SpringBoot05:自动配置原理

自动配置原理

配置文件到底能写什么?怎么写?----联系---- spring.factories

SpringBoot官方文档中有大量的配置,我们无法全部记住,官网:https://docs.spring.io/spring-boot/docs/2.3.1.RELEASE/reference/html/appendix-application-properties.html#core-properties

在这里插入图片描述

分析自动配置原理

  1. SpringBoot启动的时候加载主配置类,开启了自动配置功能 @EnableAutoConfiguration

  2. @EnableAutoConfiguration 作用

    • 利用EnableAutoConfigurationImportSelector给容器中导入一些组件

    • 可以查看selectImports()方法的内容,他返回了一个autoConfigurationEnty,来自this.getAutoConfigurationEntry(autoConfigurationMetadata,annotationMetadata);这个方法我们继续来跟踪:

    • 这个方法有一个值:List<String> configurations = getCandidateConfigurations(annotationMetadata, attributes);叫做获取候选的配置 ,我们点击继续跟踪

      • SpringFactoriesLoader.loadFactoryNames()
      • 扫描所有jar包类路径下META-INF/spring.factories
      • 把扫描到的这些文件的内容包装成properties对象
      • 从properties中获取到EnableAutoConfiguration.class类(类名)对应的值,然后把他们添加在容器中
    • 在类路径下,META-INF/spring.factories里面配置的所有EnableAutoConfiguration的值加入到容器中:

      # Initializers
      org.springframework.context.ApplicationContextInitializer=\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SharedMetadataReaderFactoryContextInitializer,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.logging.ConditionEvaluationReportLoggingListener
      
      # Application Listeners
      org.springframework.context.ApplicationListener=\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.BackgroundPreinitializer
      
      # Auto Configuration Import Listeners
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.AutoConfigurationImportListener=\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.condition.ConditionEvaluationReportAutoConfigurationImportListener
      
      # Auto Configuration Import Filters
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.AutoConfigurationImportFilter=\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.condition.OnBeanCondition,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.condition.OnClassCondition,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.condition.OnWebApplicationCondition
      
      # Auto Configure
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.EnableAutoConfiguration=\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.admin.SpringApplicationAdminJmxAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.aop.AopAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.amqp.RabbitAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.batch.BatchAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.cache.CacheAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.cassandra.CassandraAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.ConfigurationPropertiesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.LifecycleAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.MessageSourceAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.PropertyPlaceholderAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.couchbase.CouchbaseAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.dao.PersistenceExceptionTranslationAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraDataAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraReactiveDataAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraReactiveRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseDataAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseReactiveDataAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseReactiveRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchDataAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ReactiveElasticsearchRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ReactiveElasticsearchRestClientAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.jdbc.JdbcRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.jpa.JpaRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.ldap.LdapRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoDataAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoReactiveDataAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoReactiveRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.neo4j.Neo4jDataAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.neo4j.Neo4jRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.solr.SolrRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.r2dbc.R2dbcDataAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.r2dbc.R2dbcRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.r2dbc.R2dbcTransactionManagerAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.redis.RedisAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.redis.RedisReactiveAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.redis.RedisRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.rest.RepositoryRestMvcAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.web.SpringDataWebAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchRestClientAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.flyway.FlywayAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.freemarker.FreeMarkerAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.groovy.template.GroovyTemplateAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.gson.GsonAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.h2.H2ConsoleAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.hateoas.HypermediaAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.hazelcast.HazelcastAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.hazelcast.HazelcastJpaDependencyAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.http.HttpMessageConvertersAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.http.codec.CodecsAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.influx.InfluxDbAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.info.ProjectInfoAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.integration.IntegrationAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jackson.JacksonAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.DataSourceAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.JdbcTemplateAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.JndiDataSourceAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.XADataSourceAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.DataSourceTransactionManagerAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.JmsAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jmx.JmxAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.JndiConnectionFactoryAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.activemq.ActiveMQAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.artemis.ArtemisAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jersey.JerseyAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jooq.JooqAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jsonb.JsonbAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.kafka.KafkaAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.availability.ApplicationAvailabilityAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.ldap.embedded.EmbeddedLdapAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.ldap.LdapAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.liquibase.LiquibaseAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mail.MailSenderAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mail.MailSenderValidatorAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mongo.embedded.EmbeddedMongoAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mongo.MongoAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mongo.MongoReactiveAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mustache.MustacheAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.orm.jpa.HibernateJpaAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.quartz.QuartzAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.r2dbc.R2dbcAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.rsocket.RSocketMessagingAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.rsocket.RSocketRequesterAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.rsocket.RSocketServerAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.rsocket.RSocketStrategiesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.servlet.SecurityAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.servlet.UserDetailsServiceAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.servlet.SecurityFilterAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.reactive.ReactiveSecurityAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.reactive.ReactiveUserDetailsServiceAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.rsocket.RSocketSecurityAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.saml2.Saml2RelyingPartyAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.sendgrid.SendGridAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.session.SessionAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.client.servlet.OAuth2ClientAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.client.reactive.ReactiveOAuth2ClientAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.resource.servlet.OAuth2ResourceServerAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.resource.reactive.ReactiveOAuth2ResourceServerAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.solr.SolrAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.task.TaskExecutionAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.task.TaskSchedulingAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.thymeleaf.ThymeleafAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.transaction.TransactionAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.transaction.jta.JtaAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.validation.ValidationAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.client.RestTemplateAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.embedded.EmbeddedWebServerFactoryCustomizerAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.HttpHandlerAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.ReactiveWebServerFactoryAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.WebFluxAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.error.ErrorWebFluxAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.function.client.ClientHttpConnectorAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.function.client.WebClientAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.DispatcherServletAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.ServletWebServerFactoryAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.error.ErrorMvcAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.HttpEncodingAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.MultipartAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.WebMvcAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.websocket.reactive.WebSocketReactiveAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.websocket.servlet.WebSocketServletAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.websocket.servlet.WebSocketMessagingAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.webservices.WebServicesAutoConfiguration,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.webservices.client.WebServiceTemplateAutoConfiguration
      
