Chopsticks ——dp(好题!)

In China, people use a pair of chopsticks to get food on the table, but Mr. L is a bit different. He uses
a set of three chopsticks – one pair, plus an EXTRA long chopstick to get some big food by piercing
it through the food. As you may guess, the length of the two shorter chopsticks should be as close as
possible, but the length of the extra one is not important, as long as it’s the longest. To make things
clearer, for the set of chopsticks with lengths A, B, C (A ≤ B ≤ C), (A − B)
2
is called the “badness”
of the set.
It’s December 2nd, Mr.L’s birthday! He invited K people to join his birthday party, and would like
to introduce his way of using chopsticks. So, he should prepare K + 8 sets of chopsticks(for himself,
his wife, his little son, little daughter, his mother, father, mother-in-law, father-in-law, and K other
guests). But Mr.L suddenly discovered that his chopsticks are of quite different lengths! He should find
a way of composing the K + 8 sets, so that the total badness of all the sets is minimized.
Input
The first line in the input contains a single integer T, indicating the number of test cases (1 ≤ T ≤ 20).
Each test case begins with two integers K, N (0 ≤ K ≤ 1000, 3K + 24 ≤ N ≤ 5000), the number of
guests and the number of chopsticks.
There are N positive integers Li on the next line in non–decreasing order indicating the lengths of
the chopsticks (1 ≤ Li ≤ 32000).
Output
For each test case in the input, print a line containing the minimal total badness of all the sets.
Note: For the sample input, a possible collection of the 9 sets is:
8,10,16; 19,22,27; 61,63,75; 71,72,88; 81,81,84; 96,98,103; 128,129,148; 134,134,139; 157,157,160
Sample Input
1
1 40
1 8 10 16 19 22 27 33 36 40 47 52 56 61 63 71 72 75 81 81 84 88 96 98
103 110 113 118 124 128 129 134 134 139 148 157 157 160 162 164
Sample Output

23

题目大意:就是一个人要请k+8个人吃饭,然后要求每个人拿三根筷子,问怎样拿才能使得每个人其中两根的筷子差的平方和最小。(要保证第三根筷子的长度是最长的)输入的筷子长度是按照从升序


思路:这道题就是有两个限制因素,一个是要从中选出k+8对筷子,还要保证每一对都能有一个最大的筷子配给它们,感觉很麻烦的样子。但是不难想到,要保证每一对的平方差最小,那么这两根筷子一定是相邻的,如果是按照升序找的话,那么多余的筷子可能是短的,无法配对;那么按照降序找的话,(假设从n倒着找到了i筷子),那么找的筷子个数是n-i+1,只要保证n-i+1>3*j,j是已经配好对的对数(每一轮都要有这样的保障),那么就一定有一个大的max可以配对。

中间递推的时候我是先从n-2根筷子找起的(因为最后一根筷子肯定充当的是组中的max,不能凑平方差)

然后每一层循环都会有一个对数进行确定

代码1:

dp【i】【j】表示第i组,搜到了第j根筷子

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
int k,n;
int a[6000];
int dp[1200][6000];
int main()
{
    int t;
    scanf("%d",&t);
    while(t--)
    {
        scanf("%d%d",&k,&n);
        k=k+8;
        for(int i=1;i<=n;i++){
            scanf("%d",&a[n-i+1]);//注意这里让它降序存储,方便代码
        }
        memset(dp,0x3f3f3f3f,sizeof(dp));
        for(int i=1;i<=n;i++){
            dp[0][i]=0;
        }
        for(int i=1;i<=k;i++){
            for(int j=i*3;j<=n;j++){
                dp[i][j]=min(dp[i][j-1],dp[i-1][j-2]+(a[j]-a[j-1])*(a[j]-a[j-1]));//因为j只能跟j-1配对
            }
        }
        cout<<dp[k][n]<<endl;
    }
}

代码2:

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
const int maxx=0x3f3f3f3f;
int t;
int k,n;
int a[6000];
int dp[6000][1200];//有i个人j双筷子时的最小值
int main()
{
    scanf("%d",&t);
    while(t--){
        scanf("%d%d",&k,&n);
        k=k+8;//多少组
        memset(dp,maxx,sizeof(dp));
        //cout<<dp[0][0]<<"*(*(*("<<endl;
        dp[0][0]=0;
        for(int i=1;i<=n;i++){
            dp[i][0]=0;//第0组取到了第i位
        }
        for(int i=1;i<=n;i++){
            scanf("%d",&a[i]);
        }
        for(int i=n-2;i>=1;i--)
            for(int j=k;j>=1;j--){
                dp[i][j]=dp[i+1][j];//取到了i筷子
                if(dp[i+2][j-1]!=maxx&&  n-i+1>=j*3)
                //这个地方n-i-1是已经搜到i位置,因为是从n开始找的,所以这时候已经有n-i-1这些了只要大于已经匹配好的组数*3就说明肯定有一根是max存在。。。因为要最小,肯定有两个是相邻的。
                {
                    dp[i][j]=min(dp[i][j],dp[i+2][j-1]+(a[i]-a[i+1])*(a[i]-a[i+1]));
                    //cout<<"i:"<<i<<"  j:"<<j<<"  "<<dp[i][j]<<"****"<<endl;
                }
            }
        }
        cout<<dp[1][k]<<endl;
    }
    return 0;
}
ps:感觉第一种代码比较好理解。
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版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,转载请说明出处。 https://blog.csdn.net/xianpingping/article/details/80316216
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