第14章 Linux终端设备驱动之URAT设备驱动

14.6 UART(通用异步收发器)设备驱动

    一个特定的 UART 设备驱动完全可以定义tty_driver 并实现 tty_operations 其中的成员函数,但Linux 已经在serial_core.c 中实现UART 设备的通用 tty 驱动层(串口核心层),UART 驱动的主要任务演变成实现 

serial-core.c 中定义的一组 uart_xxx 接口。如图 14.4 所示。


14.4 串口核心层

    serial_core.c 串口核心层完全可以被当作 tty 设备驱动的实例,实现了 UART设备的 tty 驱动。这体现了软件工程中设备驱动的分层思想

    串口核心层为串口设备驱动提供了如下 3 个结构体。

1.uart_driver

    uart_driver 包含串口设备的驱动名、设备名、设备号等信息,uart_driver封装了 tty_driver,使得底层的 UART 驱动无需关心 tty_driver,其定义如代码清单 14.13 所示。

代码清单 14.13 uart_driver 结构体

include/linux/serial_core.h

struct uart_driver {
        struct module           *owner;
        const char              *driver_name;/* 驱动名 */
        const char              *dev_name;/* 设备名 */
        int                      major;/* 主设备号 */
        int                      minor;/* 次设备号 */
        int                      nr;

        struct console          *cons;

        /*
         * these are private; the low level driver should not
         * touch these; they should be initialised to NULL
         */
        struct uart_state       *state;
        struct tty_driver       *tty_driver;
};

注册/注销 uart_driver,使用如下接口:

int uart_register_driver(struct uart_driver *drv);

void uart_unregister_driver(struct uart_driver *drv);

uart_register_driver()和 uart_unregister_driver()中分别包含了 tty_register_driver()和tty_unregister_driver()的操作,如代码清单 14.14 所示。

代码清单 14.14 uart_register_driver()和 uart_unregister_driver()函数

drivers/serial/serial_core.c 

int uart_register_driver(struct uart_driver *drv)
{
struct tty_driver *normal = NULL;
int i, retval;

BUG_ON(drv->state);

/*
* Maybe we should be using a slab cache for this, especially if
* we have a large number of ports to handle.
*/
drv->state = kzalloc(sizeof(struct uart_state) * drv->nr, GFP_KERNEL);
retval = -ENOMEM;
if (!drv->state)
goto out;

normal  = alloc_tty_driver(drv->nr);
if (!normal)
goto out;

drv->tty_driver = normal;

normal->owner = drv->owner;
normal->driver_name = drv->driver_name;
normal->name = drv->dev_name;
normal->major = drv->major;
normal->minor_start = drv->minor;
normal->type = TTY_DRIVER_TYPE_SERIAL;
normal->subtype = SERIAL_TYPE_NORMAL;
normal->init_termios = tty_std_termios;
normal->init_termios.c_cflag = B9600 | CS8 | CREAD | HUPCL | CLOCAL;
normal->init_termios.c_ispeed = normal->init_termios.c_ospeed = 9600;
normal->flags = TTY_DRIVER_REAL_RAW | TTY_DRIVER_DYNAMIC_DEV;
normal->driver_state    = drv;
tty_set_operations(normal, &uart_ops);

/*
* Initialise the UART state(s).
*/
for (i = 0; i < drv->nr; i++) {
struct uart_state *state = drv->state + i;
state->close_delay     = 500; /* .5 seconds */
state->closing_wait    = 30000; /* 30 seconds */
mutex_init(&state->mutex);
}

retval = tty_register_driver(normal);
 out:
if (retval < 0) {
put_tty_driver(normal);
kfree(drv->state);
}
return retval;
}

void uart_unregister_driver(struct uart_driver *drv)
{
struct tty_driver *p = drv->tty_driver;
tty_unregister_driver(p);
put_tty_driver(p);
kfree(drv->state);
drv->tty_driver = NULL;
}

