tomcat负载均衡和集群

 (一)环境说明
(1)服务器有4台,一台安装apache,三台安装tomcat
(2)apache2.0.55、tomcat5.5.15、jk2.0.4、jdk1.5.6或jdk1.4.2
(3)ip配置,一台安装apache的ip为192.168.0.88,三台安装tomcat的服务器ip分别为192.168.0.1/2/4
(二)安装过程
(1)在三台要安装tomcat的服务器上先安装jdk
(2)配置jdk的安装路径,在环境变量path中加入jdk的bin路径,新建环境变量JAVA_HOME指向jdk的安装路径
(3)在三台要安装tomcat的服务器上分别安装tomcat,调试三个tomcat到能够正常启动
(4)tomcat的默认WEB服务端口是8080,默认的模式是单独服务,我的三个tomcat的WEB服务端口修改为7080/8888/9999
修改位置为tomcat的安装目录下的conf/server.xml
修改前的配置为
    <Connector port="8080" maxHttpHeaderSize="8192"
               maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"
               enableLookups="false" redirectPort="8443" acceptCount="100"
               connectionTimeout="20000" disableUploadTimeout="true" />
修改后的配置为
    <Connector port="7080" maxHttpHeaderSize="8192"
               maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"
               enableLookups="false" redirectPort="8443" acceptCount="100"
               connectionTimeout="20000" disableUploadTimeout="true" />
依次修改每个tomcat的监听端口(7080/8888/9999)

(5)分别测试每个tomcat的启动是否正常
http://192.168.0.1:7080
http://192.168.0.2:8888
http://192.168.0.4:9999
(三)负载均衡配置过程
(1)在那台要安装apache的服务器上安装apache2.0.55,我的安装路径为默认C:\Program Files\Apache Group\Apache2
(2)安装后测试apache能否正常启动,调试到能够正常启动http://192.168.0.88
(3)下载jk2.0.4后解压缩文件
(4)将解压缩后的目录中的modules目录中的mod_jk2.so文件复制到apache的安装目录下的modules目录中,我的为C:\Program Files\Apache Group\Apache2\modules
(5)修改apache的安装目录中的conf目录的配置文件httpd.conf,在文件中加LoadModule模块配置信息的最后加上一句LoadModule jk2_module modules/mod_jk2.so
(6)分别修改三个tomcat的配置文件conf/server.xml,修改内容如下
修改前
    <!-- An Engine represents the entry point (within Catalina) that processes
         every request.  The Engine implementation for Tomcat stand alone
         analyzes the HTTP headers included with the request, and passes them
         on to the appropriate Host (virtual host). -->

    <!-- You should set jvmRoute to support load-balancing via AJP ie :
    <Engine name="Standalone" defaultHost="localhost" jvmRoute="jvm1">       
    -->
       
    <!-- Define the top level container in our container hierarchy -->
    <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost">
修改后
    <!-- An Engine represents the entry point (within Catalina) that processes
         every request.  The Engine implementation for Tomcat stand alone
         analyzes the HTTP headers included with the request, and passes them
         on to the appropriate Host (virtual host). -->

    <!-- You should set jvmRoute to support load-balancing via AJP ie :-->
    <Engine name="Standalone" defaultHost="localhost" jvmRoute="tomcat1">       
   
       
    <!-- Define the top level container in our container hierarchy
    <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost">
    -->
将其中的jvmRoute="jvm1"分别修改为jvmRoute="tomcat1"和jvmRoute="tomcat2"和jvmRoute="tomcat3"

(7)然后重启三个tomcat,调试能够正常启动。
(8)在apache的安装目录中的conf目录下创建文件workers2.propertie,写入文件内容如下

# fine the communication channel
[channel.socket:192.168.0.1:8009]
info=Ajp13 forwarding over socket
#配置第一个服务器
tomcatId=tomcat1 #要和tomcat的配置文件server.xml中的jvmRoute="tomcat1"名称一致
debug=0
lb_factor=1 #负载平衡因子,数字越大请求被分配的几率越高

# Define the communication channel
[channel.socket:192.168.0.2:8009]
info=Ajp13 forwarding over socket
tomcatId=tomcat2
debug=0
lb_factor=1

# Define the communication channel
[channel.socket:192.168.0.4:8009]
info=Ajp13 forwarding over socket
tomcatId=tomcat3
debug=0
lb_factor=1

[status:]
info=Status worker, displays runtime information. 

