1?? 英语词汇
11? 最常用词汇
111 最常用名词
He is a doctor . 
112 最常用动词
Come and see me . 
113 最常用形容词
This is a good book .
114 最常用副词
It is not very hot today .
115 最常用数词
School begins at nine . 

12? 常用词汇
121 常用名词
Mary goes to college . 
122 常用动词
I wish you to take me there .
123 常用形容词
You're welcome . 
124 常用副词
He completely forgot it .
125 常用数词
I received a third of an apple . 

13? 次常用词汇
131 次常用名词
I have seen a zebra in the zoo .
132 次常用动词
He wrapped the box carefully . 
133 次常用形容词
It is wrong to tell a lie . 

2?? 英语词组
21? 由相邻单词构成的普通词组
211 动词词组(例:catch up)
He walked fast to catch up the train .
212 介词词组(例:in advance)
He paid the rent in advance .
213 短语连词(例:as if, in order that )
He talked so much as if he were the teacher . 
214 名词性词组(a lot of, a series of, a few, a little )
He has a lot of story-books . 
215 副词性词组(all day long, all the time)
He worked all day long . 
216 其它

22? 分离词组
221 插进了其它成分的词组
The teacher compared Shelly with Keats . 
They did this only for friendship's sake . 
222 动宾结构(V+N)的词组中间插入修饰N的形容词或形容词性物主代词。
They take an active part in scientific experiment . 
223 通常为动介结构(V+P)的普通词组,中间插入修饰V的副词。
They will depend more on their parents . 
224 动介结构的词组中插入与主语呼应的反身代词
We must never divorce ourselves from the masses .
225 联合连词( both...and, neither...nor, not only...but (also) 等) 
Neither he nor I can sing well . 

23? 词组中套词组
231 在动介结构的词组中插入了副词性词组
I have looked all round for the missing book .

3?? 英语词法分析
31? 名词的复数形式
311 规则变化的名词, 加s或 es
There are three books on the desk . 
The ox has four stomaches . 
312 词尾为f或 fe 的名词, 一般变为ves, 也有少数词尾为 f 的只加s
They saw many cliffs on the Huang Shan Mountains . 
313 词尾为y的, 变y为i再加es 
The boy caught five flies in the room . 
314 词尾为o的, 一般加es, 也有的只加s
There are four mosquitoes flying in the mosquito curtain . 
There are four cuckoos in the zoo . 
315 单复数形式相同的名词 
There is a pair of trousers in the case . 
316 只有复数形式的名词
This is a means to an end . 
317 不规则变化的复数形式
There are twelve oxen by the stream . 
Do you know the names of the two men over there ? 
There are nine asylums in the city . 
318 复合名词的复数形式, 有的变前一个名词, 有的变后一个, 有的两者都变 
There are nine women leaders in the factory . 
All of his son-in-laws are businessmen . 

32? 名词与代词的格
321 单数名词和不以s结尾的复数名词加 's 构成所有格
My uncle's guitar is new . 
322 以s结尾的复数名词加 ' 构成所有格
The students' dorms are very clean . 
323 合成名词只在最后一个词上加 's 表示所有格
This is my sister-in-law's bag . 
324 名词所有格的特殊用法
This is a book of Mr. Richard's . 
I met him at the barber's . 
Yesterday he went to his uncle's . 
325 人称代词的主格与宾格及反身代词
They are students . 
I gave them some cakes . 
They themselves went there . 
326 形容词性物主代词与名词性物主代词。有些形容词性物主代词是不应该译出来的。
This is your book . 

The book is yours . 

33? 形容词的比较级与最高级 
331 词尾加er的形容词的比较级形式
This pool is deeper than that one . 

332 多音节形容词前加 more 形成比较级 ,也有少数单音节形容词前加 more 形成比较级 
This book is more expensive than that one . 
I am glad to see you , he will be more glad to see you . 
333 不规则变化的形容词比较级
He drinks less beer than before . 
334 less+形容词,形成形容词比较级
This textbook is less difficult than that one . 
335 单音节形容词最高级形式
She is the weakest of the three sisters . 
336 多音节形容词前加 most 形成最高级
His plan is the most practical of all . 
337 不规则变化的形容词最高级
He is the eldest of the five brothers . 
338 least 表示与 most 相反的意义
Young people are the least conservative . 
339 形容词比较级的特殊用法
The city is becoming more and more prosperous . 
The harder you work , the more achievements you will gain . 

