Roc专栏

技术爱好者

JDK源码阅读之HashMap类

JDK源码阅读之HashMap类

HashMap基于哈希表的 Map 接口的实现。此实现提供所有可选的映射操作,并允许使用 null 值和 null 键。线程不安全。( Hashtable 不允许null值或null键。虽然线程安全,但效率太低。其余和HashMap功能一致)

HashMap的底层主要是基于数组和链表来实现的,它之所以有相当快的查询速度主要是因为它是通过计算散列码来决定存储的位置。HashMap中主要是通过key的hashCode来计算hash值的,只要hashCode相同,计算出来的hash值就一样。如果存储的对象对多了,就有可能不同的对象所算出来的hash值是相同的,这就出现了所谓的hash冲突。学过数据结构的同学都知道,解决hash冲突的方法有很多,HashMap底层是通过链表来解决hash冲突的。
这里写图片描述


package java.util;
import java.io.*;

public class HashMap<K,V>
    extends AbstractMap<K,V>
    implements Map<K,V>, Cloneable, Serializable
{
    //默认初始容量为16
    static final int DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY = 16;
    //最大容量为2的30次方,如果数组大小操作这个值,则为此值,扩容通过链表加长实现
    static final int MAXIMUM_CAPACITY = 1 << 30;
    //默认扩容调整因子(元素当前容量>=总容量*因子时,扩容为2*当前总容量)
    static final float DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR = 0.75f;
    //数组容器
    transient Entry[] table;
    //元素个数
    transient int size;
    //扩容阀值=总容量*因子(元素当前容量>=threshold时,扩容为2*当前总容量)
    int threshold;
    //扩容调整因子(元素当前容量>=总容量*因子时,扩容为2*当前总容量)
    final float loadFactor;
    //操作修改次数
    transient int modCount;

    //构造器1,传入两个参数,依次为容量和扩容因子  
    public HashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
        //容量小于0,抛出异常
        if (initialCapacity < 0)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal initial capacity: " +
                                                       initialCapacity);
        //容量大于最大容量,则数组容量保持不变,通过链表扩容
        if (initialCapacity > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY)
            initialCapacity = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;

        if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal load factor: " +
                                               loadFactor);


        int capacity = 1;
        //当容量小于传入的参数容量时,容量数不停左移,直至容量大于传入的参数容量,这样做容量便以2的幂递增,便于控制
        while (capacity < initialCapacity)
            capacity <<= 1;

        this.loadFactor = loadFactor;
        threshold = (int)(capacity * loadFactor);
        table = new Entry[capacity];
        init();
    }


    public HashMap(int initialCapacity) {
        this(initialCapacity, DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR);
    }


    public HashMap() {
        this.loadFactor = DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR;
        threshold = (int)(DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY * DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR);
        table = new Entry[DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY];
        init();
    }


    public HashMap(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {
        this(Math.max((int) (m.size() / DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR) + 1,
                      DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY), DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR);
        putAllForCreate(m);
    }

    // internal utilities

    //扩展预留
    void init() {
    }

    /**重新调整hashCode值使尽可能散列分布**/ 
    static int hash(int h) {
        // This function ensures that hashCodes that differ only by
        // constant multiples at each bit position have a bounded
        // number of collisions (approximately 8 at default load factor).
        h ^= (h >>> 20) ^ (h >>> 12);
        return h ^ (h >>> 7) ^ (h >>> 4);
    }

    /**
     * 因为容器的总大小是2的指数,所以此操作相当于hash%length,即求余操作,位运算效率高
     */
    static int indexFor(int h, int length) {
        return h & (length-1);
    }

    public int size() {
        return size;
    }


    public boolean isEmpty() {
        return size == 0;
    }


    public V get(Object key) {
        if (key == null)
            return getForNullKey();
        int hash = hash(key.hashCode());
        //直接根据hash值找到对应的数组元素链表,如果不在链表的首位,则遍历当前链表
        for (Entry<K,V> e = table[indexFor(hash, table.length)];
             e != null;
             e = e.next) {
            Object k;
            if (e.hash == hash && ((k = e.key) == key || key.equals(k)))
                return e.value;
        }
        return null;
    }


    private V getForNullKey() {
        for (Entry<K,V> e = table[0]; e != null; e = e.next) {
            if (e.key == null)
                return e.value;
        }
        return null;
    }


    public boolean containsKey(Object key) {
        return getEntry(key) != null;
    }


    final Entry<K,V> getEntry(Object key) {
        int hash = (key == null) ? 0 : hash(key.hashCode());
        for (Entry<K,V> e = table[indexFor(hash, table.length)];
             e != null;
             e = e.next) {
            Object k;
            if (e.hash == hash &&
                ((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
                return e;
        }
        return null;
    }



