找质数算法(Sieve of Eratosthenes筛法)

由于一个合数总是可以分解成若干个质数的乘积,那么如果把质数(最初只知道2是质数)的倍数都去掉,那么剩下的就是质数了。
例如要查找100以内的质数,首先2是质数,把2的倍数去掉;此时3没有被去掉,可认为是质数,所以把3的倍数去掉;再到5,再到7,7之后呢,因为8,9,10刚才都被去掉了,而100以内的任意合数肯定都有一个因子小于10(100的开方),所以,去掉,2,3,5,7的倍数后剩下的都是质数了。
用程序可以这样解决,引入布尔类型数组a[i],如果i是质数,a[i]=true,否则a[i]=false。那么划掉i可以表示成a[i]=false。
 //找出n以内质数
void Sieve(int n)
        {
            bool[] a = new bool[n+1];
            for (int i = 2; i <= n; i++)  a[i] = true; 
            for (int i = 2; i <= Math.Sqrt(n); i++)
            {
                if (a[i])
                    for (int j = i; j*i <= n; j++) a[j * i] = false;
            }
            for (int i = 0; i <= n; i++)
            {
                if (a[i])
                    Console.Write("{0},",i.ToString());
            }
        } 

如果去掉最后一个用来显示结果的循环的话,运行Sieve(10000000)只要1秒多,而上次那个算法PrimeNum(10000000)却要71秒多!


/**
 * Solves the challenge by utilizing a Sieve of Eratosthenes (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sieve_of_Eratosthenes)
 *
 * @param options
 * @returns {number}
 */
getSolutionViaSieve = function (options) {
    var upperBound = options.upperBound || 0,
        primes = new Array(upperBound),
        primeSum = 0;

    // Initialize all of the numbers from zero to upper bound with a null value.  Later, each index will be checked
    // for null to see if it's been market yet.
    for (var a=0; a<upperBound; a++) {
        primes[a] = null;
    }

    // Iterate from the lowest prime (2) to upperBound to flag prime or not prime.
    for (var i=2; i<upperBound; i++) {

        // Only proceed if the current index hasn't been flagged as prime or not prime.
        if (primes[i] === null) {

            // Flag the current index as prime.
            primes[i] = true;

            // And flag any remaining multiples of this prime as not prime.
            for (var j=i*i; j<upperBound; j+=i) {
                primes[j] = false;
            }
        }
    }

    // Iterate and add up all primes.
    for (var p=0; p<upperBound; p++) {
        if (primes[p] === true) {
            primeSum += p;
        }
    }

    return primeSum;
};

console.log(getSolutionViaSieve({upperBound: 10}));
console.log(getSolutionViaSieve({upperBound: 2000000}));

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