JVM 类装载原理分析-ClassLoader原理分析

  Java应用环境中不同的class分别由不同的ClassLoader负责加载。JVM提供了三个默认的ClassLoader:Bootstrap ClassLoader、Extension ClassLoader、App ClassLoader, 其中Bootstrap ClassLoader是JVM级别的,由C++编写,Extension ClassLoader、App ClassLoader都是Java类,继承自URLClassLoader超类。Bootstrap ClassLoader由JVM启动,然后初始化sun.misc.Launcher, sun.misc.Launcher初始化Extension ClassLoader和App ClassLoader。
  三个默认ClassLoader关系为:Bootstrap ClassLoader是Extension ClassLoader的parent,Extension ClassLoader是App ClassLoader的parent,但这并不是继承关系,只是语意上的定义,基本上每一个ClassLoader实现,都有一个Parent ClassLoader,可通过getParent()方法获取当前ClassLoader的parent。Bootstrap ClassLoader比较特殊,因为它不是Java class,所以Extension ClassLoader的getParent()方法返回NULL。如下:

public class Test {

    public static void main(String [] args) {

        ClassLoader cl = Test.class.getClassLoader();

        while (cl != null) {
            System.out.println(cl + "'s parent ClassLoader is " + cl.getParent());
            cl = cl.getParent();
        }
    }

}

返回结果:
sun.misc.Launcher$AppClassLoader@18b4aac2's parent ClassLoader is sun.misc.Launcher$ExtClassLoader@4617c264
sun.misc.Launcher$ExtClassLoader@4617c264's parent ClassLoader is null
  • 1. Bootstrap ClassLoader
      Bootstrap ClassLoader称为启动类加载器,是Java类加载层次中最顶级的加载,负责加载JDK中的核心类库,如:rt.jar、resource.jar、charsets.jar等,Bootstrap类加载器的加载目录由系统属性(sun.boot.class.path)指定,目录如下:

    public class Test {
    
        public static void main(String [] args) {
    
            // 也可通过 System.getProperty("sun.boot.class.path" 获取
            URL[] urls = sun.misc.Launcher.getBootstrapClassPath().getURLs();
            for (int i = 0; i < urls.length; i++) {
                System.out.println(urls[i].toExternalForm());
            }
    
        }
    
    }
    
    本机JDK环境返回结果:
    file:/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk1.8.0_121.jdk/Contents/Home/jre/lib/resources.jar
    file:/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk1.8.0_121.jdk/Contents/Home/jre/lib/rt.jar
    file:/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk1.8.0_121.jdk/Contents/Home/jre/lib/sunrsasign.jar
    file:/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk1.8.0_121.jdk/Contents/Home/jre/lib/jsse.jar
    file:/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk1.8.0_121.jdk/Contents/Home/jre/lib/jce.jar
    file:/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk1.8.0_121.jdk/Contents/Home/jre/lib/charsets.jar
    file:/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk1.8.0_121.jdk/Contents/Home/jre/lib/jfr.jar
    file:/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk1.8.0_121.jdk/Contents/Home/jre/classes
    
  • 2. Extension ClassLoader
      Extension ClassLoader称为扩展类加载器,负责加载Java的扩展类库,默认加载JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/ext目录下的所有文件。Extension ClassLoader是JVM启动类(sun.misc.Launcher)的内部类,继承自java.net.URLClassLoader类。其加载目录由系统属性(java.ext.dirs)指定。本机加载目录如下:

    public class Test {
    
        public static void main(String [] args) {
    
    
            String paths = System.getProperty("java.ext.dirs");
    
            String [] pathList = paths.split(File.pathSeparator);
    
            for(String path : pathList) {
                System.out.println(path);
            }
        }
    
    }
    
    本机返回结果:
    /Users/Jerry/Library/Java/Extensions
    /Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk1.8.0_121.jdk/Contents/Home/jre/lib/ext
    /Library/Java/Extensions
    /Network/Library/Java/Extensions
    /System/Library/Java/Extensions
    /usr/lib/java
  • 3.App ClassLoader
      App ClassLoader称为系统类加载器,负责加载应用程序classpath目录下的所有jar和class文件。App ClassLoader既是加载系统属性(java.class.path)的类加载器,加载目录如下:

    package test;
    
    import java.io.File;
    
    public class Test {
    
        public static void main(String [] args) {
    
    
            String paths = System.getProperty("java.class.path");
    
            String [] pathList = paths.split(File.pathSeparator);
    
            for(String path : pathList) {
                System.out.println(path);
            }
        }
    