    public V put(K key, V value) {
        //key为null时的情况插入
        if (key == null)
            return putForNullKey(value);
        /*
         * 插入算法说明(代码直到本函数尾部):
         * 根据hash值直接找对应的数组[i]元素链表,如果该元素链表为空,则直接插入,
         * 否则插入到链表头部,链表旧元素后移,
         * 如果已经有对应的value值,则修改并返回旧值
         */
        int hash = hash(key.hashCode());
        int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);

        for (Entry<K,V> e = table[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
            Object k;
            if (e.hash == hash && ((k = e.key) == key || key.equals(k))) {
                V oldValue = e.value;
                e.value = value;
                e.recordAccess(this);
                return oldValue;
            }
        }

        modCount++;
        addEntry(hash, key, value, i);
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * 如果key为空,则直接找数组[0]元素链表,如果该元素链表为空,则直接插入,
     * 否则插入到链表头部,链表旧元素后移,
     * 如果已经有对应的value值,则修改并返回旧值
     */
    private V putForNullKey(V value) {
        for (Entry<K,V> e = table[0]; e != null; e = e.next) {
            if (e.key == null) {
                V oldValue = e.value;
                e.value = value;
                e.recordAccess(this);
                return oldValue;
            }
        }
        modCount++;
        addEntry(0, null, value, 0);
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * This method is used instead of put by constructors and
     * pseudoconstructors (clone, readObject).  It does not resize the table,
     * check for comodification, etc.  It calls createEntry rather than
     * addEntry.
     */
    private void putForCreate(K key, V value) {
        int hash = (key == null) ? 0 : hash(key.hashCode());
        int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);

        /**
         * Look for preexisting entry for key.  This will never happen for
         * clone or deserialize.  It will only happen for construction if the
         * input Map is a sorted map whose ordering is inconsistent w/ equals.
         */
        for (Entry<K,V> e = table[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
            Object k;
            if (e.hash == hash &&
                ((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k)))) {
                e.value = value;
                return;
            }
        }

        createEntry(hash, key, value, i);
    }

    private void putAllForCreate(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {
        for (Map.Entry<? extends K, ? extends V> e : m.entrySet())
            putForCreate(e.getKey(), e.getValue());
    }

    /**
     * Rehashes the contents of this map into a new array with a
     * larger capacity.  This method is called automatically when the
     * number of keys in this map reaches its threshold.
     *
     * If current capacity is MAXIMUM_CAPACITY, this method does not
     * resize the map, but sets threshold to Integer.MAX_VALUE.
     * This has the effect of preventing future calls.
     *
     * @param newCapacity the new capacity, MUST be a power of two;
     *        must be greater than current capacity unless current
     *        capacity is MAXIMUM_CAPACITY (in which case value
     *        is irrelevant).
     */
    void resize(int newCapacity) {
        Entry[] oldTable = table;
        int oldCapacity = oldTable.length;
        if (oldCapacity == MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) {
            threshold = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
            return;
        }

        Entry[] newTable = new Entry[newCapacity];
        transfer(newTable);
        table = newTable;
        threshold = (int)(newCapacity * loadFactor);
    }

    /**
     * Transfers all entries from current table to newTable.
     */
    void transfer(Entry[] newTable) {
        Entry[] src = table;
        int newCapacity = newTable.length;
        for (int j = 0; j < src.length; j++) {
            Entry<K,V> e = src[j];
            if (e != null) {
                src[j] = null;
                do {
                    Entry<K,V> next = e.next;
                    int i = indexFor(e.hash, newCapacity);
                    e.next = newTable[i];
                    newTable[i] = e;
                    e = next;
                } while (e != null);
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Copies all of the mappings from the specified map to this map.
     * These mappings will replace any mappings that this map had for
     * any of the keys currently in the specified map.
     *
     * @param m mappings to be stored in this map
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified map is null
     */
    public void putAll(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {
        int numKeysToBeAdded = m.size();
        if (numKeysToBeAdded == 0)
            return;

        /*
         * Expand the map if the map if the number of mappings to be added
         * is greater than or equal to threshold.  This is conservative; the
         * obvious condition is (m.size() + size) >= threshold, but this
         * condition could result in a map with twice the appropriate capacity,
         * if the keys to be added overlap with the keys already in this map.
         * By using the conservative calculation, we subject ourself
         * to at most one extra resize.
         */
        if (numKeysToBeAdded > threshold) {
            int targetCapacity = (int)(numKeysToBeAdded / loadFactor + 1);
            if (targetCapacity > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY)
                targetCapacity = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;
            int newCapacity = table.length;
            while (newCapacity < targetCapacity)
                newCapacity <<= 1;
            if (newCapacity > table.length)
                resize(newCapacity);
        }

        for (Map.Entry<? extends K, ? extends V> e : m.entrySet())
            put(e.getKey(), e.getValue());
    }

