py-faster-rcnn代码roidb.py的解读

roidb是比较复杂的数据结构,存放了数据集的roi信息。原始的roidb来自数据集,在trian.py的get_training_roidb(imdb)函数进行了水平翻转扩充数量,然后prepare_roidb(imdb)【定义在roidb.py】为roidb添加了一些说明性的属性。

在这里暂时记录下roidb的结构信息,后面继续看的时候可能会有些修正:

roidb是由字典组成的list,roidb[img_index]包含了该图片索引所包含到roi信息,下面以roidb[img_index]为例说明:

roidb[img_index]包含的key, value
boxes box位置信息,box_num*4的np array
gt_overlaps 所有box在不同类别的得分,box_num*class_num矩阵
gt_classes 所有box的真实类别,box_num长度的list
flipped 是否翻转
 image 该图片的路径,字符串
width 图片的宽
height  图片的高
max_overlaps 每个box的在所有类别的得分最大值,box_num长度
max_classes 每个box的得分最高所对应的类,box_num长度
bbox_targets 每个box的类别,以及与最接近的gt-box的4个方位偏移
(共5列)

def add_bbox_regression_targets(roidb):
    """Add information needed to train bounding-box regressors."""
    assert len(roidb) > 0
    assert 'max_classes' in roidb[0], 'Did you call prepare_roidb first?'

    num_images = len(roidb)
    # Infer number of classes from the number of columns in gt_overlaps
    # 类别数,roidb[0]对应第0号图片上的roi,shape[1]多少列表示roi属于不同类上的概率
    num_classes = roidb[0]['gt_overlaps'].shape[1]
    for im_i in xrange(num_images):
        rois = roidb[im_i]['boxes']
        max_overlaps = roidb[im_i]['max_overlaps']
        max_classes = roidb[im_i]['max_classes']
        # bbox_targets:每个box的类别,以及与最接近的gt-box的4个方位偏移
        roidb[im_i]['bbox_targets'] = \
                _compute_targets(rois, max_overlaps, max_classes)
    
    # 这里config是false
    if cfg.TRAIN.BBOX_NORMALIZE_TARGETS_PRECOMPUTED:
        # Use fixed / precomputed "means" and "stds" instead of empirical values
        # 使用固定的均值和方差代替经验值
        means = np.tile(
                np.array(cfg.TRAIN.BBOX_NORMALIZE_MEANS), (num_classes, 1))
        stds = np.tile(
                np.array(cfg.TRAIN.BBOX_NORMALIZE_STDS), (num_classes, 1))
    else:
        # Compute values needed for means and stds
        # 计算所需的均值和方差
        # var(x) = E(x^2) - E(x)^2
        # 计数各个类别出现box的数量
        class_counts = np.zeros((num_classes, 1)) + cfg.EPS  #加上cfg.EPS防止除0出错
        # 21类*4个位置,如果出现box的类别与其中某一类相同,将该box的4个target加入4个列元素中
        sums = np.zeros((num_classes, 4)) 
        # 21类*4个位置,如果出现box的类别与其中某一类相同,将该box的4个target的平方加入4个列元素中
        squared_sums = np.zeros((num_classes, 4))
        for im_i in xrange(num_images):
            targets = roidb[im_i]['bbox_targets']
            for cls in xrange(1, num_classes):
                cls_inds = np.where(targets[:, 0] == cls)[0]
                # box的类别与该类匹配,计入
                if cls_inds.size > 0:
                    class_counts[cls] += cls_inds.size
                    sums[cls, :] += targets[cls_inds, 1:].sum(axis=0)
                    squared_sums[cls, :] += \
                            (targets[cls_inds, 1:] ** 2).sum(axis=0)

        means = sums / class_counts # 均值
        stds = np.sqrt(squared_sums / class_counts - means ** 2) #标准差

    print 'bbox target means:'
    print means
    print means[1:, :].mean(axis=0) # ignore bg class
    print 'bbox target stdevs:'
    print stds
    print stds[1:, :].mean(axis=0) # ignore bg class

    # Normalize targets
    # 对每一box归一化target
    if cfg.TRAIN.BBOX_NORMALIZE_TARGETS:
        print "Normalizing targets"
        for im_i in xrange(num_images):
            targets = roidb[im_i]['bbox_targets']
            for cls in xrange(1, num_classes):
                cls_inds = np.where(targets[:, 0] == cls)[0]
                roidb[im_i]['bbox_targets'][cls_inds, 1:] -= means[cls, :]
                roidb[im_i]['bbox_targets'][cls_inds, 1:] /= stds[cls, :]
    else:
        print "NOT normalizing targets"