34? 副词的比较级与最高级
341 词尾加 er 的副词比较级
This troop marched quicker than that one . 
342 副词前加 more 的比较级形式 
She was received more warmly than she had expected . 
343 不规则变化的副词比较级 
He plays table tennis better than I . 
344 词尾加 est 的副词最高级
They all came early , but she came earliest of all . 
345 副词前加 most 的最高级形式 
Among the three soldiers he fought most bravely . 
346 不规则变化的副词最高级
We like the third poem best of all . 

35? 动词的不规则变化
351 动词的原形、过去式与过去分词三种形式完全相同
He often puts his hands in his pockets . 
He put his bag on the table yesterday . 
The bag was put on the table . 
352 动词的原形与过去分词相同 
The horse runs fast . 
I have run to here . 
353 动词的过去式与过去分词相同
The boy spelt his name correctly . 
I have spelt my name . 
He left here for Beijing . 
He has just left . 
354 动词的三种形式完全不相同
He was chosen as a deputy to the National People's Congress . 
The road is frozen hard . 
Cameras are forbidden . 
He drank a glass of milk this morning . 
She stole a purse . 
The sun sank in the west . 

36? 动词不定式
361 动词不定式(短语)在句中作主语 
To accomplish this task is my duty . 
362 动词不定式(短语)在句中作表语 
Our purpose in life is to serve the people . 
363 动词不定式在句中作宾语或双宾语动词的直接宾语
I prefer to start early . 
They requested him to be present at the opening ceremony . 
364 动词不定式与疑问代词、疑问副词、否定词构成的短语在句中作宾语或主语,作
They know what to do . 
He told me not to wait for him . 
365 动词不定式在句中作定语 
This will be a good opportunity to exchange experience . 
366 动词不定式在句中作状语
We are building many petro-chemical works to make full use of petroleum . 
They ran over to welcome the delegates. 
To be a teacher, one must first be their pupil. 
367 动词不定式在句中作复合宾语的宾语补足语(某些动词要省掉to) 或表语补足语
Will you help me to wash clothes ? 
He helps me wash clothes . 
The plan is difficult to describe . 
368 "too + 形容词/副词 + to 不定式”的语义及翻译
The water is too hot to drink . 
369 动词不定式的被动态与不同时态
The first thing to be done is to carry away the earth . 
He pretended not to have seen me . 

37? 动词的现在分词
371 现在分词在句中作定语,放在它所修饰的名词之前
He told us an exciting story . 
372 现在分词短语作定语,放在它所修饰的名词之后
Factories producing such goods were then mostly in the hands of capitalists . 
373 现在分词作表语
The situation is encouraging . 
374 现在分词作复合宾语中的宾语补足语
I often heard him singing this song . 
375 现在分词(或短语)在句中作状语,表示时间、结果、原因、条件、目的等,起到
He rode away whistling . 
Opening the drawer he took out a revolver . 
She went out, slamming the door . 
376 现在分词的完成式与被动语态
Having repaired the apparatus , he went to our laboratory . 
Being invited to the party, he couldn't very well refuse . 
Having been repaired, the clock began to work well . 

38? 动名词
381 动名词或动名词短语在句中作主语
Increasing the length of wire increases its resistance . 
382 动名词或动名词短语在句中作宾语,包括作介词的宾语
He likes swimming . 
He hates going to the dancing party . 
383 动名词或动名词短语在句中作表语
Our production task is making machines . 
384 动名词作定语
These articles may be used as reading materials . 
His working method is correct . 
385 动名词的复合结构(物主代词或名词所有格 + 动名词短语)在句中作主语、宾语、介词宾语或表语
She was very happy about his coming to see her . 
Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us. 
Our sole worry is your relying too much on yourself. 
386 动名词的完成式与被动语态
He was punished by being sent to bed without any supper . 
He denied having been there . 
They are respected for having worked wonders in scientific research . 
I remember having been taken to the zoo by my father . 

39? 过去分词
391 过去分词作定语,放在它所修饰的名词之前
This is a well-written book . 
392 过去分词短语作定语,放在它所修饰的名词之后
I hate to see letters written in pencil . 
393 过去分词(或短语)在句中作表语
He seemed quite delighted at the news . 
394 过去分词作复合宾语中的宾语补足语
He was glad to see these machines carefully assembled . 
395 过去分词在句中作状语,表示时间、原因、条件、方式等, 起到了一个句子或从句的作用
Given enough time , we can do it well too . 