    /**
     * Removes the mapping for the specified key from this map if present.
     *
     * @param  key key whose mapping is to be removed from the map
     * @return the previous value associated with <tt>key</tt>, or
     *         <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for <tt>key</tt>.
     *         (A <tt>null</tt> return can also indicate that the map
     *         previously associated <tt>null</tt> with <tt>key</tt>.)
     */
    public V remove(Object key) {
        Entry<K,V> e = removeEntryForKey(key);
        return (e == null ? null : e.value);
    }

    /**
     * Removes and returns the entry associated with the specified key
     * in the HashMap.  Returns null if the HashMap contains no mapping
     * for this key.
     */
    final Entry<K,V> removeEntryForKey(Object key) {
        int hash = (key == null) ? 0 : hash(key.hashCode());
        int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
        Entry<K,V> prev = table[i];
        Entry<K,V> e = prev;

        while (e != null) {
            Entry<K,V> next = e.next;
            Object k;
            if (e.hash == hash &&
                ((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k)))) {
                modCount++;
                size--;
                if (prev == e)
                    table[i] = next;
                else
                    prev.next = next;
                e.recordRemoval(this);
                return e;
            }
            prev = e;
            e = next;
        }

        return e;
    }

    /**
     * Special version of remove for EntrySet.
     */
    final Entry<K,V> removeMapping(Object o) {
        if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
            return null;

        Map.Entry<K,V> entry = (Map.Entry<K,V>) o;
        Object key = entry.getKey();
        int hash = (key == null) ? 0 : hash(key.hashCode());
        int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
        Entry<K,V> prev = table[i];
        Entry<K,V> e = prev;

        while (e != null) {
            Entry<K,V> next = e.next;
            if (e.hash == hash && e.equals(entry)) {
                modCount++;
                size--;
                if (prev == e)
                    table[i] = next;
                else
                    prev.next = next;
                e.recordRemoval(this);
                return e;
            }
            prev = e;
            e = next;
        }

        return e;
    }

    /**
     * Removes all of the mappings from this map.
     * The map will be empty after this call returns.
     */
    public void clear() {
        modCount++;
        Entry[] tab = table;
        for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; i++)
            tab[i] = null;
        size = 0;
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this map maps one or more keys to the
     * specified value.
     *
     * @param value value whose presence in this map is to be tested
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this map maps one or more keys to the
     *         specified value
     */
    public boolean containsValue(Object value) {
        if (value == null)
            return containsNullValue();

        Entry[] tab = table;
        for (int i = 0; i < tab.length ; i++)
            for (Entry e = tab[i] ; e != null ; e = e.next)
                if (value.equals(e.value))
                    return true;
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Special-case code for containsValue with null argument
     */
    private boolean containsNullValue() {
        Entry[] tab = table;
        for (int i = 0; i < tab.length ; i++)
            for (Entry e = tab[i] ; e != null ; e = e.next)
                if (e.value == null)
                    return true;
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Returns a shallow copy of this <tt>HashMap</tt> instance: the keys and
     * values themselves are not cloned.
     *
     * @return a shallow copy of this map
     */
    public Object clone() {
        HashMap<K,V> result = null;
        try {
            result = (HashMap<K,V>)super.clone();
        } catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
            // assert false;
        }
        result.table = new Entry[table.length];
        result.entrySet = null;
        result.modCount = 0;
        result.size = 0;
        result.init();
        result.putAllForCreate(this);

        return result;
    }

    /*单向可向后遍历链表元素类*/
    static class Entry<K,V> implements Map.Entry<K,V> {
        final K key;
        V value;
        Entry<K,V> next;
        final int hash;

        /**
         * Creates new entry.
         */
        Entry(int h, K k, V v, Entry<K,V> n) {
            value = v;
            next = n;
            key = k;
            hash = h;
        }

        public final K getKey() {
            return key;
        }

        public final V getValue() {
            return value;
        }

        public final V setValue(V newValue) {
            V oldValue = value;
            value = newValue;
            return oldValue;
        }

        public final boolean equals(Object o) {
            if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
                return false;
            Map.Entry e = (Map.Entry)o;
            Object k1 = getKey();
            Object k2 = e.getKey();
            if (k1 == k2 || (k1 != null && k1.equals(k2))) {
                Object v1 = getValue();
                Object v2 = e.getValue();
                if (v1 == v2 || (v1 != null && v1.equals(v2)))
                    return true;
            }
            return false;
        }

        public final int hashCode() {
            return (key==null   ? 0 : key.hashCode()) ^
                   (value==null ? 0 : value.hashCode());
        }

        public final String toString() {
            return getKey() + "=" + getValue();
        }

