HttpClient 应用

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HttpClient介绍和简单使用流程

HttpClient

SpringCloud中服务和服务之间的调用全部是使用HttpClient,还有前面使用SolrJ中就封装了HttpClient,在调用SolrTemplate的saveBean方法时就调用HttpClient技术。

当前大部分项目暴漏出来的接口是Http请求,数据格式是JSON格式,但在一些老项目使用的仍然是webService。

HttpClient 提供的主要的功能

(1)实现了所有 HTTP 的方法(GET,POST,PUT,DELETE 等)

(2)支持自动转向

(3)支持 HTTPS 协议

(4)支持代理服务器等

1、关于Http的请求类型(常见)

get、put、post、delete含义与区别

1、GET请求会向数据库发索取数据的请求,从而来获取信息,该请求就像数据库的select操作一样,只是用来查询一下数据,不会修改、增加数据,不会影响资源的内容,即该请求不会产生副作用。无论进行多少次操作,结果都是一样的。

2、与GET不同的是,PUT请求是向服务器端发送数据的,从而改变信息,该请求就像数据库的update操作一样,用来修改数据的内容,但是不会增加数据的种类等,也就是说无论进行多少次PUT操作,其结果并没有不同。

3、POST请求同PUT请求类似,都是向服务器端发送数据的,但是该请求会改变数据的种类等资源,就像数据库的insert操作一样,会创建新的内容。几乎目前所有的提交操作都是用POST请求的。

4、DELETE请求顾名思义,就是用来删除某一个资源的,该请求就像数据库的delete操作。

就像前面所讲的一样,既然PUT和POST操作都是向服务器端发送数据的,那么两者有什么区别呢。。。POST主要作用在一个集合资源之上的(url),而PUT主要作用在一个具体资源之上的(url/xxx),通俗一下讲就是,如URL可以在客户端确定,那么可使用PUT,否则用POST。

数据请求格式

综上所述,我们可理解为以下:

1、POST    /url      创建  
2、DELETE  /url/xxx  删除  
3、PUT     /url/xxx  更新
4、GET     /url/xxx  查看

2、HttpClient的请求类型

实现了所有的Http请求类型,相应的类为

HttpGet、HttpPost、HttpDelete、HttpPut

3、Http的使用流程

3.1 创建sms的war子模块

3.2 导入坐标

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<dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.apache.httpcomponents</groupId>
            <artifactId>httpclient</artifactId>
            <version>4.5.3</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.alibaba</groupId>
            <artifactId>fastjson</artifactId>
            <version>1.2.28</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>

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3.3 测试demo,原生HttpClient使用

3.3.1 新建HttpClientGetTest.java测试类,测试get请求

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public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
        //1.打开浏览器
        CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();
        //2.声明get请求
        HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet("http://www.baidu.com/s?wd=java");
        //3.发送请求
        CloseableHttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpGet);
        //4.判断状态码
        if(response.getStatusLine().getStatusCode()==200){
            HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();
           //使用工具类EntityUtils,从响应中取出实体表示的内容并转换成字符串
            String string = EntityUtils.toString(entity, "utf-8");
            System.out.println(string);
        }
        //5.关闭资源
        response.close();
        httpClient.close();
    }

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3.3.2 新建HttpClientPostTest.java测试类,测试post请求

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public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
        //1.打开浏览器
        CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();
        //2.声明get请求
        HttpPost httpPost = new HttpPost("https://www.oschina.net/");
        //3.开源中国为了安全,防止恶意攻击,在post请求中都限制了浏览器才能访问
        httpPost.addHeader("User-Agent","Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/68.0.3440.106 Safari/537.36");
        //4.判断状态码
        List<NameValuePair> parameters = new ArrayList<NameValuePair>(0);
        parameters.add(new BasicNameValuePair("scope", "project"));
        parameters.add(new BasicNameValuePair("q", "java"));

        UrlEncodedFormEntity formEntity = new UrlEncodedFormEntity(parameters,"UTF-8");

        httpPost.setEntity(formEntity);

        //5.发送请求
        CloseableHttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpPost);

        if(response.getStatusLine().getStatusCode()==200){
            HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();
            String string = EntityUtils.toString(entity, "utf-8");
            System.out.println(string);
        }
        //6.关闭资源
        response.close();
        httpClient.close();
    }