2.uart_port

    uart_port 用于描述一个 UART 端口(直接对应于一个串口)的 I/O 端口或 I/O 内存地址、FIFO大小、端口类型等信息,其定义如代码清单 14.15。

代码清单 14.15 uart_port 结构体

include/linux/serial_core.h

struct uart_port {
        spinlock_t              lock;                   /* port lock */
        unsigned int            iobase;                 /* in/out[bwl] */
        unsigned char __iomem   *membase;               /* read/write[bwl] */
        unsigned int            irq;                    /* irq number */
        unsigned int            uartclk;                /* base uart clock */
        unsigned int            fifosize;               /* tx fifo size */
        unsigned char           x_char;                 /* xon/xoff char */
        unsigned char           regshift;               /* reg offset shift */
        unsigned char           iotype;                 /* io access style */
        unsigned char           unused1;

#define UPIO_PORT               (0)
#define UPIO_HUB6               (1)
#define UPIO_MEM                (2)
#define UPIO_MEM32              (3)
#define UPIO_AU                 (4)                     /* Au1x00 type IO */
#define UPIO_TSI                (5)                     /* Tsi108/109 type IO */
#define UPIO_DWAPB              (6)                     /* DesignWare APB UART */
#define UPIO_RM9000             (7)                     /* RM9000 type IO */

        unsigned int            read_status_mask;       /* driver specific */
        unsigned int            ignore_status_mask;     /* driver specific */
        struct uart_info        *info;                  /* pointer to parent info */
        struct uart_icount      icount;                 /* statistics */
        struct console          *cons;                  /* struct console, if any */
#ifdef CONFIG_SERIAL_CORE_CONSOLE
        unsigned long           sysrq;                  /* sysrq timeout */
#endif
        upf_t                   flags;

#define UPF_FOURPORT            ((__force upf_t) (1 << 1))
#define UPF_SAK                 ((__force upf_t) (1 << 2))
#define UPF_SPD_MASK            ((__force upf_t) (0x1030))
#define UPF_SPD_HI              ((__force upf_t) (0x0010))
#define UPF_SPD_VHI             ((__force upf_t) (0x0020))
#define UPF_SPD_CUST            ((__force upf_t) (0x0030))
#define UPF_SPD_SHI             ((__force upf_t) (0x1000))
#define UPF_SPD_WARP            ((__force upf_t) (0x1010))
#define UPF_SKIP_TEST           ((__force upf_t) (1 << 6))
#define UPF_AUTO_IRQ            ((__force upf_t) (1 << 7))
#define UPF_HARDPPS_CD          ((__force upf_t) (1 << 11))
#define UPF_LOW_LATENCY         ((__force upf_t) (1 << 13))
#define UPF_BUGGY_UART          ((__force upf_t) (1 << 14))
#define UPF_MAGIC_MULTIPLIER    ((__force upf_t) (1 << 16))
#define UPF_CONS_FLOW           ((__force upf_t) (1 << 23))
#define UPF_SHARE_IRQ           ((__force upf_t) (1 << 24))
#define UPF_BOOT_AUTOCONF       ((__force upf_t) (1 << 28))
#define UPF_FIXED_PORT          ((__force upf_t) (1 << 29))
#define UPF_DEAD                ((__force upf_t) (1 << 30))
#define UPF_IOREMAP             ((__force upf_t) (1 << 31))

#define UPF_CHANGE_MASK         ((__force upf_t) (0x17fff))
#define UPF_USR_MASK            ((__force upf_t) (UPF_SPD_MASK|UPF_LOW_LATENCY))

        unsigned int            mctrl;                  /* current modem ctrl settings */
        unsigned int            timeout;                /* character-based timeout */
        unsigned int            type;                   /* port type */
        const struct uart_ops   *ops;
        unsigned int            custom_divisor;
        unsigned int            line;                   /* port index */
        unsigned long           mapbase;                /* for ioremap */
        struct device           *dev;                   /* parent device */
        unsigned char           hub6;                   /* this should be in the 8250 driver */
        unsigned char           unused[3];
        void                    *private_data;          /* generic platform data pointer */
};