4?? 简单句
41? 陈述句基本句型
411 主语 + 联系动词 (to be, to become, to look, to seem 及它们的变形) + 表语
They became heroes . 
412 主语 + 不及物动词 + 状语 (roar, roars, ...)
The lion roars loudly . 
413 主语 + 及物动词或词组 + 宾语 (have, has, like, likes, ...)
I can spell this word . 
414 主语 + 双宾语动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语 (或 直接宾语 + to + 间接宾语)
Mary teaches him English . 
The girl gave a pen to me . 
415 主语 + 及物动词 + 复合宾语(其中补语为名词, 形容词, 动词不定式, 现在分词)
This force keeps the body moving . 
416 存在句 ( There + be + ...... )
There is a dictionary on your bed . 
417 主语 + 联系动词 + 形容词 + 补语
The plan is difficult to describe . 
418 主语 + 动词 + 数量短语
They waited for two hours . 

42? 陈述句的时态表示
421 一般过去时
He sold his new jacket three weeks ago . 
422 一般将来时的各种表示法 (shall, will, be going to do 及现在进行时态表示将来时)
I shall go now . 
It will be good weather tomorrow . 
I am going to answer these questions right now . 
I am going home . 
423 现在进行时
She is singing a song . 
424 过去进行时 
She was having supper, when I went to the room . 
425 将来进行时
I shall be working when you come . 
He will be taking his exam next week . 
426 现在完成时
She has lived here for three years . 
427 过去完成时
When I arrived, Ann had just left . 
428 将来完成时和现在完成进行时
I have been working before you come . 
429 主句与从句中的时态呼应
He said that he would come tomorrow . 

43? 陈述句的被动语态
431 一般体(现在、过去、将来)的被动语态 
The building was completed last year . 
432 进行体(现在、过去)的被动语态
The building is being built . 
433 完成体(现在、过去、将来)的被动语态
The work has been finished . 
434 用“by + 宾语”表示动作执行者
He was criticized by his mother . 
435 含有复合宾语的主动结构变为被动结构时, 复合宾语的逻辑主语变成被动句的主语
He was finally forced to leave his motherland . 
436 双宾语句变成被动结构, 直接宾语或间接宾语都可以成为被动句的主语, 而另一个仍为宾语
We are given heat and light by the sun . 
437 动词短语(动词+介词, 动词+副词, 动词+副词+介词, 动词+名词+介词)的被动语态
The land was separated into small fields . 
This idea was put forward by him . 
Pollution should be done away with . 

44? 疑问句
441 谓语为“系动词 + 表语”的问句形式
Did they become heroes ? 
442 谓语动词为 have 的两种不同问句形式,对翻译有重要的提示作用。
Have solids definite shape ? 
Has he a radio set ? 
Did you have a meeting last night ? 
443 谓语动词为行为动词的问句形式
Is he swimming ? 
Has he completed his work ? 
Can you lend me your bicycle ? 
Did she prove herself innocent ? 
444 存在句(There + be +...)的问句形式
Are there four pencils on his desk ? 
445 使用疑问代词(who, whose, whom, what, which)的特殊疑问句
What did he say ? 
446 使用疑问副词(when, where, how, why)的特殊疑问句
Why was he afraid of it ? 

45? 祈使句与感叹句
451 谓语为“be + 形容词”的祈使形式
Be quiet, please . 
452 谓语为行为动词的祈使形式
Give me that skirt . 
Sit down , please ! 
453 Let, suppose 及 if 等引导的祈使句,表示假设
Let me have a look . 
Let us suppose that this conclusion remains true . 
454 祈使句的组合
Consider the question from this point of view, and you will find it of great importance .
455 祈使句 + (or + 陈述句)的译法
Be careful, or the apparatus will be spoilt . 
456 感叹句 
What a fine apparatus it is ! 
How hard he works ! 

46? 否定句(只测“否定”,可以忽略“不”“没”的区分)
461 陈述句基本句型的否定形式
These are not pencils . 
I don't believe it . 
There isn't anybody in the classroom . 
462 不同时态陈述句的否定形式
I did not see him yesterday . 
I have not seen him this morning . 
463 陈述句被动态的否定形式
I was not beaten by him, but by her . 
464 疑问句的否定形式
Don't you see a lot of peasants working in the fields ? 
465 祈使句的否定形式
Don't despise your colleagues . 
466 部分否定与完全否定
All of them are not students . 
467 非限定动词的否定结构
It is better to go than not to go . 
I am sorry for not having finished designing the device last month . 

