c#操作excel

c#操作excel

最近想写个脚本来保存程序中的一些日志,最后选择用excel来保存,这里总结一下C#中使用office.excel的一些技巧吧!

首先在C#的工程中添加excel的dll。右键点击引用->添加新引用,然后找出Microsoft.Office.Interop. Excel的dll。

然后在using中添加:

using System.Reflection;
using Excel=Microsoft.Office.Interop. Excel;

(如果找不到就自行下载)

using System.Reflection是为了调用缺省方法Missing

接下来是具体的代码:

Excel.Application excelApp = new Excel.Application(); //Excel应用程序变量,初始化
            Excel.Workbook excelDoc; //Excel文档变量
            object OsPath,FilePath;//表格文件的保存地址  
            string FileName;
            FileName="1.xls";
            OsPath =@"C:\Users\admin\Desktop\1.xls";//这里我定义了桌面的地址
            FilePath=string.Format("{0}{1}",(string)OsPath,FileName);//为了自定义地址,加了一个地址拼接
            Console.WriteLine(FilePath); //调试提示用的           
            object Nothing;
            Nothing=Missing.Value;//给Nothing一个缺省的值
            if (File.Exists((string)FilePath))
            {

                Console.WriteLine("已经有了1.xls这个文件,文件路径为: {0}", FilePath);
                Console.WriteLine(FilePath);
                // excelDoc = excelApp.Workbooks.Open(path);  //打开原来文件
            }
            else {
                Console.WriteLine("还没有1.xls这个文件",FilePath);
            }
            excelDoc = excelApp.Workbooks.Add(Nothing);//Add()中的值不定义的时候给个缺省值就好了
            Excel.Worksheet ws = (Excel.Worksheet)excelDoc.Sheets[1];
            Excel.Range i;//定义范围的变量
            i = ws.get_Range("A1", "A2");//从“A1”到“A2”的位置
            i.Value2 = "数据1";
            //WdSaveFormat为Excel文档的保存格式
            object format = Excel.XlFileFormat.xlWorkbookDefault;
            //将excelDoc文档对象的内容保存为XLSX文档
            excelDoc.SaveAs(FilePath, format, Nothing, Nothing, Nothing, Nothing, Excel.XlSaveAsAccessMode.xlExclusive, Nothing, Nothing, Nothing, Nothing, Nothing);
            excelDoc.Close(Nothing, Nothing, Nothing);
            //关闭excelApp组件对象
            excelApp.Quit();
            Console.WriteLine("创建完毕");

 

 

喝水不忘挖井人,参考的博文地址:

http://hejianlong.123.blog.163.com/blog/static/26715839200932113312156/

http://wenku.baidu.com/link?url=gA8t6GndXWmI95mavA37Vb5qI69EEpJThygePYPU4TObam2tDSLmkDqzuQWMlZb4H-bKjpjYbn9gzJhs9fliHNpnSIEfyTV0Inc0o6MhVsu

//引用Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.dll文件 
//添加using
using Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel;
using Excel=Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel;
 
//设置程序运行语言
System.Globalization.CultureInfo CurrentCI = System.Threading.Thread.CurrentThread.CurrentCulture;
System.Threading.Thread.CurrentThread.CurrentCulture = new System.Globalization.CultureInfo("en-US");
//创建Application
Excel.Application xlApp = new Excel.Application();
//设置是否显示警告窗体
excelApp.DisplayAlerts = false;
//设置是否显示Excel
excelApp.Visible = false;
//禁止刷新屏幕
excelApp.ScreenUpdating = false;
//根据路径path打开
Excel.Workbook xlsWorkBook = excelApp.Workbooks.Open(path, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing,
System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing,
System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing);
//获取Worksheet对象
Excel.Worksheet xlsWorkSheet = (Worksheet)xlsWorkBook.Worksheets["sales plan"];
 
***获取最后一行、一列的两种方法***
//获取已用的范围数据
int rowsCount = xlsWorkSheet.UsedRange.Rows.Count;
int colsCount = xlsWorkSheet.UsedRange.Columns.Count;
int rowsCount = xlsWorkSheet.get_Range("A65536", "A65536").get_End(Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlDirection.xlUp).Row;
int colsCount = xlsWorkSheet.get_Range("ZZ1", "ZZ1").get_End(Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlDirection.xlToLeft).Column;
 
***将Excel数据存入二维数组***
//rowsCount:最大行    colsCount:最大列
Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range c1 = (Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range)xlsWorkSheet.Cells[1, 1];
Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range c2 = (Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range)xlsWorkSheet.Cells[rowsCount, colsCount];
Range rng = (Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range)xlsWorkSheet.get_Range(c1, c2);
object[,] exceldata = (object[,])rng.get_Value(Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlRangeValueDataType.xlRangeValueDefault);
 