串口核心层提供如下函数来添加一个端口:

int uart_add_one_port(struct uart_driver *drv, struct uart_port *port);

这个函数的调用应该发生在 uart_register_driver()之后,uart_add_one_port()的一个最重要作用是封装了 tty_register_device()。

int uart_add_one_port(struct uart_driver *drv, struct uart_port *port)
{
struct uart_state *state;
int ret = 0;

BUG_ON(in_interrupt());

if (port->line >= drv->nr)
return -EINVAL;

state = drv->state + port->line;

mutex_lock(&port_mutex);
mutex_lock(&state->mutex);
if (state->port) {
ret = -EINVAL;
goto out;
}

state->port = port;
port->cons = drv->cons;
port->info = state->info;
/*
* If this port is a console, then the spinlock is already
* initialised.
*/
if (!(uart_console(port) && (port->cons->flags & CON_ENABLED))) {
spin_lock_init(&port->lock);
lockdep_set_class(&port->lock, &port_lock_key);
}

uart_configure_port(drv, state, port);

/*
* Register the port whether it's detected or not.  This allows
* setserial to be used to alter this ports parameters.
*/
tty_register_device(drv->tty_driver, port->line, port->dev);

/*
* If this driver supports console, and it hasn't been
* successfully registered yet, try to re-register it.
* It may be that the port was not available.
*/
if (port->type != PORT_UNKNOWN &&
    port->cons && !(port->cons->flags & CON_ENABLED))
register_console(port->cons);

/*
* Ensure UPF_DEAD is not set.
*/
port->flags &= ~UPF_DEAD;

 out:
mutex_unlock(&state->mutex);
mutex_unlock(&port_mutex);

return ret;
}

串口核心层提供如下函数来移除一个端口:

int uart_remove_one_port(struct uart_driver *drv, struct uart_port *port);

其中会调用 tty_unregister_device()。

int uart_remove_one_port(struct uart_driver *drv, struct uart_port *port)
{
struct uart_state *state = drv->state + port->line;
struct uart_info *info;

BUG_ON(in_interrupt());

if (state->port != port)
printk(KERN_ALERT "Removing wrong port: %p != %p\n",
state->port, port);

mutex_lock(&port_mutex);

/*
* Mark the port "dead" - this prevents any opens from
* succeeding while we shut down the port.
*/
mutex_lock(&state->mutex);
port->flags |= UPF_DEAD;
mutex_unlock(&state->mutex);

/*
* Remove the devices from the tty layer
*/
tty_unregister_device(drv->tty_driver, port->line);

info = state->info;
if (info && info->tty)
tty_vhangup(info->tty);

/*
* All users of this port should now be disconnected from
* this driver, and the port shut down.  We should be the
* only thread fiddling with this port from now on.
*/
state->info = NULL;

/*
* Free the port IO and memory resources, if any.
*/
if (port->type != PORT_UNKNOWN)
port->ops->release_port(port);

/*
* Indicate that there isn't a port here anymore.
*/
port->type = PORT_UNKNOWN;

/*
* Kill the tasklet, and free resources.
*/
if (info) {
tasklet_kill(&info->tlet);
kfree(info);
}

state->port = NULL;
mutex_unlock(&port_mutex);

return 0;

}

3.uart_ops

    uart_ops 定义针对 UART 的一系列操作,包括发送、接收及线路设置等,其定义如代码清单 14.16。Linux 驱动中面向对象编程中基类、派生类的关系,派生类(子类)针对特定的事物会更加具体,而基类(父类)则站在更高的抽象层次上。