    }
    
    本机命令行编译并执行:java -cp /Users/Jerry/documents:/Users/Jerry/documents/workspace/xf-test test.Test
    
    返回结果:
    /Users/Jerry/documents
    /Users/Jerry/documents/workspace/xf-test

      如果不指定classpath,本地执行返回当前目录(”.”),如果通过IDE执行,则会返回IDE设定的classpath值

  • 4.自定义ClassLoader
      除了Java默认提供的三种ClassLoader外,用户也可以根据自己需要,通过继承ClassLoader超类定义属于自己的ClassLoader。范例如下:
     定义自己的ClassLoader类,当通过ClassLoader.loadClass()方法加载类时,如果加载不到对应的类,则会调用自定义ClassLoader的findClass方法继续加载类,详见下一节:

    public class MyClassLoader extends ClassLoader{
    
        public static final String driver = "/Users/Jerry/Desktop/";
        public static final String fileTyep = ".class";
    
        public Class findClass(String name) {
            byte[] data = loadClassData(name);
            return defineClass(data, 0, data.length);
        }
    
        public byte[] loadClassData(String name) {
            FileInputStream fis = null;
            byte[] data = null;
            try {
                File file = new File(driver + name + fileTyep);
                System.out.println(file.getAbsolutePath());
                fis = new FileInputStream(file);
                ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
                int ch = 0;
                while ((ch = fis.read()) != -1) {
                    baos.write(ch);
                }
                data = baos.toByteArray();
            } catch (IOException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
                System.out.println("loadClassData-IOException");
            }
            return data;
        }
    }

    编写测试类,编译,并将class文件移动到在MyClassLoade的driver目录下:

    package test;
    
    public class Test {
    
        public void sayHello(String name) {
            System.out.println("hello " + name);
        }

    测试MyClassLoader:

    public class Test {
    
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            MyClassLoader cl1 = new MyClassLoader();
            try {
                Class c1 = cl1.findClass("Test");  // 或调用:Class c1 = cl1.loadClass("Test");
                Object object = c1.newInstance();
                Method method = c1.getMethod("sayHello", String.class);
                method.invoke(object, "Jerry");
            } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            } catch (InstantiationException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            } catch (NoSuchMethodException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            } catch (InvocationTargetException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
    
    }  
    
    返回结果:
    /Users/Jerry/Desktop/Test.class
    hello Jerry
  • 5.双亲委托模型
      ClassLoader使用双亲委托模型来搜索类,当一个ClassLoader实例需要加载某个类时,它会检查是否已经加载过该类,如果没有加载过会把该任务委托给它的父类加载器,逐级向上检查是否已经加载过这个类。如果该类各级都未加载过,则自上而下尝试加载该类,任何一级加载到该类则返回,最终未加载到该类则返回ClassNotFoundException异常。
      ClassLoader loadClass()方法原码如下,类加载大致过程为:
      [1] 当前加载器检查类是否已被加载,如果已被加载则返回,否则交由父加载器加载
      [2] 如果父加载器不为空,则由父加载加载,如果父加载器为空,则交由Bootstrap 加载器加载
      [3] 如果父加载器加载失败,则尝试通过findClass()方法亲自加载类

    protected Class<?> loadClass(String name, boolean resolve)
            throws ClassNotFoundException
        {
            synchronized (getClassLoadingLock(name)) {
                // [1] 检查类是否已被加载
                Class<?> c = findLoadedClass(name);
                if (c == null) {
                    long t0 = System.nanoTime();
                    try {
                        if (parent != null) {
                            // [2] 如果父加载器不为空,则交由父类加载
                            c = parent.loadClass(name, false);
                        } else {
                            //  [3] 如果父类加载器为空,则交由Bootstrap ClassLoader加载
                            c = findBootstrapClassOrNull(name);
                        }
                    } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
    
                    }
    
                    if (c == null) {
                        // [4] 如果委托的父加载器未加载到类,则尝试亲自加载类
                        long t1 = System.nanoTime();
                        c = findClass(name);
                        sun.misc.PerfCounter.getParentDelegationTime().addTime(t1 - t0);
                        sun.misc.PerfCounter.getFindClassTime().addElapsedTimeFrom(t1);
                        sun.misc.PerfCounter.getFindClasses().increment();
                    }
                }
                if (resolve) {
                    resolveClass(c);
                }
                return c;
            }
        }
    

    ClassLoader体系结构如下:
    这里写图片描述

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