//在第一列的左边插入一列
Excel.Range xlsColumns = (Excel.Range)xlsWorkSheet.Columns[1, System.Type.Missing];
xlsColumns.Insert(XlInsertShiftDirection.xlShiftToRight, Type.Missing);
//xlsSheetTemplateMajor_Meisai.Cells.get_Range(xlsSheetTemplateMajor_Meisai.Cells[1, 1], xlsSheetTemplateMajor_Meisai.Cells[65535, 1]).Insert(Type.Missing, Type.Missing);
 Excel.Range rng;
            rng = worksheet.get_Range("A:A", "A:A");
            rng.Insert(Excel.XlDirection.xlToRight, Excel.XlInsertFormatOrigin.xlFormatFromLeftOrAbove);
Excel.Range rng = (Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range)xlsWorkSheet.Columns[12, Type.Missing];
rng.Insert(XlInsertShiftDirection.xlShiftToRight, XlInsertFormatOrigin.xlFormatFromLeftOrAbove);
 
 
//删除行
Range deleteRng = (Range)xlsWorkSheetSapExcel.Rows[2, System.Type.Missing];
deleteRng.Delete(Excel.XlDeleteShiftDirection.xlShiftUp);
 
//删除一列数据
((Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range)xlWorkSheet.Cells[1, 11]).Select();
((Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range)xlWorkSheet.Cells[1, 11]).EntireColumn.Delete(0);
((Excel.Range)xlsSheetShareMajor_Meisai.Cells[1, 3]).EntireColumn.Delete (0);
             
//设置背景色为红色
xlsWorkSheet.get_Range("A1", "A1").Interior.ColorIndex = 3;
 
//设置Format属性    属性值可以通过在vba中录宏得到
Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Range range1 = xlsWorkSheetAdd.get_Range("J1", "J65535");
range1.NumberFormat = "@";//文本格式
range1 = xlsWorkSheetAdd.get_Range("L1", "L65535");
range1.NumberFormat = "0.00";//保留两位小数
Excel.Range rng = xlsSheetShareMajor_Meisai.Columns["I", System.Type.Missing] as Excel.Range;
rng.NumberFormatLocal =@"yyyy/m/d";//设置日期格式
 
 
//替换
Range Drng = xlsWorkSheetTemplate.get_Range("D1", "D65535");
Drng.Replace(" ", "", XlLookAt.xlPart, XlSearchOrder.xlByColumns, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing);
Drng.TextToColumns(Drng, Excel.XlTextParsingType.xlDelimited, Excel.XlTextQualifier.xlTextQualifierSingleQuote, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing);
 
//分列处理 设置为文本
Range TextToColumnRng = xlsWorkSheet.get_Range("E1", "E65535");
xlsWorkSheet.get_Range("E1", "E65535").TextToColumns(TextToColumnRng, Excel.XlTextParsingType.xlDelimited, Excel.XlTextQualifier.xlTextQualifierSingleQuote, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing, System.Type.Missing);
 
//设置公式
rng = xlMergeFileWorkSheet.get_Range("D2", "D" + rowcount);//设置列范围
rng.Formula = @"=IF(RC[-3]=""H"",""Survivor"",""Donor"")";//设置公式   @的问题
//rng.NumberFormat = "$0.00";//设置格式
copyRng = xlsSheetTemplateMajor_Meisai.get_Range("N3", "N" + lastRowTemplate);
copyRng.Formula = "=VLOOKUP(RC[-12],AR残!C[-13]:C[-11],2,0)";
 
//通过行、列的索引获取值
string f = Convert.ToString(xlsSheetShareMajor_Meisai.get_Range(xlsSheetShareMajor_Meisai.Cells[2, 1], xlsSheetShareMajor_Meisai.Cells[2,1]).Value2);
 
//筛选
//确定筛选范围
D1_rng = D1_TemSheet.Cells.get_Range(D1_TemSheet.Cells[1, 1], D1_TemSheet.Cells[1, 50]);
//执行筛选动作
rng.AutoFilter(5, "S", Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlAutoFilterOperator.xlFilterValues, Type.Missing, true);
rng.AutoFilter(6, "H", Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlAutoFilterOperator.xlOr, "F", true);
D1_rng.AutoFilter(D1_Column + 2, "#N/A", Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlAutoFilterOperator.xlFilterValues,"#N/A",false);
 
//复制粘贴
D2_rng.Copy(Type.Missing);
D2_TemSheet.Cells.get_Range(D2_TemSheet.Cells[2, (D2_Column + 1)], D2_TemSheet.Cells[2, (D2_Column + 1)]).PasteSpecial(Excel.XlPasteType.xlPasteValues, Excel.XlPasteSpecialOperation.xlPasteSpecialOperationNone, false, false);
 