        /**
         * This method is invoked whenever the value in an entry is
         * overwritten by an invocation of put(k,v) for a key k that's already
         * in the HashMap.
         */
        void recordAccess(HashMap<K,V> m) {
        }

        /**
         * This method is invoked whenever the entry is
         * removed from the table.
         */
        void recordRemoval(HashMap<K,V> m) {
        }
    }

    /**
     * Adds a new entry with the specified key, value and hash code to
     * the specified bucket.  It is the responsibility of this
     * method to resize the table if appropriate.
     *
     * Subclass overrides this to alter the behavior of put method.
     */
    void addEntry(int hash, K key, V value, int bucketIndex) {
        Entry<K,V> e = table[bucketIndex];
        table[bucketIndex] = new Entry<>(hash, key, value, e);
        if (size++ >= threshold)
            resize(2 * table.length);
    }

    /**
     * Like addEntry except that this version is used when creating entries
     * as part of Map construction or "pseudo-construction" (cloning,
     * deserialization).  This version needn't worry about resizing the table.
     *
     * Subclass overrides this to alter the behavior of HashMap(Map),
     * clone, and readObject.
     */
    void createEntry(int hash, K key, V value, int bucketIndex) {
        Entry<K,V> e = table[bucketIndex];
        table[bucketIndex] = new Entry<>(hash, key, value, e);
        size++;
    }

    private abstract class HashIterator<E> implements Iterator<E> {
        Entry<K,V> next;        // next entry to return
        int expectedModCount;   // For fast-fail
        int index;              // current slot
        Entry<K,V> current;     // current entry

        HashIterator() {
            expectedModCount = modCount;
            if (size > 0) { // advance to first entry
                Entry[] t = table;
                while (index < t.length && (next = t[index++]) == null)
                    ;
            }
        }

        public final boolean hasNext() {
            return next != null;
        }

        final Entry<K,V> nextEntry() {
            if (modCount != expectedModCount)
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
            Entry<K,V> e = next;
            if (e == null)
                throw new NoSuchElementException();

            if ((next = e.next) == null) {
                Entry[] t = table;
                while (index < t.length && (next = t[index++]) == null)
                    ;
            }
            current = e;
            return e;
        }

        public void remove() {
            if (current == null)
                throw new IllegalStateException();
            if (modCount != expectedModCount)
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
            Object k = current.key;
            current = null;
            HashMap.this.removeEntryForKey(k);
            expectedModCount = modCount;
        }

    }

    private final class ValueIterator extends HashIterator<V> {
        public V next() {
            return nextEntry().value;
        }
    }

    private final class KeyIterator extends HashIterator<K> {
        public K next() {
            return nextEntry().getKey();
        }
    }

    private final class EntryIterator extends HashIterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> {
        public Map.Entry<K,V> next() {
            return nextEntry();
        }
    }

    // Subclass overrides these to alter behavior of views' iterator() method
    Iterator<K> newKeyIterator()   {
        return new KeyIterator();
    }
    Iterator<V> newValueIterator()   {
        return new ValueIterator();
    }
    Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> newEntryIterator()   {
        return new EntryIterator();
    }


    // Views

    private transient Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet = null;

    /**
     * Returns a {@link Set} view of the keys contained in this map.
     * The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
     * reflected in the set, and vice-versa.  If the map is modified
     * while an iteration over the set is in progress (except through
     * the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation), the results of
     * the iteration are undefined.  The set supports element removal,
     * which removes the corresponding mapping from the map, via the
     * <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>, <tt>Set.remove</tt>,
     * <tt>removeAll</tt>, <tt>retainAll</tt>, and <tt>clear</tt>
     * operations.  It does not support the <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt>
     * operations.
     */
    public Set<K> keySet() {
        Set<K> ks = keySet;
        return (ks != null ? ks : (keySet = new KeySet()));
    }

