# 问题

Position Find( List L, ElementType X );
List Insert( List L, ElementType X, Position P );
List Delete( List L, Position P );

typedef struct LNode *PtrToLNode;
struct LNode {
ElementType Data;
PtrToLNode Next;
};
typedef PtrToLNode Position;
typedef PtrToLNode List;

Position Find( List L, ElementType X )：返回线性表中首次出现X的位置。若找不到则返回ERROR；

List Insert( List L, ElementType X, Position P )：将X插入在位置P指向的结点之前，返回链表的表头。如果参数P指向非法位置，则打印“Wrong Position for Insertion”，返回ERROR；

List Delete( List L, Position P )：将位置P的元素删除并返回链表的表头。若参数P指向非法位置，则打印“Wrong Position for Deletion”并返回ERROR。

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#define ERROR NULL
typedef int ElementType;
typedef struct LNode *PtrToLNode;
struct LNode {
ElementType Data;
PtrToLNode Next;
};
typedef PtrToLNode Position;
typedef PtrToLNode List;

Position Find( List L, ElementType X );
List Insert( List L, ElementType X, Position P );
List Delete( List L, Position P );

int main()
{
List L;
ElementType X;
Position P, tmp;
int N;

L = NULL;
scanf("%d", &N);
while ( N-- ) {
scanf("%d", &X);
L = Insert(L, X, L);
if ( L==ERROR ) printf("Wrong Answer\n");
}
scanf("%d", &N);
while ( N-- ) {
scanf("%d", &X);
P = Find(L, X);
if ( P == ERROR )
printf("Finding Error: %d is not in.\n", X);
else {
L = Delete(L, P);
printf("%d is found and deleted.\n", X);
if ( L==ERROR )
printf("Wrong Answer or Empty List.\n");
}
}
L = Insert(L, X, NULL);
if ( L==ERROR ) printf("Wrong Answer\n");
else
printf("%d is inserted as the last element.\n", X);
P = (Position)malloc(sizeof(struct LNode));
tmp = Insert(L, X, P);
if ( tmp!=ERROR ) printf("Wrong Answer\n");
tmp = Delete(L, P);
if ( tmp!=ERROR ) printf("Wrong Answer\n");
for ( P=L; P; P = P->Next ) printf("%d ", P->Data);
return 0;


}

/* 你的代码将被嵌在这里 */

6
12 2 4 87 10 2
4
2 12 87 5

2 is found and deleted.
12 is found and deleted.
87 is found and deleted.
Finding Error: 5 is not in.
5 is inserted as the last element.
Wrong Position for Insertion
Wrong Position for Deletion
10 4 2 5

# 解决方法

## 查找

Position Find(List L, ElementType X)
{
Position pre = L;
while (pre&&pre->Data != X)
{
pre = pre->Next;
}
if (pre) return pre;
else return ERROR;
}


## 插入

List Insert(List L, ElementType X, Position P)
{
Position pre = L,tmp;
tmp = (List)malloc(sizeof(struct LNode));
tmp->Data = X;
tmp->Next = NULL;
if (pre == P)
{
tmp->Next = L;
L = tmp;
return L;
}
while (pre->Next!=NULL&&pre->Next!=P)
{
pre = pre->Next;
}

if (pre->Next==P)
{
tmp->Next = pre->Next;
pre->Next = tmp;
return L;
}
else
{
printf("Wrong Position for Insertion\n");
return ERROR;
}
}


1.创建临时节点tmp,Next一定要置空，不然出现一连串的野指针，乱指。
2.第一种特殊情况：直接在链表头进行插入，需要进行判断。

if (pre == P)
{
tmp->Next = L;
L = tmp;
return L;
}


3.常规情况，进行遍历。判断pre->Next是否为空和data是否相等，这样做的好处是将pre停留在所要插入的节点的前一个，这样便于操作。跳出循环的条件第一个是插入的位置不存在，和找到插入的位置。

## 删除

List Delete(List L, Position P)
{
Position pre = L, tmp;
tmp = (List)malloc(sizeof(struct LNode));
tmp->Next = NULL;
if (P == L)
{
pre = pre->Next;
return pre;
}
else
{
while (pre->Next!=NULL&&pre->Next != P)
{
pre = pre->Next;
}
if (pre->Next==P)
{
tmp = pre->Next;
pre->Next = tmp->Next;
return L;
}
else
{
printf("Wrong Position for Deletion\n");
return ERROR;
}
}
}


1.同样对于在链表头删除时，需要判断。如果不进行特殊处理，12会删不掉，直接影响后面的结果。其余就是常规操作

# 后记

1.最开始比较节点，我竟然采用的是pre！=P，这样是非常不正确的。链表链的是地址，应该采用pre->Next！=P。
2.printf("Wrong Position for Deletion\n");错误输出一定要换行，不然会影响格式。
3.对头结点进行特殊处理。

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