 
//Find查找
rng = mySheet.get_Range("A1", "IV10").Find(arrLabel[j], Type.Missing,
                        Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlFindLookIn.xlValues, Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlLookAt.xlWhole,
                        Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlSearchOrder.xlByRows,
                        Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlSearchDirection.xlNext, false, Type.Missing, Type.Missing);
 
//文字占满单元格
range.EntireColumn.AutoFit();
 
//另存
xlsWorkBook.SaveAs(FileName, Type.Missing, Type.Missing, Type.Missing, Type.Missing, Type.Missing, XlSaveAsAccessMode.xlNoChange, Type.Missing, Type.Missing, Type.Missing, Type.Missing, Type.Missing);
 
***关闭对象***
System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal.ReleaseComObject(xlsWorkSheet);
System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal.ReleaseComObject(xlsWorkBook);
excelApp.Quit();
Kill(excelApp);//调用方法关闭进程
GC.Collect();
 
/// <summary>
/// 关闭Excel进程
/// </summary>
public class KeyMyExcelProcess
{
    [DllImport("User32.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Auto)]
    public static extern int GetWindowThreadProcessId(IntPtr hwnd, out int ID);
    public static void Kill(Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Application excel)
    {
        try
        {
            IntPtr t = new IntPtr(excel.Hwnd);   //得到这个句柄,具体作用是得到这块内存入口
            int k = 0;
            GetWindowThreadProcessId(t, out k);   //得到本进程唯一标志k
            System.Diagnostics.Process p = System.Diagnostics.Process.GetProcessById(k);   //得到对进程k的引用
            p.Kill();     //关闭进程k
        }
        catch (System.Exception ex)
        {
            throw ex;
        }
    }
}
     
     
//关闭打开的Excel方法
 public void CloseExcel(Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Application ExcelApplication, Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.Workbook ExcelWorkbook)
{
   ExcelWorkbook.Close(false, Type.Missing, Type.Missing);
   ExcelWorkbook = null;
   ExcelApplication.Quit();
   GC.Collect();
   KeyMyExcelProcess.Kill(ExcelApplication);
}

0. 导入命名空间: 

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using Microsoft.Office.Core;

using Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel;

using System.IO;

using System.Reflection;

  

1. 如何打开已有excel文档,或者创建一个新的excel文档 

 

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Application app = new Application();

Workbooks wbks = app.Workbooks;

_Workbook _wbk = wbks.Add(xxx);

若打开已有excel,把“xxx”替换成该excel的文件路径;

注:若新建一个excel文档,“xxx”替换成true即可;不过这里新建的excel文档默认只有一个sheet。

  

2. 取得、删除和添加sheet

 

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Sheets shs = _wbk.Sheets;

2.1取得:

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//i是要取得的sheet的index

_Worksheet _wsh = (_Worksheet)shs.get_Item(i)

2.2 删除:

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//删除sheet必须的设置

app.DisplayAlerts = false;

_wsh.Delete();

2.3 添加:

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/a(before),b(after):确定添加位置;c:数目;d:类型

app.Worksheets.Add(a,b,c,d);

2.4 sheet的重命名

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_wsh.Name = "xxx";

3. 删除行和列 

3.1 删除行:

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((Range)_wsh.Rows[3, Missing.Value]).Delete(XlDeleteShiftDirection.xlShiftUp);

3.2 删除列:

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_wsh.get_Range(

_wsh.Cells[1, 2],

_wsh.Cells[_wsh.Rows.Count, 2]).Delete(XlDeleteShiftDirection.xlShiftToLeft

);

4. 添加行和列 

4.1 添加行:

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((Range)_wsh.Rows[11, Missing.Value])

.Insert(Missing.Value, XlInsertFormatOrigin.xlFormatFromLeftOrAbove);

4.2 添加列:

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_wsh.get_Range(

_wsh.Cells[1, 1], _wsh.Cells[_wsh.Rows.Count, 1])

.Insert(Missing.Value, XlInsertShiftDirection.xlShiftToRight);

5. 单元格操作 

5.1 单元格的取得

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//获得单元格对象

_wsh.Cells[row, cell]

5.2 设置公式

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//在对应的单元格输入公式即可

_wsh.Cells[row, cell] = "=Sum(A1/B1)"; 

5.3 合并单元格

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((Range)_wsh.Rows[1, Missing.Value]).Merge(Missing.Value);

5.4 设置行高和列宽

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((Range)_wsh.Rows[3, Missing.Value]).RowHeight = 5;

((Range)_wsh.Rows[3, Missing.Value]).ColumnWidth = 5;

5.5 设置单元格颜色 颜色共有56中,详情请参照附录的[颜色对照表]

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((Range)_wsh.Rows[1, Missing.Value]).Interior.ColorIndex = 3;

5.6 设置字号

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((Range)_wsh.Cells[1, "B"]).Font.Size = 8;