    private final class KeySet extends AbstractSet<K> {
        public Iterator<K> iterator() {
            return newKeyIterator();
        }
        public int size() {
            return size;
        }
        public boolean contains(Object o) {
            return containsKey(o);
        }
        public boolean remove(Object o) {
            return HashMap.this.removeEntryForKey(o) != null;
        }
        public void clear() {
            HashMap.this.clear();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns a {@link Collection} view of the values contained in this map.
     * The collection is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
     * reflected in the collection, and vice-versa.  If the map is
     * modified while an iteration over the collection is in progress
     * (except through the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation),
     * the results of the iteration are undefined.  The collection
     * supports element removal, which removes the corresponding
     * mapping from the map, via the <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>,
     * <tt>Collection.remove</tt>, <tt>removeAll</tt>,
     * <tt>retainAll</tt> and <tt>clear</tt> operations.  It does not
     * support the <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt> operations.
     */
    public Collection<V> values() {
        Collection<V> vs = values;
        return (vs != null ? vs : (values = new Values()));
    }

    private final class Values extends AbstractCollection<V> {
        public Iterator<V> iterator() {
            return newValueIterator();
        }
        public int size() {
            return size;
        }
        public boolean contains(Object o) {
            return containsValue(o);
        }
        public void clear() {
            HashMap.this.clear();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns a {@link Set} view of the mappings contained in this map.
     * The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
     * reflected in the set, and vice-versa.  If the map is modified
     * while an iteration over the set is in progress (except through
     * the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation, or through the
     * <tt>setValue</tt> operation on a map entry returned by the
     * iterator) the results of the iteration are undefined.  The set
     * supports element removal, which removes the corresponding
     * mapping from the map, via the <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>,
     * <tt>Set.remove</tt>, <tt>removeAll</tt>, <tt>retainAll</tt> and
     * <tt>clear</tt> operations.  It does not support the
     * <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt> operations.
     *
     * @return a set view of the mappings contained in this map
     */
    public Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet() {
        return entrySet0();
    }

    private Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet0() {
        Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> es = entrySet;
        return es != null ? es : (entrySet = new EntrySet());
    }

    private final class EntrySet extends AbstractSet<Map.Entry<K,V>> {
        public Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> iterator() {
            return newEntryIterator();
        }
        public boolean contains(Object o) {
            if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
                return false;
            Map.Entry<K,V> e = (Map.Entry<K,V>) o;
            Entry<K,V> candidate = getEntry(e.getKey());
            return candidate != null && candidate.equals(e);
        }
        public boolean remove(Object o) {
            return removeMapping(o) != null;
        }
        public int size() {
            return size;
        }
        public void clear() {
            HashMap.this.clear();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Save the state of the <tt>HashMap</tt> instance to a stream (i.e.,
     * serialize it).
     *
     * @serialData The <i>capacity</i> of the HashMap (the length of the
     *             bucket array) is emitted (int), followed by the
     *             <i>size</i> (an int, the number of key-value
     *             mappings), followed by the key (Object) and value (Object)
     *             for each key-value mapping.  The key-value mappings are
     *             emitted in no particular order.
     */
    private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
        throws IOException
    {
        Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> i =
            (size > 0) ? entrySet0().iterator() : null;

        // Write out the threshold, loadfactor, and any hidden stuff
        s.defaultWriteObject();

        // Write out number of buckets
        s.writeInt(table.length);

        // Write out size (number of Mappings)
        s.writeInt(size);

        // Write out keys and values (alternating)
        if (i != null) {
            while (i.hasNext()) {
                Map.Entry<K,V> e = i.next();
                s.writeObject(e.getKey());
                s.writeObject(e.getValue());
            }
        }
    }

    private static final long serialVersionUID = 362498820763181265L;

    /**
     * Reconstitute the <tt>HashMap</tt> instance from a stream (i.e.,
     * deserialize it).
     */
    private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
         throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException
    {
        // Read in the threshold, loadfactor, and any hidden stuff
        s.defaultReadObject();

        // Read in number of buckets and allocate the bucket array;
        int numBuckets = s.readInt();
        table = new Entry[numBuckets];

        init();  // Give subclass a chance to do its thing.

        // Read in size (number of Mappings)
        int size = s.readInt();

        // Read the keys and values, and put the mappings in the HashMap
        for (int i=0; i<size; i++) {
            K key = (K) s.readObject();
            V value = (V) s.readObject();
            putForCreate(key, value);
        }
    }

    // These methods are used when serializing HashSets
    int   capacity()     { return table.length; }
    float loadFactor()   { return loadFactor;   }
}
阅读更多
版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/wyp686/article/details/48652413
个人分类: JDK源码阅读
想对作者说点什么? 我来说一句

没有更多推荐了,返回首页

不良信息举报

JDK源码阅读之HashMap类

最多只允许输入30个字

加入CSDN,享受更精准的内容推荐,与500万程序员共同成长!
关闭
关闭