47? 助动词(can, could, may, might, must, need, dare, shall, will, ought to, have to, be to等)
471 各个助动词的基本用法(包括There can be, There might be 句型)
You can go now . 
There might be a new building . 
472 情态动词及情态动词后谓语动词的各种时态形式
He must have gone to the workshop . 
473 带有情态动词的被动语态
He cannot be killed . 
474 情态动词的疑问形式
What can I do for you ? 
475 情态动词的否定形式
They dare not tell the truth to the people . 
476 助动词的各种缩略形式 (It's, won't, ...)
You can't have finished the task so soon . 

48? 并列结构
481 句子中名词性成分(包括动词的非限定形式)的并列
Solid , liquid and gas are the three states of matter . 
A multimeter can be applied to measure current、resistance and voltage . 
I am not a teacher , but a student . 
482 句子中谓语动词的并列
Come and help me to lift these boxes . 
483 句子中状语的并列
Are you going to Shanghai by train or by plane ? 
484 句子中表语的并列
The story was simple, but very moving . 

5?? 复合句
51? 宾语从句
511 由 that 引导的宾语从句,有时 that 可省略
I expect I shall be back on Monday . 
He told me that he did not know it . 
512 由 what 引导的宾语从句
Show me what you have written . 
513 由 where 引导的宾语从句
Please tell me where I can see him . 
514 由 who 引导的宾语从句
Do you know who invented magnetic needle ? 
515 由 whom 引导的宾语从句
Do you know whom she is waiting for ? 
516 由 when 引导的宾语从句
Tell me when she will come here . 
517 由 how 引导的宾语从句
I want to know how she can solve such a problem . 
518 由 whether 或 if 引导的宾语从句
He asked whether I would attend the meeting . 
519 由 why 引导的宾语从句
I do not know why they eat such kind of food . 

52? 定语从句
521 由关系代词which引导的定语从句
Is this the knife which you're looking for ? 
522 由关系代词where引导的定语从句
He died in the village where he was born . 
523 由关系副词why引导的定语从句
That is the reason why I am not in favour of it . 
524 由关系代词when引导的定语从句
He came at a time when we needed help . 
525 由关系代词that引导的定语从句
Who is the person that is standing beside her ? 
526 由关系代词who或whose或whom引导的定语从句
The man who wrote these poems is a veteran soldier . 
What is the name of the worker whose sister is a driver ? 
Is the man whom we saw just now your teacher ? 
527 “介词+ which”或“介词 + whom”引导的定语从句
He is the man with whom you visited the exhibition yesterday . 
In our class there are fifteen students , three of whom are from Beijing .
528 省略了关联词的定语从句
He took us to see the power station they built . 

53? 主语从句
531 由that引导的主语从句
That air has pressure was known long ago . 
532 由疑问代词 what 引导的主语从句
What we saw was incredible . 
533 由疑问代词 when 引导的主语从句
When they will study is uncertain . 
534 由疑问副词 how 引导的主语从句
How they invented it is not clear to me . 
535 由疑问副词 why 引导的主语从句
Why the river is not frozen in such cold weather is still a question .
536 由连词 whether 引导的主语从句
Whether we ought to go is still a question . 
537 由疑问代词 who 或 不定代词 whoever 引导的主语从句
Whoever has interest in it can apply for membership . 
538 由 where 或 wherever 引导的主语从句
Where we shall buy this material is not yet decided . 
Wherever you go does not matter to me . 

54? 同位语从句
541 同位语从句
The discovery that magnetism can produce electric current is extremely important in the field .

55? 表语从句以及作为表语补足语的从句
551 由 what 引导的表语从句
The problem is what we do now . 
552 由 who 或 whom 引导的表语从句
The problem is who are to go in the first batch . 
553 由 when 或 where 引导的表语从句
That is where I lived last year . 
554 由 why 引导的表语从句
That is why the machine parts were wearing away during use . 
555 由 whether 或 if 引导的表语从句
The question is whether we can go now . 
556 由 that 引导的表语从句
My impression is that you are not interested in the question . 
557 由 how 引导的表语从句
The question is how we can finish our task in time . 
558 作为表语补足语的从句
I am sorry I don't know his address . 

