ThreadLocal 使用和源码分析

版权声明: https://blog.csdn.net/wuzhiwei549/article/details/79898361

前言

ThreadLocal 线程本地变量/线程本地存储

用来提供线程内部的局部变量(ThreadLocal.ThreadLocalMap类对象),将一个共用的ThreadLocal静态实例作为key,通过get或set方法访问时能保证各个线程里的变量相对独立于其他线程内的变量;

在线程执行的各处通过这个静态ThreadLocal实例,用于关联线程和线程的上下文,避免了将这个对象作为参数传递的麻烦。

基本操作

public class ThreadLocal<T> {
    /**
     * ThreadLocals rely on per-thread linear-probe hash maps attached
     * to each thread (Thread.threadLocals and
     * inheritableThreadLocals).  The ThreadLocal objects act as keys,
     * searched via threadLocalHashCode.  This is a custom hash code
     * (useful only within ThreadLocalMaps) that eliminates collisions
     * in the common case where consecutively constructed ThreadLocals
     * are used by the same threads, while remaining well-behaved in
     * less common cases.
     */
    private final int threadLocalHashCode = nextHashCode();

    /**
     * The next hash code to be given out. Updated atomically. Starts at
     * zero.
     */
    private static AtomicInteger nextHashCode =
        new AtomicInteger();

    /**
     * The difference between successively generated hash codes - turns
     * implicit sequential thread-local IDs into near-optimally spread
     * multiplicative hash values for power-of-two-sized tables.
     */
    private static final int HASH_INCREMENT = 0x61c88647;
	
	.....
	static class ThreadLocalMap {

		/**
		 * The entries in this hash map extend WeakReference, using
		 * its main ref field as the key (which is always a
		 * ThreadLocal object).  Note that null keys (i.e. entry.get()
		 * == null) mean that the key is no longer referenced, so the
		 * entry can be expunged from table.  Such entries are referred to
		 * as "stale entries" in the code that follows.
		 */
		static class Entry extends WeakReference<ThreadLocal<?>> {
		....
	}
}
ThreadLocal三个变量
threadLocalHashCode  final属性,用来区分不同的ThreadLocal实例
nextHashCode         递增计数器,AtomicInteger保证了nextHashCode自增的原子性

HASH_INCREMENT       两个ThreadLocal实例的threadLocalHashCode值之间的增量

//返回下一个HashCode
private static int nextHashCode() {
	return nextHashCode.getAndAdd(HASH_INCREMENT);
}

ThreadLocal的get 方法,获取当前线程中的ThreadLocalMap,value不为空返回

public T get() {
	Thread t = Thread.currentThread();
	ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t);
	if (map != null) {
		ThreadLocalMap.Entry e = map.getEntry(this); //ThreadLocal为key
		if (e != null) {
			@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
			T result = (T)e.value;
			return result;
		}
	}
	return setInitialValue();
}
ThreadLocal为key的原因是一个thread中可能有多个ThreadLocal,所以不能以thread的id为key
ThreadLocalMap getMap(Thread t) {
	return t.threadLocals;
}

public class Thread implements Runnable {
	....
	ThreadLocal.ThreadLocalMap threadLocals = null; //即ThreadLocal的类对象ThreadLocalMap
}	 
value为空调用setInitialValue,判断ThreadLocalMap是否为空,为空则创建
/**
 * Variant of set() to establish initialValue. Used instead
 * of set() in case user has overridden the set() method.
 *
 * @return the initial value
 */
private T setInitialValue() {
	T value = initialValue();
	Thread t = Thread.currentThread();
	ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t);
	if (map != null)
		map.set(this, value);
	else
		createMap(t, value);
	return value;
}
initialValue函数用来设置ThreadLocal的初始值,可以重写
protected T initialValue() {
	return null;
}
ThreadLocalMap 为空时,实例
/**
 * Create the map associated with a ThreadLocal. Overridden in
 * InheritableThreadLocal.
 *
 * @param t the current thread
 * @param firstValue value for the initial entry of the map
 */
void createMap(Thread t, T firstValue) {
	t.threadLocals = new ThreadLocalMap(this, firstValue);
}
set
 /**
     * Sets the current thread's copy of this thread-local variable
     * to the specified value.  Most subclasses will have no need to
     * override this method, relying solely on the {@link #initialValue}
     * method to set the values of thread-locals.
     *
     * @param value the value to be stored in the current thread's copy of
     *        this thread-local.
     */
    public void set(T value) {
        Thread t = Thread.currentThread();
        ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t);
        if (map != null)
            map.set(this, value);
        else
            createMap(t, value);
    }

remove

 /**
     * Removes the current thread's value for this thread-local
     * variable.  If this thread-local variable is subsequently
     * {@linkplain #get read} by the current thread, its value will be
     * reinitialized by invoking its {@link #initialValue} method,
     * unless its value is {@linkplain #set set} by the current thread
     * in the interim.  This may result in multiple invocations of the
     * {@code initialValue} method in the current thread.
     *
     * @since 1.5
     */
     public void remove() {
         ThreadLocalMap m = getMap(Thread.currentThread());
         if (m != null)
             m.remove(this);
     }