代码清单 14.16 uart_ops 结构体

include/linux/serial_core.h

/*
 * This structure describes all the operations that can be
 * done on the physical hardware.
 */
struct uart_ops {
        unsigned int    (*tx_empty)(struct uart_port *);
        void            (*set_mctrl)(struct uart_port *, unsigned int mctrl);
        unsigned int    (*get_mctrl)(struct uart_port *);
        void            (*stop_tx)(struct uart_port *);
        void            (*start_tx)(struct uart_port *);
        void            (*send_xchar)(struct uart_port *, char ch);
        void            (*stop_rx)(struct uart_port *);
        void            (*enable_ms)(struct uart_port *);
        void            (*break_ctl)(struct uart_port *, int ctl);
        int             (*startup)(struct uart_port *);
        void            (*shutdown)(struct uart_port *);
        void            (*set_termios)(struct uart_port *, struct ktermios *new, struct ktermios *old);
        void            (*pm)(struct uart_port *, unsigned int state, unsigned int oldstate);
        int             (*set_wake)(struct uart_port *, unsigned int state);

        /*一个描述端口类型的字符串 */
        const char *(*type)(struct uart_port *);

       /* 释放该端口使用的 I/O 和 memory 资源 */
        void            (*release_port)(struct uart_port *);

        /* 申请该端口使用的 I/O 和 memory 资源 */
        int             (*request_port)(struct uart_port *);
        void            (*config_port)(struct uart_port *, int);
        int             (*verify_port)(struct uart_port *, struct serial_struct *);
        int             (*ioctl)(struct uart_port *, unsigned int, unsigned long);
};

分析:

    serial_core.c 中定义 tty_operations 的实例,包含 uart_open()、uart_close()、uart_write()、uart_send_xchar()等成员函数(如代码清单 14.17)。

      static const struct tty_operations uart_ops = {
        .open = uart_open,
        .close = uart_close,
        .write = uart_write,
        .put_char = uart_put_char,
        .flush_chars = uart_flush_chars,
        .write_room = uart_write_room,
        .chars_in_buffer= uart_chars_in_buffer,
        .flush_buffer = uart_flush_buffer,
        .ioctl = uart_ioctl,
        .throttle = uart_throttle,
        .unthrottle = uart_unthrottle,
        .send_xchar = uart_send_xchar,
        .set_termios = uart_set_termios,
        .stop = uart_stop,
        .start = uart_start,
        .hangup = uart_hangup,
        .break_ctl = uart_break_ctl,
        .wait_until_sent= uart_wait_until_sent,
        #ifdef CONFIG_PROC_FS
        .read_proc = uart_read_proc,
        #endif
        .tiocmget = uart_tiocmget,
        .tiocmset = uart_tiocmset,
};

        这些函数借助 uart_ops 结构体中的成员函数来完成具体的操作,代码清单14.18所示为tty_operations的uart_send_xchar()成员函数利用uart_ops中 start_tx()、send_xchar()成员函数的例子。

    代码清单 14.18 串口核心层的 tty_operations 与 uart_ops 关系

static void uart_send_xchar(struct tty_struct *tty, char ch)
{
struct uart_state *state = tty->driver_data;
struct uart_port *port = state->port;
unsigned long flags;

        /* 如果 uart_ops 中实现send_xchar 成员函数 */

if (port->ops->send_xchar)
port->ops->send_xchar(port, ch);
else {    /* uart_ops 中未实现 send_xchar 成员函数 */
port->x_char = ch;
if (ch) {
spin_lock_irqsave(&port->lock, flags);
port->ops->start_tx(port);/* 发送 xchar */
spin_unlock_irqrestore(&port->lock, flags);
}
}
}

总结:

在使用串口核心层这个通用串口 tty 驱动层的接口后,一个串口驱动主要完成的工作如下。

1、定义 uart_driver、uart_ops、uart_port 等结构体的实例,在适当的地方根据具体硬件和驱动的情况初始化,具体设备 xxx 的驱动可以将这些结构套在新定义的 xxx_uart_driver、xxx_uart_ops、xxx_uart_port 之内。

2、在模块初始化时调用 uart_register_driver()和 uart_add_one_port()以注册 UART 驱动并添加端口,在模块卸载时调用 uart_unregister_driver()和 uart_remove_one_port()以注销 UART 驱动并移除端口。

3、根据具体硬件的 datasheet 实现 uart_ops 中的成员函数,这些函数的实现成为 UART 驱动的主体工作。


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