56? 状语从句
561 时间状语从句 
Give the letter to her when you see her tomorrow . 
While you were away , two men came to see you . 
After she arrived , we went to see her . 
She was at school before she became a barber . 
Electricity has found world-wide applications since it was discovered .
562 地点状语从句
Where there is matter, there is motion . 
563 原因状语从句
Air cannot be an element because an element cannot be separated .
564 条件状语从句
If I have time tonight , I will go to see film with you . 
565 让步状语从句
Air has weight , though it is very light . 
566 方式状语从句
When heated, gases expand as liquids and solids do . 
567 结果状语从句
An atom is so small that we cannot see it . 
568 目的状语从句
In order that a body moves faster , an additional force must be applied to it .
569 比较状语从句
It is darker tonight than it was yesterday.

57? 从句嵌套的情况(限两重)
571 主句或名词性从句又是主从复合句
It is ridiculous that we should be short of water in a country where it is always raining .
572 定语从句又是主从复合句
The scientists were very surprised when watching that one of two weights dropped was heavier than the other , but they reached the ground at the same moment .
573 状语从句又是主从复合句
He never climbed trees because he once fell down from a tree when he was a little boy . 
574 一个句子包括两个互不嵌套的从句
What we have to decide now is who are to go in the first batch . 
What I care about is where we should go . 
If there were no gravity , many things could not be done as we do them now .
Most plants grow well where there is sufficient moisture and when there is good sunshine .
What surprised me was that she spoke French so well . 

58? 并列句
581 用连词连接的并列句 (and, or, but, ...)
I am from Shanghai and he is from Beijing . 
582 不用连词连接的并列句

6?? 英语句法歧义与语义分析
61? 同一词跨两类 (对“同形”与“兼类”不作细分)
611 同一词兼为名词与动词
He studies very hard . 
He tries to improve his study . 
612 同一词兼为名词与形容词
Her eyes are dark . 
Try to get home before dark . 
613 同一词兼为动词与形容词
It is a piece of waste paper . 
Don't waste money on trash . 
614 同一词兼为副词与形容词
The car stopped short only a few inches from where I stood . 
He is two inches shorter than I . 
615 同一词兼为副词与介词 (包括介词 to 兼作不定式标记)
I'll show you how to operate the machine . 
The next day we came to a small village . 
The students worked along with the workers . 
Let's walk along the street . 
616 同一词兼为代词与关系代词
Who are they ? 
Do you know the man who came to see me yesterday ? 
617 同一词兼为连词与介词
He went to Beijing after a few days . 
After I came back , he went to the plant . 
Since 1949 , great changes have taken place in China . 
I have been living here since I came to Beijing . 
618 同一词兼为连词与副词
I told you to buy the book , you didn't buy it though . 
Though it was late , she went on working . 
619 同一词兼为名词与副词(如 well) 或兼为名词与数词(如second)
He was so happy , because he found a well in the desert . 
He works hard and works well . 

62? 同一词兼为三类
621 同一词兼为名词、形容词与动词
It is a pocket of common salt . 
I like to eat salt beef . 
They salted clouds with dry ice . 
622 同一词兼为连词、形容词与动词
I hope I can drive the tractor like you do . 
The two buildings are very like . 
The children like the book very much . 
623 同一词兼为指示代词、关系代词与从属连词
That book is on the desk . 
The book that I borrowed is very interesting . 
He said that he could come . 
624 同一词兼为介词、形容词与副词
The sun is slowly rising above the sea . 
The above explanation will help answer the question . 
Our laboratory is just above . 

63? 同一动词兼属不同子范畴
631 同一动词兼作及物动词与不及物动词
We must learn to think . 
Do you think it possible to finish the work this week ? 
632 同一动词兼作双宾语动词与单宾语动词
You can leave her a note if you like . 
He left Shanghai for Hangzhou . 
633 同一动词兼作助动词与及物动词、助动词与系动词
634 同一动词兼作不及物、单宾语与双宾语动词
We telegraphed yesterday . 
We telegraphed him yesterday . 
We telegraphed him the good news . 
635 同一动词的后接情况不同,意思也不相同。
It has stopped raining . 
Let's stop to rest . 
He stopped talking . 
He stopped to talk . 