5.7 是否设置粗体

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((Range)_wsh.Rows[1, Missing.Value]).Font.Bold = false;

5.8 单元格/区域、水平垂直居中

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((Range)_wsh.Cells[2, 1]).HorizontalAlignment = XlVAlign.xlVAlignCenter;

5.9 设置区域边框

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((Range)_wsh.Cells[3, 3]).Borders.LineStyle = 3;

5.10 设置边框的上、下、左、右线条

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//左

_wsh.get_Range(

_wsh.Cells[2, 1], _wsh.Cells[2, 2])

.Borders[XlBordersIndex.xlEdgeLeft].Weight = XlBorderWeight.xlThick;//

  

//右

_wsh.get_Range(

_wsh.Cells[2, 1], _wsh.Cells[2, 2])

.Borders[XlBordersIndex.xlEdgeRight].Weight = XlBorderWeight.xlThick;//

  

//上

_wsh.get_Range(

_wsh.Cells[2, 1], _wsh.Cells[2, 2])

.Borders[XlBordersIndex.xlEdgeTop].Weight = XlBorderWeight.xlThick;//下

  

//下

_wsh.get_Range(

_wsh.Cells[2, 1], _wsh.Cells[2, 2])

.Borders[XlBordersIndex.xlEdgeBottom].Weight = XlBorderWeight.xlThick;

6. 指定区域的复制 

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_Worksheet _wsh = (_Worksheet)shs.get_Item(1);//复制选中区域的内容

  

Range range = _wsh.get_Range(_wsh.Cells[7, 1], _wsh.Cells[10, _wsh.Columns.Count]);

  

range.Select();

range.Copy(Type.Missing);

  

//选中粘贴的起始位置

Range test = ((Range)_wsh.Cells[11, 1]);

test.Select();

  

//屏蔽掉Alert,默认确定粘贴

app.DisplayAlerts = false;

test.Parse(Missing.Value, Missing.Value);

注:Type.Missing和Missing.Value,在excel的操作中被视为某些参数的默认值,他们起到的作用很多时候是形式补足参数

 

7. excel文件的保存,及后续处理 

7.1 文件保存

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//屏蔽掉系统跳出的Alert

app.AlertBeforeOverwriting = false;

  

//保存到指定目录

SaveAs(filePath, Missing.Value, Missing.Value, Missing.Value, Missing.Value, Missing.Value, Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel.XlSaveAsAccessMode.xlNoChange, Missing.Value, Missing.Value, Missing.Value, Missing.Value, Missing.Value);

注:这个地方只能采用该方法保存,不然在指定路径下保存文件外,在我的文档中也会生成一个对应的副本

7.2 后续处理:退出和释放

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//_wbk.Close(null, null, null);

//wbks.Close();

app.Quit();

  

//释放掉多余的excel进程

System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal.ReleaseComObject(app);

app = null;

说明:在application关闭的过程中,通常我们有两种方案:

#直接退出app

#先关闭workbook,然后关闭workbooks,最后在退出app

鉴于这两种方式,或许本质上是一样的(这点需要证明),但是依据我们软件开发的原则:哪里需要哪里声明,哪里结束哪里释放回收。

既然在直接退出app的时候,我们不清楚workbook和workbooks具体在什么时间关闭,不如在结束的时候直接手动关闭,这样做可以做到资源的快速直接回收;

所以,建议采用先关闭workbook,然后关闭workbooks,最后在退出app。

 

8. 关于单元格设置域和取得域里需要的数据 

8.1 若单元格已经设置为下拉框

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//这里的“1,2,3”设置的就是下拉框的值

((Range)_wsh.Cells[2, 1])

.Validation.Modify(XlDVType.xlValidateList, XlDVAlertStyle.xlValidAlertStop, Type.Missing, "1,2,3", Type.Missing);

8.2 若单元格还没有设置为下拉框的形式

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((Range)_wsh.Cells[2, 1])

.Validation.Add(XlDVType.xlValidateList, XlDVAlertStyle.xlValidAlertStop, Type.Missing,"1,2,3", Type.Missing);

8.3 取得下拉框域的值

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string strValue = ((Range)_wsh.Cells[2, 1]).Validation.Formula1;

注:若在excel模板中通过有效性设定了下拉框的值,strValue得到的将会是excel里的公式,需将其转换, 取得strValue后,可以根据其索引得到你需要的数值;

 

9. 隐藏行和隐藏列 

9.1 隐藏行

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_wsh.get_Range(_wsh.Cells[19, 1], _wsh.Cells[22, 1]).EntireRow.Hidden = true;

9.2 隐藏列

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_wsh.get_Range(_wsh.Cells[1, 1], _wsh.Cells[_wsh.Rows.Count, 1])

.EntireColumn.Hidden = true;

 

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