内存泄露问题

threadlocal里面使用了一个存在弱引用的map,当释放掉threadlocal的强引用以后,map里面的value却没有被回收.而这块value永远不会被访问到了. 所以存在着内存泄露. 最好的做法是将调用threadlocal的remove方法.


每个thread中都存在一个map, map的类型是ThreadLocal.ThreadLocalMap. Map中的key为一个threadlocal实例. 这个Map的确使用了弱引用,不过弱引用只是针对key. 每个key都弱引用指向threadlocal. 当把threadlocal实例置为null以后,没有任何强引用指向threadlocal实例,所以threadlocal将会被gc回收. 但是,我们的value却不能回收,因为存在一条从current thread连接过来的强引用. 只有当前thread结束以后, current thread就不会存在栈中,强引用断开, Current Thread, Map, value将全部被GC回收.

ThreadLocal Ref -> Thread -> ThreaLocalMap -> Entry -> value

此处参考:https://link.zhihu.com/?target=http%3A//qifuguang.me/2015/09/02/
其实,在JDK的ThreadLocalMap的设计中已经考虑到这种情况,也加上了一些防护措施,下面是ThreadLocalMap的getEntry方法的源码

private Entry getEntry(ThreadLocal<?> key) {
	int i = key.threadLocalHashCode & (table.length - 1);
	Entry e = table[i];
	if (e != null && e.get() == key)
		return e;
	else
		return getEntryAfterMiss(key, i, e);
}
private Entry getEntryAfterMiss(ThreadLocal<?> key, int i, Entry e) {
	Entry[] tab = table;
	int len = tab.length;

	while (e != null) {
		ThreadLocal<?> k = e.get();
		if (k == key)
			return e;
		if (k == null)
			expungeStaleEntry(i);
		else
			i = nextIndex(i, len);
		e = tab[i];
	}
	return null;
}
private int expungeStaleEntry(int staleSlot) {
	Entry[] tab = table;
	int len = tab.length;

	// expunge entry at staleSlot
	tab[staleSlot].value = null;
	tab[staleSlot] = null;
	size--;

	// Rehash until we encounter null
	Entry e;
	int i;
	for (i = nextIndex(staleSlot, len);
		 (e = tab[i]) != null;
		 i = nextIndex(i, len)) {
		ThreadLocal<?> k = e.get();
		if (k == null) {
			e.value = null;
			tab[i] = null;
			size--;
		} else {
			int h = k.threadLocalHashCode & (len - 1);
			if (h != i) {
				tab[i] = null;

				// Unlike Knuth 6.4 Algorithm R, we must scan until
				// null because multiple entries could have been stale.
				while (tab[h] != null)
					h = nextIndex(h, len);
				tab[h] = e;
			}
		}
	}
	return i;
}

整理一下ThreadLocalMap的getEntry函数的流程:

  1. 首先从ThreadLocal的直接索引位置(通过ThreadLocal.threadLocalHashCode & (len-1)运算得到)获取Entry e,如果e不为null并且key相同则返回e;
  2. 如果e为null或者key不一致则向下一个位置查询,如果下一个位置的key和当前需要查询的key相等,则返回对应的Entry,否则,如果key值为null,则擦除该位置的Entry,否则继续向下一个位置查询

在这个过程中遇到的key为null的Entry都会被擦除,那么Entry内的value也就没有强引用链,自然会被回收。仔细研究代码可以发现,set操作也有类似的思想,将key为null的这些Entry都删除,防止内存泄露。 但是光这样还是不够的,上面的设计思路依赖一个前提条件:要调用ThreadLocalMap的getEntry函数或者set函数。这当然是不可能任何情况都成立的,所以很多情况下需要使用者手动调用ThreadLocal的remove函数,手动删除不再需要的ThreadLocal,防止内存泄露。所以JDK建议将ThreadLocal变量定义成private static的,这样的话ThreadLocal的生命周期就更长,由于一直存在ThreadLocal的强引用,所以ThreadLocal也就不会被回收,也就能保证任何时候都能根据ThreadLocal的弱引用访问到Entry的value值,然后remove它,防止内存泄露。



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