64? 多义词(包括英语多义以及同一英语词义的不同译法)
641 同一名词有两种语义
Let's first find a room to put the thing in . 
There is only standing room in the bus . 
642 同一形容词有两种语义
This is a strong contrast . 
He has a strong body . 
643 同一副词有两种语义
I will go there too . 
This shirt is too large for me . 
644 同一数词有不同用法
The third month of the year is March . 
It weighs two thirds of a ton . 
645 同一介词兼有不同的语义
Tom sat down by the door . 
I came here by bus . 
646 同一从属连词具有多种语义且引导不同类型的从句
Heat is as important to life as air and water . 
If there were no gravity, many things could not be done as we do them now .
As a ship gets heavier , it displaces more and more water . 
Hard as the metal is , it can be changed into liquid at high temperature .
647 同一名词有三种不同的语义,如spring(弹簧,泉水,春天)
Spring is the first season in the year . 
I bought a spring yesterday . 
The water in the spring is lucid . 
648 同一动词或动词词组具有两种或三种不同的语义,如 have(有,吃,要)
I have a book . 
You are having your breakfast . 
They have him do this . 

65? 歧义结构
651 在“N1 and N2 of N3”与“N1 of N2 and N3”结构中,并列与修饰关系的正确决定 
The books of my son and my daughter are interesting . 
Mr. Johnson and the brother of Mr. Smith went to theater last night .
652 在“N1 of N2 and N3 of N4”结构中,并列与修饰关系的正确决定
The book of Tom and the pen of Jerry are on the desk . 
653 正确决定“V + N1 + P + N2”结构中介词短语“P + N2”是修饰动词V还是修饰名词N1;
Tell the teacher about the story . 
Tell the teacher in that school about the story . 
I'd prefer you to start today . 
654 形式为主从复合句,语义为并列句
You put one of your ears close to one end of the pipe while your friend taps the other end with a hammer .
655 判断 who 是动词不定式的逻辑主语还是宾语(宾语可置换为 whom )
Who does she want to come here ? 
Who does she want to reproach ? 
656 判断 Ving + N 是述宾结构还是定中结构
Flying planes is dangerous . 
Flying planes are dangerous . 
657 判断现在分词短语是用于构成谓语动词还是作名词修饰成分(花园路径句子)
Is the boy swimming in the swimming-pool her friend ? 
Is the boy swimming in the swimming-pool? 
658 位于句首的普通词与专有名词的同形辨认
The weather is fine in May . 
May I come in ? 
659 比较句的歧义
He plays tennis better than I . 
He plays tennis better than badminton . 

66? 未登录词的处理
661 人名的判断
I agree with Henry's opinion . 
662 地名的判断
I will go to Changping . 
663 同位短语中专名的处理 
Prepare diskettes for use on the Compaq computer . 
664 全部由大写字母或数字、符号构成的专名的处理 
The same state is depicted in Figure 4-3 above . 
665 年代信息的处理
We gained a lot of successes in the 1980s . 

7?? 汉语生成
71? 冠词
711 不定冠词 a 与 an 用于单数可数名词需选取适当的量词,分别译作“一个”、“一位”、
He is a worker . 
Here is a telegram for you . 
712 不定冠词 + 表示容器、单位、种类等意义的名词 +of+ 英语不可数名词译成汉语时,需译
作“一” + 量词 + 名词
There is a box of candy in her hand . 
713 不定冠词用于泛指某一类人或事物中的任何一个,翻译时,不定冠词可以不译出来或者
A machine consists of different parts . 
A knowledge of language is always useful . 
714 用作计量单位的名词前的不定冠词,应译作“每”或“一”。
This tank runs at 30 miles an hour . 
715 定冠词通常译为汉语的指量结构,即这个、那位、那些、这些等,但也可以省略。
They are looking for the apparatus to be tested . 
716 有些定冠词是不应该译出来的。
The earth , the moon , the sun , and all the other stars are in constant motion .
She is the most beautiful girl in the company . 
The sun rises in the east . 
717 某些原级形容词前加了 the 起名词作用,表示一类事物,应译成名词
Theory helps us distinguish the true from the false . 
The young are impatient . 

