Netty源码阅读之编码器简析

    上回主要聊了一下Netty中的解码器,那么既然有解码,也必须得聊下编码过程了,下面将对Netty中的编码器作一下总结:

 

1.编码器简介

作为解码的逆过程,编码的目的主要是将消息转换为字节或者消息,Netty中主要使用了MessageToByteEncoder这个抽象类来规定处理编码的一些流程,不妨先来看下该类的UML:

可以看出编码器其实也只是一类特殊的ChannelHandler,使用encode()方法来处理编码相关的逻辑,不妨先自定义一个编码器然后写一段demo:

1.1 自定义编码器实现:



public class MyEncoder extends MessageToByteEncoder<Packet> {
    @Override
    protected void encode(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Packet msg, ByteBuf out) throws Exception {
        out.writeInt(msg.getLength());
        out.writeBytes(new StringBuilder(msg.getIpAddress())
                .append(msg.getRoteName()).toString().getBytes());
    }
}

1.2 自定义Handler:

public class PacketHandler extends ChannelInboundHandlerAdapter {
    @Override
    public void channelRead(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Object msg) throws Exception {
        Packet packet = new Packet("route01","172.159.1.12");
        ctx.writeAndFlush(packet);
    }
}
public final class Server {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        EventLoopGroup bossGroup = new NioEventLoopGroup();
        EventLoopGroup workerGroup = new NioEventLoopGroup();

        try {
            ServerBootstrap b = new ServerBootstrap();
            b.group(bossGroup, workerGroup).channel(NioServerSocketChannel.class).childHandler(new ChannelInitializer<SocketChannel>() {
                @Override
                public void initChannel(SocketChannel ch) {
                    ch.pipeline().addLast(new PacketEncoder());
                    ch.pipeline().addLast(new PacketHandler());
                }
            });

            ChannelFuture f = b.bind(8099).sync();

            f.channel().closeFuture().sync();
        } finally {
            bossGroup.shutdownGracefully();
            workerGroup.shutdownGracefully();
        }
    }
}

1.3 对应的流程图:

2.writeAndFlush()流程解析

    在自定义Handler传输数据的时候,我们通常会调用ctx.writeAndFlush(msg)方法从tail节点开始一直往前传递到对应的解码器中(见上图),查看其源代码:

public ChannelFuture writeAndFlush(Object msg, ChannelPromise promise) {
        if (msg == null) {
            throw new NullPointerException("msg");
        }

        if (!validatePromise(promise, true)) {
            ReferenceCountUtil.release(msg);
            // cancelled
            return promise;
        }

        write(msg, true, promise);

        return promise;
    }

主要关注一下write()方法:

private void write(Object msg, boolean flush, ChannelPromise promise) {
        AbstractChannelHandlerContext next = findContextOutbound();
        final Object m = pipeline.touch(msg, next);
        EventExecutor executor = next.executor();
        if (executor.inEventLoop()) {
            if (flush) {
                next.invokeWriteAndFlush(m, promise);
            } else {
                next.invokeWrite(m, promise);
            }
        } else {
            AbstractWriteTask task;
            if (flush) {
                task = WriteAndFlushTask.newInstance(next, m, promise);
            }  else {
                task = WriteTask.newInstance(next, m, promise);
            }
            safeExecute(executor, task, promise, m);
        }
    }

若flush为true,那么调用next.invokeWriteAndFlush(m, promise)方法,反之则调用next.invokeWrite(m, promise)方法,这两个方法又有什么区别呢?我们继续往下查看:

private void invokeWriteAndFlush(Object msg, ChannelPromise promise) {
        if (invokeHandler()) {
            invokeWrite0(msg, promise);
            invokeFlush0();
        } else {
            writeAndFlush(msg, promise);
        }
    }

这边同时进行了write以及flash的操作,在看下invokeWrite()方法:

private void invokeWrite(Object msg, ChannelPromise promise) {
        if (invokeHandler()) {
            invokeWrite0(msg, promise);
        } else {
            write(msg, promise);
        }
    }

