Differential backup -- 差异备份
Differential backups copy those files that have been changed since the last full backup took place. So if a full backup was done on Day 1, Day 2's differential will copy all of the files that have changed since Day 1's backup copied everything. Day 3's differential backup will also copy all of the files that have changed since Day 1's full copy was made.
The key advantage of differential backups comes when data needs to be restored. Because a full backup was taken and the differentials copied everything that subsequently changed, only the full backup and the latest differential need to be restored.
The main disadvantage is that the size of the differential copy increases each time a backup is taken until the next full version is made, which can begin to impinge on backup window duration.
Incremental backup -- 增量备份
Incremental backups copy all of the files that have changed since the last backup was made. They do this whether the last backup was a full one or an incremental copy. So if a full backup was done on Day 1, Day 2's incremental will back up all of the files that have changed since Day 1. Likewise, Day 3's incremental backup will only copy those files that have changed since Day 2's incremental took place.
The main advantage to incremental backups is that fewer files are copied in the period between full backups, which means you will get a shorter backup window. The main disadvantage is that when you want to carry out a complete restore, the most recent full backup and all of the subsequent incremental copies must be restored. This can make the restore process a lengthier one than when using a full backup plus the most recent differential copies only.
Incremental vs. differential backup: A comparison