    # 均值和方差也用于预测
    # These values will be needed for making predictions
    # (the predicts will need to be unnormalized and uncentered)
    return means.ravel(), stds.ravel()  # ravel()排序拉成一维

def _compute_targets(rois, overlaps, labels):  # 参数rois只含有当前图片的box信息
    """Compute bounding-box regression targets for an image."""
    # Indices目录 of ground-truth ROIs
    # ground-truth ROIs
    gt_inds = np.where(overlaps == 1)[0]
    if len(gt_inds) == 0:
        # Bail if the image has no ground-truth ROIs
        # 不存在gt ROI,返回空数组
        return np.zeros((rois.shape[0], 5), dtype=np.float32)
    # Indices of examples for which we try to make predictions
    # BBOX阈值,只有ROI与gt的重叠度大于阈值,这样的ROI才能用作bb回归的训练样本
    ex_inds = np.where(overlaps >= cfg.TRAIN.BBOX_THRESH)[0]

    # Get IoU overlap between each ex ROI and gt ROI
    # 计算ex ROI and gt ROI的IoU
    ex_gt_overlaps = bbox_overlaps(
        # 变数据格式为float
        np.ascontiguousarray(rois[ex_inds, :], dtype=np.float),
        np.ascontiguousarray(rois[gt_inds, :], dtype=np.float))

    # Find which gt ROI each ex ROI has max overlap with:
    # this will be the ex ROI's gt target
    # 这里每一行代表一个ex_roi,列代表gt_roi,元素数值代表两者的IoU
    gt_assignment = ex_gt_overlaps.argmax(axis=1) #按行求最大,返回索引.
    gt_rois = rois[gt_inds[gt_assignment], :]  #每个ex_roi对应的gt_rois,与下面ex_roi数量相同
    ex_rois = rois[ex_inds, :]

    targets = np.zeros((rois.shape[0], 5), dtype=np.float32)
    targets[ex_inds, 0] = labels[ex_inds]  #第一个元素是label
    targets[ex_inds, 1:] = bbox_transform(ex_rois, gt_rois)  #后4个元素是ex_box与gt_box的4个方位的偏移
    return targets

下面解读一下这两个函数。

1. _compute_targets(rois, overlaps, labels)

这个函数用来计算roi的偏移量。基本的步骤就是先确认是否含有ground-truth rois,主要通过 ground-truth ROIs的overlaps=1来确认。

然后找到重叠度大于一定阈值的box,再进行计算。


对于满足条件的box,会调用程序bbox_overlaps重新计算box对应于ground-truth box的重叠度,根据最大的重叠度找对应的ground truth box.

这样就可以利用 fast_rcnn.bbox_transform 的bbox_transform计算4个偏移(分别是中心点的x,y坐标,w,d长度偏移)。

输出的是一个二维数组,横坐标是盒子的序号,纵坐标是5维,第一维是类别,第二维到第五维为偏移。

bbox_overlaps的代码如下:

def bbox_overlaps(
        np.ndarray[DTYPE_t, ndim=2] boxes,
        np.ndarray[DTYPE_t, ndim=2] query_boxes):
    """
    Parameters
    ----------
    boxes: (N, 4) ndarray of float
    query_boxes: (K, 4) ndarray of float
    Returns
    -------
    overlaps: (N, K) ndarray of overlap between boxes and query_boxes
    """
    cdef unsigned int N = boxes.shape[0]
    cdef unsigned int K = query_boxes.shape[0]
    cdef np.ndarray[DTYPE_t, ndim=2] overlaps = np.zeros((N, K), dtype=DTYPE)
    cdef DTYPE_t iw, ih, box_area
    cdef DTYPE_t ua
    cdef unsigned int k, n
    for k in range(K):
        box_area = (
            (query_boxes[k, 2] - query_boxes[k, 0] + 1) *
            (query_boxes[k, 3] - query_boxes[k, 1] + 1)
        )
        for n in range(N):
            iw = (
                min(boxes[n, 2], query_boxes[k, 2]) -
                max(boxes[n, 0], query_boxes[k, 0]) + 1
            )
            if iw > 0:
                ih = (
                    min(boxes[n, 3], query_boxes[k, 3]) -
                    max(boxes[n, 1], query_boxes[k, 1]) + 1
                )
                if ih > 0:
                    ua = float(
                        (boxes[n, 2] - boxes[n, 0] + 1) *
                        (boxes[n, 3] - boxes[n, 1] + 1) +
                        box_area - iw * ih
                    )
                    overlaps[n, k] = iw * ih / ua
    return overlaps


2. add_bbox_regression_targets

    主要两个两件事: 1. 确定roidb每个图片的box的回归偏移量bbox_targets

                                   2. 对于所有的类别,计算偏移量的均值和方差,这样输出的矩阵是二维,行坐标是种类(这里是21类),纵坐标是偏移量(这里是4).

并且在需要正则化目标项(即cfg.TRAIN.BBOX_NORMALIZE_TARGETS=true)时,使每个偏移都减去均值除以标准差。并返回均值和方差的折叠一维向量,

用于预测(即逆操作,去正则化,则中心化)。


参考:


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