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3.3.3 测试获取运营商品牌数据代码实现

自定义工具类HttpClientUtil如果能直接访问,简单的访问实现。

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//设置请求地址
HttpClientUtil util=new HttpClientUtil("http://localhost:9101/brand/findAll.do");
//设置请求方式
util.get();
//获取返回内容
String content=util.getContent();
//打印结果
System.out.println("content");

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使用HttpClientUtil实现先登录在访问页面

要点:务必保证登录和查询请求是连续的请求。借助的自定义工具类HttpClientUtil

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public class HttpClientTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        //设置用户名和密码
        Map<String, String> map = new HashMap<String,String>();
        map.put("username", "admin");
        map.put("password", "123456");

        //需要先通过springSecurity认证
        String s1 = HttpClientUtil.doPost("http://localhost:9101/login", map);

        Map<String, String> brand = new HashMap<String,String>();
        brand.put("name", "123456");
        brand.put("firstChar", "T");

        String jsonMap = JSON.toJSONString(brand);
        System.out.println(jsonMap);
        String s2 = HttpClientUtil.doPostJson("http://localhost:9101/brand/add.do", jsonMap);

        //String s2 = HttpClientUtil.doGet("http://localhost:9101/brand/findAll.do");
        System.out.println(s2);
    }
}

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自定义工具类源码HttpClientUtil。注意导入的依赖

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import java.io.IOException;
import java.security.GeneralSecurityException;
import java.security.cert.CertificateException;
import java.security.cert.X509Certificate;
import java.text.ParseException;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.LinkedList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;

import javax.net.ssl.SSLContext;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLException;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLSession;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLSocket;
import javax.net.ssl.TrustManager;
import javax.net.ssl.X509TrustManager;

import org.apache.http.Consts;
import org.apache.http.HttpEntity;
import org.apache.http.NameValuePair;
import org.apache.http.client.ClientProtocolException;
import org.apache.http.client.config.RequestConfig;
import org.apache.http.client.entity.UrlEncodedFormEntity;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.CloseableHttpResponse;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpEntityEnclosingRequestBase;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpGet;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpPost;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpPut;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpUriRequest;
import org.apache.http.client.protocol.HttpClientContext;
import org.apache.http.conn.scheme.Scheme;
import org.apache.http.conn.ssl.SSLConnectionSocketFactory;
import org.apache.http.conn.ssl.SSLContextBuilder;
import org.apache.http.conn.ssl.SSLSocketFactory;
import org.apache.http.conn.ssl.TrustStrategy;
import org.apache.http.conn.ssl.X509HostnameVerifier;
import org.apache.http.entity.StringEntity;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.CloseableHttpClient;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.DefaultHttpClient;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.HttpClients;
import org.apache.http.impl.conn.PoolingHttpClientConnectionManager;
import org.apache.http.message.BasicNameValuePair;
import org.apache.http.util.EntityUtils;

/**
 * http请求客户端
 * 
 * @author Administrator
 * 
 */
public class HttpClientUtil {

    public  static HttpClientContext context = null;

    static {
        System.out.println("====================begin");
        context = HttpClientContext.create();
    }

    private String url;
    private Map<String, String> param;
    private int statusCode;
    private String content;
    private String xmlParam;
    private boolean isHttps;

    public boolean isHttps() {
        return isHttps;
    }

    public void setHttps(boolean isHttps) {
        this.isHttps = isHttps;
    }

    public String getXmlParam() {
        return xmlParam;
    }

    public void setXmlParam(String xmlParam) {
        this.xmlParam = xmlParam;
    }

    public HttpClientUtil(String url, Map<String, String> param) {
        this.url = url;
        this.param = param;
    }

    public HttpClientUtil(String url) {
        this.url = url;
    }

    public void setParameter(Map<String, String> map) {
        param = map;
    }

    public void addParameter(String key, String value) {
        if (param == null)
            param = new HashMap<String, String>();
        param.put(key, value);
    }

    public void post() throws ClientProtocolException, IOException {
        HttpPost http = new HttpPost(url);
        setEntity(http);
        execute(http);
    }

    public void put() throws ClientProtocolException, IOException {
        HttpPut http = new HttpPut(url);
        setEntity(http);
        execute(http);
    }

    public void get() throws ClientProtocolException, IOException {
        if (param != null) {
            StringBuilder url = new StringBuilder(this.url);
            boolean isFirst = true;
            for (String key : param.keySet()) {
                if (isFirst)
                    url.append("?");
                else
                    url.append("&");
                url.append(key).append("=").append(param.get(key));
            }
            this.url = url.toString();
        }
        HttpGet http = new HttpGet(url);
        execute(http);
    }

