GRE作文(上)Argument写作步骤&模版(按direction划分)

 

1.理解direction以及为什么要按照direction进行划分

2.开头段怎么写

​Directions开头第一句开头第二句
Assumption

In this argument, the author concludes/claims/recommends that+作者结论.

To substantiate his/her conclusion/claim, the author provides several pieces of evidence/reasons. 

However, the reasoning of this argument is unconvincing due to several unsubstantiated assumptions which, if proven unwarranted, will

seriously challenge the author's recommendation.

Evidence

同上However, close scrutiny reveals that the conclusion lacks critical support and therefore we need more evidence to help evaluate the argument.
Question同上

However, there are a number of questions regarding his/her lines of reasoning that requires further analysis. The argument could end up being pretty convincing or

invalid in the end, depending on the answers to those questions.

Explanation同上While this might be the case we cannot easily ignore other explanations which could rival the proposed one endorsed by the vice president.

<常用替换词>

不可靠:vague\oversimplified\unwarranted\questionable\problematic\groundless

可靠:convincing/solid/reliable/substantial

 

3.正文段怎么写:

Directions正文段第一句(找出逻辑错误)正文段第二句(例证&假设法)正文段第三句(段内小结)
Assumption

First of all, the major questionable assumption in the argument is … \Secondly, another problematic postulation is …

\Additionally, the author groundlessly presumes/assumes too hastily \without hesitation that ...\让步:Granted that…..

For example/for instance,…...

if it turns out that/it is perfectly possible that /it might well happen that /perhaps that /suppose /chances are that ….... then/ in this case /chances are that /under such circumstances/scenario,…….

Without ruling out these possibilities, the author cannot convince us that the conclusion is cogent./ Either of the scenarios, if true, would render the author’s condition unfounded./ Without taking into consideration such possibilities, the author fails to substantiate his/her claim that ….

Evidence

 To convince us, firstly, the author has to provide the evidence that…./Secondly, without offering the evidence that…., the author fails to convince us that the argument is complete and substantiated./Furthermore, another piece of evidence that is needed to strengthen the argument is that…..同上同上
QuestionFirstly, we are not informed whether …/Without answering the question whether…./Another question that is needed to be answered is that …./Another question that is needed to be addressed before implementing the recommendation is ...同上

同上

ExplanationFirst of all, it is possible that…is the reason of the fact that…\Secondly, the fact … might be attributed to\Lastly, it is possible that… is responsible for the fact that ….同上

These possibilities further weaken the argument that …/ The author’s proposed explanation is critically weakened by this possibility./ Without ruling out such possibilities, the author’s proposed explanation is by no means convincing.

/Since the article fails to account for this alternative expiation for B, the author cannot make any sound conclusion that ….

逻辑错误大全:

 

4.结尾段怎么写:

Directions结尾
Assumption

To sum up, while the author's suggestion appears appealing, the questionable assumptions discussed above may deprive it of its feasibility.

Evidence

To sum up, the author fails to substantiate his claims… because the evidence cited in the analysis does not lend credible support to what the author maintains. To convince us, he needs to provide more convincing/solid/reliable/substantial evidence.
Question

To sum up, only after the questions above are adequately addressed can we effectively evaluate the author's argument and reach a logically sound conclusion.

ExplanationIn conclusion, XXX is such a case that requires more considerations of alternative explanations that could account for the facts presented in the argument. 

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