      # Failure analyzers
      org.springframework.boot.diagnostics.FailureAnalyzer=\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.diagnostics.analyzer.NoSuchBeanDefinitionFailureAnalyzer,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.flyway.FlywayMigrationScriptMissingFailureAnalyzer,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.DataSourceBeanCreationFailureAnalyzer,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.HikariDriverConfigurationFailureAnalyzer,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.r2dbc.ConnectionFactoryBeanCreationFailureAnalyzer,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.session.NonUniqueSessionRepositoryFailureAnalyzer
      
      # Template availability providers
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.template.TemplateAvailabilityProvider=\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.freemarker.FreeMarkerTemplateAvailabilityProvider,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mustache.MustacheTemplateAvailabilityProvider,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.groovy.template.GroovyTemplateAvailabilityProvider,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.thymeleaf.ThymeleafTemplateAvailabilityProvider,\
      org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.JspTemplateAvailabilityProvider
      
      

      每一个这样的 xxxAutoConfiguration类都是容器中的一个组件,都加入到容器中;用他们来做自动配置;

  3. 每一个自动配置类进行自动配置功能;

  4. 我们以**HttpEncodingAutoConfiguration(Http编码自动配置)**为例解释自动配置原理;

    //表示这是一个配置类,和以前编写的配置文件一样,也可以给容器中添加组件;
    @Configuration 
    
    //启动指定类的ConfigurationProperties功能;
      //进入这个HttpProperties查看,将配置文件中对应的值和HttpProperties绑定起来;
      //并把HttpProperties加入到ioc容器中
    @EnableConfigurationProperties({HttpProperties.class}) 
    
    //Spring底层@Conditional注解
      //根据不同的条件判断,如果满足指定的条件,整个配置类里面的配置就会生效;
      //这里的意思就是判断当前应用是否是web应用,如果是,当前配置类生效
    @ConditionalOnWebApplication(
        type = Type.SERVLET
    )
    
    //判断当前项目有没有这个类CharacterEncodingFilter;SpringMVC中进行乱码解决的过滤器;
    @ConditionalOnClass({CharacterEncodingFilter.class})
    
    //判断配置文件中是否存在某个配置:spring.http.encoding.enabled;
      //如果不存在,判断也是成立的
      //即使我们配置文件中不配置pring.http.encoding.enabled=true,也是默认生效的;
    @ConditionalOnProperty(
        prefix = "spring.http.encoding",
        value = {"enabled"},
        matchIfMissing = true
    )
    
    public class HttpEncodingAutoConfiguration {
        //他已经和SpringBoot的配置文件映射了
        private final Encoding properties;
        //只有一个有参构造器的情况下,参数的值就会从容器中拿
        public HttpEncodingAutoConfiguration(HttpProperties properties) {
            this.properties = properties.getEncoding();
        }
    