72? 汉语量词的使用
721 英语结构“数词 + 可数名词”或“指示代词 + 名词”译成汉语时,需增补适当的量词。
There are two mirrors on the wall . 
There are two poems on the blackboard. 
There are four electric lamps in the hall . 
There are two tankers here . 
There are two blankets on that bed . 
There are ten rifles on the ground . 
722 英语结构“数词+ 表示容量、单位或种类的名词+of+名词”译成汉语的“数量名”结构时,
There are three tins of pork on the table . 
723 英语的“数 + 形 + 名”翻译成汉语的“数 + 量 + 形 + 名”(数词包括不定冠词)。
A red sun rose in the east . 
She has a very nice handkerchief . 
724 英语的某些指示词(包括指示代词 this, that, 形容词last, 序数词first, second等等)
I like that desk . 
Your first composition was not good . 

73? 否定的表达方式
731 最常用的否定副词“not”与“不,没,未”等的选择
I cannot go to cinema this evening . 
He did not go to cinema yesterday . 
The books are not taken away by the students . 
732 否定代词(none, nothing, nobody, neither等)的翻译,也将 no one 看作一个否定代词。
No one saw Tom go out . 
733 否定副词(never, hardly, scarcely)的翻译
I have hardly any money . 
734 表示否定意义的连词(neither...nor..)的翻译
I can neither sing nor dance . 
735 表示否定意义的介词(without)的译法
Human beings cannot live without water . 
736 否定祈使句的翻译
Don't hasten to heat the beaker . 
737 有些否定句需译成肯定句
He did not come until late in the evening . 
We did not notice this matter until yesterday . 

74? 某些被动句需译成主动句
741 逻辑直接宾语 + 动词被动态 + 间接宾语 + by + 逻辑主语
Three books were given to me by my teacher . 
742 逻辑间接宾语 + 动词被动态 + 直接宾语 + by + 逻辑主语
I was given three books by my teacher . 
743 有些被动句译成主动句时,需加虚指的主语如“有人”、“人们”等
A letter was sent to him . 
A question was asked to him . 
This instrument will be found to be well designed . 

75? 调序
751 英语中有些定语放在它所修饰的名词或代词之后,译文需要调整
He will provide everything necessary . 
All the people present began to shout . 
His attitude towards his wife is not correct . 
There is food enough for everybody . 
752 不仅名词或代词的后置定语需调序,而且修饰成分内部也要调序
We must try to help them in every way possible . 
There were quite a few people on the platform waiting for the train coming at night .
753 英语的状语常放在句子基本成分(主、谓、宾)之后,译文要将它调到前面去。
She did not do it intentionally . 
Did you come by bus ? 
She got up at six . 
I go there twice every year . 
754 同时包含时间状语和其它状语时,译文需要将时间状语置于其它状语之前。
I saw the film in Beijing last year . 
755 时间词组内部顺序的调整
She went abroad in December , 1978 . 
She went abroad on March 6 , 1991 . 
756 数量词或数量词组内部顺序的调整
We have lunch at half past eleven . 
757 同位语的调整
Is Secretary Mary here ? 
758 复合句的主从关系需要调整 
I had just poured myself a glass of beer when the phone rang . 
759 表示同一概念的词组,英汉表示形式不同
The swings back and forth .

76? 指代关系的确定与置换
761 译文将状语从句前置时,从句中的代词与主句中的名词应互换位置。 
All electronic computers consist of five units although they are of different kinds .

8?? 英汉机译中的若干难点
81? 强调
811 助动词 do 置于谓语动词之前
The reaction did take place . 
812 形容词 very 前用定冠词 the ,意思是“就,正” 
She is the very girl I want to see . 
813 使用引导词 it (或 that )的强调句型,即 it is (was) + 被强调部分+ that (who, whom, which) 
+ 其它部分 
It was not until the professor came that they began the test . 
It was he who took my daughter home . 
814 把谓语的一部分前置以强调谓语
Hanging on the wall is his father's picture. 
Fastened on the crank shaft is an eccentric disk . 
815 移至句首的被强调成分
In every word is contained a certain thought , a certain meaning .(状语提前)

82? 省略,英语中可以省略的部分,译文却要补上。
821 宾语补足语和主语补足语常省略 to be或 to 后面的原形动词
We frequently regard gases as compressible , liquids as incompressible .
822 并列句中,后一句省略谓语或谓语的一部分;主从复合句中,主句或从句有一个谓语可以省略。
Some of the students are reading French ; the others German .
823 并列句中,后一句省略宾语和状语
We have two classes in physics today , but they have not . 
824 不完全句或并列句的后一句主谓成分的省略
We are used to calling her "Big" , him "Short" . 
825 as 引导的定语从句的省略
The two forces , as shown in the figure below , are parallel .
826 由 if, when, though, as if 等引导的状语从句的省略
If so , we'll have to put the meeting off . 