    /**
     * set http post,put param
     */
    private void setEntity(HttpEntityEnclosingRequestBase http) {
        if (param != null) {
            List<NameValuePair> nvps = new LinkedList<NameValuePair>();
            for (String key : param.keySet())
                nvps.add(new BasicNameValuePair(key, param.get(key))); // 参数
            http.setEntity(new UrlEncodedFormEntity(nvps, Consts.UTF_8)); // 设置参数
        }
        if (xmlParam != null) {
            http.setEntity(new StringEntity(xmlParam, Consts.UTF_8));
        }
    }

    private void execute(HttpUriRequest http) throws ClientProtocolException,
            IOException {
        CloseableHttpClient httpClient = null;
        try {
            if (isHttps) {
                SSLContext sslContext = new SSLContextBuilder()
                        .loadTrustMaterial(null, new TrustStrategy() {
                            // 信任所有
                            public boolean isTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain,
                                    String authType)
                                    throws CertificateException {
                                return true;
                            }
                        }).build();
                SSLConnectionSocketFactory sslsf = new SSLConnectionSocketFactory(
                        sslContext);
                httpClient = HttpClients.custom().setSSLSocketFactory(sslsf)
                        .build();
            } else {
                httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();
            }
            CloseableHttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(http,context);
            try {
                if (response != null) {
                    if (response.getStatusLine() != null)
                        statusCode = response.getStatusLine().getStatusCode();
                    HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();
                    // 响应内容
                    content = EntityUtils.toString(entity, Consts.UTF_8);
                }
            } finally {
                response.close();
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } finally {
            httpClient.close();
        }
    }

    public int getStatusCode() {
        return statusCode;
    }

    public String getContent() throws ParseException, IOException {
        return content;
    }
}

HttpClient怎么获取cookie

// 旧版
HttpClient httpClient = new DefaultHttpClient();
// execute get/post/put or whatever
httpClient.doGetPostPutOrWhatever();
// get cookieStore
CookieStore cookieStore = httpClient.getCookieStore();
// get Cookies
List<Cookie> cookies = cookieStore.getCookies();
// process...

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// 新版
/* init client */
HttpClient http = null;
CookieStore httpCookieStore = new BasicCookieStore();
http = HttpClientBuilder.create().setDefaultCookieStore(httpCookieStore).build();

/* do stuff */
HttpGet httpRequest = new HttpGet("http://stackoverflow.com/");
HttpResponse httpResponse = null;
try {httpResponse = http.execute(httpRequest);} catch (Throwable error) {throw new RuntimeException(error);}

/* check cookies */
httpCookieStore.getCookies();

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// 我的
@Test
    public void testGetCookies1() throws IOException {
        String result;
        // 获取文件 拼接
        String uri = bundle.getString("getCookies.uri");
        String getTestUrl = this.url + uri;

        try {

            BasicCookieStore cookieStore = new BasicCookieStore();

            // 获取 响应
            HttpGet get = new HttpGet(getTestUrl);
            CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClients.custom().setDefaultCookieStore(cookieStore).build();
//            CloseableHttpClient build = HttpClientBuilder.create().build();
//            CloseableHttpResponse execute = build.execute(get);
            CloseableHttpResponse execute = httpClient.execute(get);
            result = EntityUtils.toString(execute.getEntity(), "utf-8");
            System.out.println(result);

            // 获取cookies信息
            List<Cookie> cookies = cookieStore.getCookies();
            for (Cookie cookie : cookies) {
                String name = cookie.getName();
                String value = cookie.getValue();
                System.out.println("cookies: key= "+ name + "  value= " + value);
            }

        } catch (IOException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (ParseException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }


    }
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