[uri:/jkstatus.jsp]
info=Display status information and checks the config file for changes.
group=status:

[uri:/*]
info=Map the whole webapp
debug=0
(9)在三个tomcat的安装目录中的webapps建立相同的应用,我和应用目录名为TomcatDemo,在三个应用目录中建立相同 WEB-INF目录和页面index.jsp,index.jsp的页面内容如下
<%@ page contentType="text/html; charset=GBK" %>
<%@ page import="java.util.*" %>
<html><head><title>Cluster App Test</title></head>
<body>
Server Info:
<%
out.println(request.getLocalAddr() + " : " + request.getLocalPort()+"<br>");%>
<%
  out.println("<br> ID " + session.getId()+"<br>");

  // 如果有新的 Session 属性设置
  String dataName = request.getParameter("dataName");
  if (dataName != null && dataName.length() > 0) {
     String dataValue = request.getParameter("dataValue");
     session.setAttribute(dataName, dataValue);
  }

  out.print("<b>Session 列表</b>");

  Enumeration e = session.getAttributeNames();
  while (e.hasMoreElements()) {
     String name = (String)e.nextElement();
     String value = session.getAttribute(name).toString();
     out.println( name + " = " + value+"<br>");
         System.out.println( name + " = " + value);
   }
%>
  <form action="index.jsp" method="POST">
    名称:<input type=text size=20 name="dataName">
     <br>
    值:<input type=text size=20 name="dataValue">
     <br>
    <input type=submit>
   </form>
</body>
</html>
(10)重启apache服务器和三个tomcat服务器,到此负载 均衡已配置完成。测试负载均衡先测试apache,访问http://192.168.0.88/jkstatus.jsp
能否正常访问,并查询其中的内容,有三个tomcat的相关配置信息和负载说明,访问http://192.168.0.88/TomcatDemo/index.jsp看能够运行,
能运行,则已建立负载均衡。
(四)tomcat集群配置
(1)负载均衡配置的条件下配置tomcat集群
(2)分别修改三个tomcat的配置文件conf/server.xml,修改内容如下
修改前
        <!--
        <Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster"
                 managerClassName="org.apache.catalina.cluster.session.DeltaManager"
                 expireSessionsOnShutdown="false"
                 useDirtyFlag="true"
                 notifyListenersOnReplication="true">

            <Membership
                className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.mcast.McastService"
                mcastAddr="228.0.0.4"
                mcastPort="45564"
                mcastFrequency="500"
                mcastDropTime="3000"/>

            <Receiver
                className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.tcp.ReplicationListener"
                tcpListenAddress="auto"
                tcpListenPort="4001"
                tcpSelectorTimeout="100"
                tcpThreadCount="6"/>

            <Sender
                className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.tcp.ReplicationTransmitter"
                replicationMode="pooled"
                ackTimeout="5000"/>

            <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.tcp.ReplicationValve"
                   filter=".*\.gif;.*\.js;.*\.jpg;.*\.png;.*\.htm;.*\.html;.*\.css;.*\.txt;"/>
                 
            <Deployer className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.deploy.FarmWarDeployer"
                      tempDir="/tmp/war-temp/"
                      deployDir="/tmp/war-deploy/"
                      watchDir="/tmp/war-listen/"
                      watchEnabled="false"/>
                     
            <ClusterListener className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.session.ClusterSessionListener"/>
        </Cluster>
        --> 
修改后
        <!-- modify by whh -->
        <Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster"
                 managerClassName="org.apache.catalina.cluster.session.DeltaManager"
                 expireSessionsOnShutdown="false"
                 useDirtyFlag="true"
                 notifyListenersOnReplication="true">

            <Membership
                className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.mcast.McastService"
                mcastAddr="228.0.0.4"
                mcastPort="45564"
                mcastFrequency="500"
                mcastDropTime="3000"/>

            <Receiver
                className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.tcp.ReplicationListener"
                tcpListenAddress="auto"
                tcpListenPort="4001"
                tcpSelectorTimeout="100"
                tcpThreadCount="6"/>

            <Sender
                className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.tcp.ReplicationTransmitter"
                replicationMode="pooled"
                ackTimeout="5000"/>

            <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.tcp.ReplicationValve"
                   filter=".*\.gif;.*\.js;.*\.jpg;.*\.png;.*\.htm;.*\.html;.*\.css;.*\.txt;"/>
                 
            <Deployer className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.deploy.FarmWarDeployer"
                      tempDir="/tmp/war-temp/"
                      deployDir="/tmp/war-deploy/"
                      watchDir="/tmp/war-listen/"
                      watchEnabled="false"/>
                     
            <ClusterListener className="org.apache.catalina.cluster.session.ClusterSessionListener"/>
        </Cluster>
       <!-- modify by whh -->     
将集群配置选项的注释放开即可,如上。
(3)重启三个tomcat。到此tomcat的集群已配置完成。

(五)应用配置
对于要进行负载和集群的的tomcat目录下的webapps中的应用中的WEB-INF中的web.xml文件要添加如下一句配置
<distributable/>
配置前
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee/web-app_2_4.xsd" version="2.4">
  <display-name>TomcatDemo</display-name>
</web-app>
配置后
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee/web-app_2_4.xsd" version="2.4">
  <display-name>TomcatDemo</display-name>
   <distributable/>
</web-app>

tomcat集群和负载均衡的实现(session同步)补充
因为tomcat的session同步功能需要用到组播,windows默认情况下是开通组播服务的,但是linux默认情况下并没有开通,可以通过指令打开route add -net 224.0.0.0 netmask 240.0.0.0 dev eth0,如果需要服务器启动时即开通组播需在/etc/sysconfig/static-routes文件内加入eht0 net 224.0.0.0 netmask 240.0.0.0。具体组播概念请查阅CCNP相关内容。
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