83? 倒装
831 在表示动作的简单句中, 为了表达生动有时把副词放在句首, 且把谓语动词放在主语之前。
Down flew the bat . 
832 由连词 "not only...but also" 连接的并列句中,如果"not only" 放句首时, 则谓语动词 
Not only is this problem very important , but it is also difficult to solve at once .
833 由连词 "no sooner...than" 连接的并列句中,如果"no sooner" 放句首时,则谓语动词
No sooner had she seen me than she ran off . 
834 在用 nor 或 neither 表示“也不”的意思时, 其词序为::nor(neither)+be (或 have 或助动词或
He did not drop any hint , nor did his secretary . 
835 在用 so 表示“也这样”的意思时,其词序为::so + be (或 have或助动词或情态动词)+主语
Their group has already fulfilled their quota , so has our group . 
836 在以副词 only(只有),never(从来不),little(很少)等开头的句子中,联系动词或助动词置于
Little did we suspect that the district was so rich in mineral resources . 

84? 某些代词的用法与翻译
841 引导词 it 的用法
It is necessary to discuss this problem . 
It turned out that we had a good harvest again that year . 
We found it not difficult to translate it into English . 
They felt it their duty helping others . 
I think it impossible that he should have passed the exam . 
842 that (包括 this, these, those)
This is a worker ; that is a peasant . 
The volume of the sun is much larger than that of the earth . 
They are the students that designed the new-type machine . 
It is a well-known fact that heat is a form of energy . 
I am glad that you have succeeded in the experiment . 
This material is so light that it can float on water . 
They started early in order that they could get to the station on time . 
843 as 作为代词使用
Countries in the north of Europe, such as Finland , Norway and Swede , are all small countries .
The price is the same as before the war . 
This machine , as we all can see , has stopped operating . 
844 one
One can eat well there . 
845 any, some, somebody, someone, something 等
Someone has come to see you . 
846 all, each, few, little, another
Each should bring a story-book to class tomorrow . 
847 both, either
I don't want both books . 
You can read either of the two books . 
848 指代
He took out his shoes and put them on . 

85? 分离
851 分裂不定式,即在不定式记号"to"和动词原形之间插入一个副词
Our object is to further strengthen friendly relations between the two countries .
852 在复合句中,用来修饰名词的定语从句或分词短语不是紧接在该名词的后面
Another system may be found which is also consistent with the equation .
853 介词短语的分离
What are the molecules composed of ? 
Where are you from ? 
We all know what water consists of . 
The computer is a useful tool which we often depend upon . 

86? 虚拟语气
861 if 引导的虚拟条件从句
If I knew his name , I would tell you . 
862 省略 if 的虚拟条件从句
Should he come , we should discuss the problem with him . 
863 as if 或 as though 引导的方式状语从句
Electrons are able to act as if they were waves under certain conditions .
Electric current flows through a conductor as though it were a fluid .
864 某些动词后由 that 引导的宾语从句中的虚拟语气
The doctor suggested that he should go to the park every morning . 
The teacher suggested he go over the lesson every day . 
865 动词 wish 后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气
I wish he was here now . (现在) 
I wish he had been here yesterday . (过去) 
I wish you would come tomorrow . (将来) 
866 其它虚拟语气
It's time we went .

87? 标点符号
871 圆括号
Bernard Shaw (who wrote many plays) died in 1950 . 
872 引号
He said , "This is my pencil" . 
873 逗号
She sent me some post-cards , a few books and an album of pictures .
874 破折号
Bernard Shaw---who wrote many plays---died in 1950 . 
875 书名号
The novel Gone with the Wind is about the American Civil War . 

9?? 长句的翻译
911 修饰语较多或较长的简单句
The conservation laws have enabled us to reach far-reaching conclusions concerning the stability of atoms , without resorting to any hypothesis about the conditions within the nucleus on the forces operative in it .
912 嵌套重数较多的复合句
He said that he would go with us if his mother did not come to see him until it was dark .
913 兼有并列或主从关系的并列复合句
The book I am reading is very interesting , because it describes a foreign country which I am familiar with .

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