        //给容器中添加一个组件,这个组件的某些值需要从properties中获取
        @Bean
        @ConditionalOnMissingBean //判断容器没有这个组件?
        public CharacterEncodingFilter characterEncodingFilter() {
            CharacterEncodingFilter filter = new OrderedCharacterEncodingFilter();
            filter.setEncoding(this.properties.getCharset().name());
            filter.setForceRequestEncoding(this.properties.shouldForce(org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.http.HttpProperties.Encoding.Type.REQUEST));
            filter.setForceResponseEncoding(this.properties.shouldForce(org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.http.HttpProperties.Encoding.Type.RESPONSE));
            return filter;
        }
        //。。。。。。。
    }
    

一句话总结 :根据当前不同的条件判断,决定这个配置类是否生效!

  • 一但这个配置类生效;这个配置类就会给容器中添加各种组件;

  • 这些组件的属性是从对应的properties类中获取的,这些类里面的每一个属性又是和配置文件绑定的;

  • 所有在配置文件中能配置的属性都是在xxxxProperties类中封装着;

  • 配置文件能配置什么就可以参照某个功能对应的这个属性类

    //从配置文件中获取指定的值和bean的属性进行绑定
    @ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "spring.http") 
    public class HttpProperties {
        // .....
    }
    

我们去配置文件里面试试前缀,看提示!

在这里插入图片描述

这就是自动装配的原理!

精髓

  1. SpringBoot启动会加载大量的自动配置类

  2. 我们看我们需要的功能有没有在SpringBoot默认写好的自动配置类当中;

  3. 我们再来看这个自动配置类中到底配置了哪些组件;(只要我们要用的组件存在在其中,我们就不需要再手动配置了)

  4. 给容器中自动配置类添加组件的时候,会从properties类中获取某些属性。我们只需要在配置文件中指定这些属性的值即可;

    **xxxxAutoConfigurartion:自动配置类;**给容器中添加组件

    xxxxProperties:封装配置文件中相关属性;

@Conditional

了解完自动装配的原理后,我们来关注一个细节问题,自动配置类必须在一定的条件下才能生效;

@Conditional派生注解(Spring注解版原生的@Conditional作用

作用:必须是@Conditional指定的条件成立,才给容器中添加组件,配置配里面的所有内容才生效;

@Conditional扩展注解作用(判断是否满足当前指定条件)
@ConditionalOnJava系统的java版本是否符合要求
@ConditionalOnJava容器中存在指定Bean ;
@ConditionalOnMissingBean容器中不存在指定Bean ;
@ConditionalOnExpression满足SpEL表达式指定
@ConditionalOnClass系统中有指定的类
@ConditionalOnMissingClass系统中没有指定的类
@ConditionalOnSingleCandidate容器中只有一个指定的Bean ,或者这个Bean是首选Bean
@ConditionalOnProperty系统中指定的属性是否有指定的值
@ConditionalOnResource类路径下是否存在指定资源文件
@ConditionalOnWebApplication当前是web环境
@ConditionalOnNotWebApplication当前不是web环境
@ConditionalOnJndiJNDI存在指定项

那么多的自动配置类,必须在一定的条件下才能生效;也就是说,我们加载了这么多的配置类,但不是所有的都生效了。

自动配置类是否生效

我们可以在application.properties通过启用 debug=true属性;

在控制台打印自动配置报告,这样我们就可以很方便的知道哪些自动配置类生效;

#开启springboot的调试类
debug=true 
  • Positive matches:(自动配置类启用的:正匹配)

  • Negative matches:(没有启动,没有匹配成功的自动配置类:负匹配)

  • Unconditional classes: (没有条件的类)

件下才能生效;也就是说,我们加载了这么多的配置类,但不是所有的都生效了。**

自动配置类是否生效

我们可以在application.properties通过启用 debug=true属性;

在控制台打印自动配置报告,这样我们就可以很方便的知道哪些自动配置类生效;

#开启springboot的调试类
debug=true 
  • Positive matches:(自动配置类启用的:正匹配)

  • Negative matches:(没有启动,没有匹配成功的自动配置类:负匹配)

  • Unconditional classes: (没有条件的类)

  • 【演示:查看输出的日志】

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