LeetCode刷题笔记(16)-BacktrackingⅣ

LeetCode刷题笔记(16)-BacktrackingⅣ

背景

今天结束了回溯,也结束了搜索这一板块,下一步就是动态规划啦。

39、组合求和

given candidate set [2, 3, 6, 7] and target 7,
A solution set is:
[[7],[2, 2, 3]]

public List<List<Integer>> combinationSum(int[] candidates, int target) {
    List<List<Integer>> combinations = new ArrayList<>();
    backtracking(new ArrayList<>(), combinations, 0, target, candidates);
    return combinations;
}

private void backtracking(List<Integer> tempCombination, List<List<Integer>> combinations,
                          int start, int target, final int[] candidates) {

    if (target == 0) {
        combinations.add(new ArrayList<>(tempCombination));
        return;
    }
    for (int i = start; i < candidates.length; i++) {
        if (candidates[i] <= target) {
            tempCombination.add(candidates[i]);
            backtracking(tempCombination, combinations, i, target - candidates[i], candidates);
            tempCombination.remove(tempCombination.size() - 1);
        }
    }
}
总结:这道题属于比较经典的回溯问题,基本上就是这样的流程

40、含有相同元素的组合求和

For example, given candidate set [10, 1, 2, 7, 6, 1, 5] and target 8,
A solution set is:
[
[1, 7],
[1, 2, 5],
[2, 6],
[1, 1, 6]
]

public List<List<Integer>> combinationSum2(int[] candidates, int target) {
    List<List<Integer>> combinations = new ArrayList<>();
    Arrays.sort(candidates);
    backtracking(new ArrayList<>(), combinations, new boolean[candidates.length], 0, target, candidates);
    return combinations;
}

private void backtracking(List<Integer> tempCombination, List<List<Integer>> combinations,
                          boolean[] hasVisited, int start, int target, final int[] candidates) {

    if (target == 0) {
        combinations.add(new ArrayList<>(tempCombination));
        return;
    }
    for (int i = start; i < candidates.length; i++) {
        if (i != 0 && candidates[i] == candidates[i - 1] && !hasVisited[i - 1]) {
            continue;
        }
        if (candidates[i] <= target) {
            tempCombination.add(candidates[i]);
            hasVisited[i] = true;
            backtracking(tempCombination, combinations, hasVisited, i + 1, target - candidates[i], candidates);
            hasVisited[i] = false;
            tempCombination.remove(tempCombination.size() - 1);
        }
    }
}
总结:这种类型的题目要比上一题复杂的多,主要在于一个重复元素的问题,
需要多设置一个hasvisited数组判断是否被访问过,
访问条件是:if (i != 0 && candidates[i] == candidates[i - 1] && !hasVisited[i - 1]) {
            continue;

216、1-9 数字的组合求和

Input: k = 3, n = 9

Output:

[[1,2,6], [1,3,5], [2,3,4]]

public List<List<Integer>> combinationSum3(int k, int n) {
    List<List<Integer>> combinations = new ArrayList<>();
    List<Integer> path = new ArrayList<>();
    backtracking(k, n, 1, path, combinations);
    return combinations;
}

private void backtracking(int k, int n, int start,
                          List<Integer> tempCombination, List<List<Integer>> combinations) {

    if (k == 0 && n == 0) {
        combinations.add(new ArrayList<>(tempCombination));
        return;
    }
    if (k == 0 || n == 0) {
        return;
    }
    for (int i = start; i <= 9; i++) {
        tempCombination.add(i);
        backtracking(k - 1, n - i, i + 1, tempCombination, combinations);
        tempCombination.remove(tempCombination.size() - 1);
    }
}
总结:这个题目的特点在于他的输入没有数组,而是简单的两个数字,
此时就需要在backstracking中判断输入的数字k和n之间的关系。

718、子集

找出集合的所有子集,子集不能重复,[1, 2] 和 [2, 1] 这种子集算重复

public List<List<Integer>> subsets(int[] nums) {
    List<List<Integer>> subsets = new ArrayList<>();
    List<Integer> tempSubset = new ArrayList<>();
    for (int size = 0; size <= nums.length; size++) {
        backtracking(0, tempSubset, subsets, size, nums); // 不同的子集大小
    }
    return subsets;
}

private void backtracking(int start, List<Integer> tempSubset, List<List<Integer>> subsets,
                          final int size, final int[] nums) {

    if (tempSubset.size() == size) {
        subsets.add(new ArrayList<>(tempSubset));
        return;
    }
    for (int i = start; i < nums.length; i++) {
        tempSubset.add(nums[i]);
        backtracking(i + 1, tempSubset, subsets, size, nums);
        tempSubset.remove(tempSubset.size() - 1);
    }
}
总结:在处理子集的问题的时候,需要通过 for (int size = 0; size <= nums.length; size++) {
来解决不同长度的子集。

90、含有相同元素求子集

For example,
If nums = [1,2,2], a solution is:

[
[2],
[1],
[1,2,2],
[2,2],
[1,2],
[]
]

public List<List<Integer>> subsetsWithDup(int[] nums) {
    Arrays.sort(nums);
    List<List<Integer>> subsets = new ArrayList<>();
    List<Integer> tempSubset = new ArrayList<>();
    boolean[] hasVisited = new boolean[nums.length];
    for (int size = 0; size <= nums.length; size++) {
        backtracking(0, tempSubset, subsets, hasVisited, size, nums); // 不同的子集大小
    }
    return subsets;
}

private void backtracking(int start, List<Integer> tempSubset, List<List<Integer>> subsets, boolean[] hasVisited,
                          final int size, final int[] nums) {

    if (tempSubset.size() == size) {
        subsets.add(new ArrayList<>(tempSubset));
        return;
    }
    for (int i = start; i < nums.length; i++) {
        if (i != 0 && nums[i] == nums[i - 1] && !hasVisited[i - 1]) {
            continue;
        }
        tempSubset.add(nums[i]);
        hasVisited[i] = true;
        backtracking(i + 1, tempSubset, subsets, hasVisited, size, nums);
        hasVisited[i] = false;
        tempSubset.remove(tempSubset.size() - 1);
    }
}
与上一题的区别就在于输入数组含有相同元素,
那么就需要多一个判断条件。

131、 分割字符串使得每个部分都是回文数

For example, given s = “aab”,
Return

[
[“aa”,“b”],
[“a”,“a”,“b”]
]

public List<List<String>> partition(String s) {
    List<List<String>> partitions = new ArrayList<>();
    List<String> tempPartition = new ArrayList<>();
    doPartition(s, partitions, tempPartition);
    return partitions;
}

private void doPartition(String s, List<List<String>> partitions, List<String> tempPartition) {
    if (s.length() == 0) {
        partitions.add(new ArrayList<>(tempPartition));
        return;
    }
    for (int i = 0; i < s.length(); i++) {
        if (isPalindrome(s, 0, i)) {
            tempPartition.add(s.substring(0, i + 1));
            doPartition(s.substring(i + 1), partitions, tempPartition);
            tempPartition.remove(tempPartition.size() - 1);
        }
    }
}

private boolean isPalindrome(String s, int begin, int end) {
    while (begin < end) {
        if (s.charAt(begin++) != s.charAt(end--)) {
            return false;
        }
    }
    return true;
}
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