices. The status of all FGS detectors shall be presented on HMI and the Fire and Gas Matrix panel. If any combination of them (within a zone) exceeds a pre-determined level, the system will raise the alarm and take automatic action.

Typical actions from a FGS is to alert personnel, release fire-fighting systems, emergency ventilation control, stop flow of minor hydrocarbon sources such as diesel distribution to consumers, isolate local electrical equipment, initiating ESD and PSD actions, isolate electrical equipment and to close watertight doors and fire doors. Audible and visual alarms for Fire or Gas shall be initiated throughout the unit upon detection of gas or fire.

It shall depend upon the priority of alarm status, initiate the automatic operation of the following functions:

Unit Status alarms (Fire or Gas)
Emergency Shutdowns via the FGS / SIS system.
To conclude, for today’s manufacturers the safety of their facilities, personnel, production and the environment is crucial to achieving on-time delivery and minimizing any potential losses. Therefore to meet their safety needs while ensuring operational and business readiness at project start-up is a must.

九、HMI (Human-machine Interface)

The human-machine interface (HMI) is the operator window of the supervisory system. It presents plant information to the operating personnel graphically in the form of mimic diagrams, which are a schematic representation of the plant being controlled, and alarm and event logging pages. The HMI is linked to the SCADA supervisory computer to provide live data to drive the mimic diagrams, alarm displays and trending graphs. In many installations the HMI is the graphical user interface for the operator, collects all data from external devices, creates reports, performs alarming, sends notifications, etc.

Mimic diagrams consist of line graphics and schematic symbols to represent process elements, or may consist of digital photographs of the process equipment overlain with animated symbols.

Supervisory operation of the plant is by means of the HMI, with operators issuing commands using mouse pointers, keyboards and touch screens. For example, a symbol of a pump can show the operator that the pump is running, and a flow meter symbol can show how much fluid it is pumping through the pipe. The operator can switch the pump off from the mimic by a mouse click or screen touch. The HMI will show the flow rate of the fluid in the pipe decrease in real time.

The HMI package for a SCADA system typically includes a drawing program that the operators or system maintenance personnel use to change the way these points are represented in the interface. These representations can be as simple as an on-screen traffic light, which represents the state of an actual traffic light in the field, or as complex as a multi-projector display representing the position of all of the elevators in a skyscraper or all of the trains on a railway.

A “historian”, is a software service within the HMI which accumulates time-stamped data, events, and alarms in a database which can be queried or used to populate graphic trends in the HMI. The historian is a client that requests data from a data acquisition server.

十、总结

(1)SCAD与DCS的区别:SCADA主要指的是信号采集监视系统,监视。DCS主要指的是集散控制系统,一般DCS控制系统会带
一个监视系统(SCADA)。
(2)SCADA,DCS,PLC的区别:
1、scada是综合监控系统,是一个软件+硬件的综合平台。
2、DCS是分布式控制系统,是一种类型的系统的名称。
3、PLC是可编程逻辑控制器,是一个设备。
DCS与PLC的区别要点
1、DCS是一种“分散式控制系统”,而PLC(可编程控制器)只是一种控制“装置”,两者是“系统”与“装置”的区别。系统可以实现任何装置的功能与协调,PLC装置只实现本单元所具备的功能。
2、在网络方面,DCS网络是整个系统的中枢神经,它是安全可靠双冗余的高速通讯网络,系统的拓展性与开放性更好。而PLC因为基本上都为个体工作,其在与别的PLC或上位机进行通讯时,所采用的网络形式基本都是单网结构,网络协议也经常与国际标准不符。在网络安全上,PLC没有很好的保护措施。我们采用电源,CPU,网络双冗余。
3、DCS整体考虑方案,操作员站都具备工程师站功能,站与站之间在运行方案程序下装后是一种紧密联合的关系,任何站、任何功能、任何被控装置间都是相互连锁控制,协调控制;而单用PLC互相连接构成的系统,其站与站(PLC与PLC)之间的联系则是一种松散连接方式,是做不出协调控制的功能。
4、DCS在整个设计上就留有大量的可扩展性接口,外接系统或扩展系统都十分方便,PLC所搭接的整个系统完成后,想随意的增加或减少操作员站都是很难实现的。
5、DCS安全性:为保证DCS控制的设备的安全可靠,DCS采用了双冗余的控制单元,当重要控制单元出现故障时,都会有相关的冗余单元实时无扰的切换为工作单元,保证整个系统的安全可靠。PLC所搭接的系统基本没有冗余的概念,就更谈不上冗余控制策略。特别是当其某个PLC单元发生故障时,不得不将整个系统停下来,才能进行更换维护并需重新编程。所以DCS系统要比其安全可靠性上高一个等级。
6、系统软件,对各种工艺控制方案更新是DCS的一项最基本的功能,当某个方案发生变化后,工程师只需要在工程师站上将更改过的方案编译后,执行下装命令就可以了,下装过程是由系统自动完成的,不影响原控制方案运行。系统各种控制软件与算法可以将工艺要求控制对象控制精度提高。而对于PLC构成的系统来说,工作量极其庞大,首先需要确定所要编辑更新的是哪个PLC,然后要用与之对应的编译器进行程序编译,最后再用专用的机器(读写器)专门一对一的将程序传送给这个PLC,在系统调试期间,大量增加调试时间和调试成本,而且极其不利于日后的维护。在控制精度上相差甚远。这就决定了为什么在大中型控制项目中(500点以上),基本不采用全部由PLC所连接而成的系统的原因。
7、模块:DCS系统所有I/O模块都带有CPU,可以实现对采集及输出信号品质判断与标量变换,故障带电插拔,随机更换。而PLC模块只是简单电气转换单元,没有智能芯片,故障后相应单元全部瘫痪。

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