这里主要缺少了flush的操作。

3.write()方法简要分析

在MessageToByteEncoder`这个类中,主要是需要关注一下write()方法,在编码器中主要是通过这个类将数据存放到对应的ByteBuf中

 public void write(ChannelHandlerContext ctx, Object msg, ChannelPromise promise) throws Exception {
        ByteBuf buf = null;
        try {
            if (acceptOutboundMessage(msg)) {
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
                I cast = (I) msg;
                buf = allocateBuffer(ctx, cast, preferDirect);
                try {
                    encode(ctx, cast, buf);
                } finally {
                    ReferenceCountUtil.release(cast);
                }

                if (buf.isReadable()) {
                    ctx.write(buf, promise);
                } else {
                    buf.release();
                    ctx.write(Unpooled.EMPTY_BUFFER, promise);
                }
                buf = null;
            } else {
                ctx.write(msg, promise);
            }
        } catch (EncoderException e) {
            throw e;
        } catch (Throwable e) {
            throw new EncoderException(e);
        } finally {
            if (buf != null) {
                buf.release();
            }
        }
    }

上边的代码主要是以下的几个流程,首先调用acceptOutboundMessage()方法来匹配当前的对象,如果当前的节点能够处理,那么继续往下,反之则返回给其他的节点进行处理;若继续往下执行,则进行内存的分配,随后调用encode()方法进行编码,接下来调用ReferenceCountUtil工具进行对象的释放,再继续往下传播数据,最后进行内存的释放。

 

4. buffer队列机制简介

   经过前面的流程分析,可知如果当前节点无法处理会一直往前传递write事件,但如果一直传递到头结点都处理不了将怎么办呢?

Netty使用了一个buffer队列的机制解决了这个问题:

来看下AbstractChannel中的write()方法:

public final void write(Object msg, ChannelPromise promise) {
            assertEventLoop();

            ChannelOutboundBuffer outboundBuffer = this.outboundBuffer;
            if (outboundBuffer == null) {
                // If the outboundBuffer is null we know the channel was closed and so
                // need to fail the future right away. If it is not null the handling of the rest
                // will be done in flush0()
                // See https://github.com/netty/netty/issues/2362
                safeSetFailure(promise, WRITE_CLOSED_CHANNEL_EXCEPTION);
                // release message now to prevent resource-leak
                ReferenceCountUtil.release(msg);
                return;
            }

            int size;
            try {
                msg = filterOutboundMessage(msg);
                size = pipeline.estimatorHandle().size(msg);
                if (size < 0) {
                    size = 0;
                }
            } catch (Throwable t) {
                safeSetFailure(promise, t);
                ReferenceCountUtil.release(msg);
                return;
            }

            outboundBuffer.addMessage(msg, size, promise);
        }

找到io.netty.channel.nio.AbstractNioByteChannel#filterOutboundMessage这个方法:
 

protected final Object filterOutboundMessage(Object msg) {
        if (msg instanceof ByteBuf) {
            ByteBuf buf = (ByteBuf) msg;
            if (buf.isDirect()) {
                return msg;
            }

            return newDirectBuffer(buf);
        }

        if (msg instanceof FileRegion) {
            return msg;
        }

        throw new UnsupportedOperationException(
                "unsupported message type: " + StringUtil.simpleClassName(msg) + EXPECTED_TYPES);
    }

通过这个方法将ByteBuf对象(即 msg参数)转换为转为堆外内存,随后通过调用outboundBuffer.addMessage()方法将对外内存插入到写缓冲队列中:

 public void addMessage(Object msg, int size, ChannelPromise promise) {
        Entry entry = Entry.newInstance(msg, size, total(msg), promise);
        if (tailEntry == null) {
            flushedEntry = null;
            tailEntry = entry;
        } else {
            Entry tail = tailEntry;
            tail.next = entry;
            tailEntry = entry;
        }
        if (unflushedEntry == null) {
            unflushedEntry = entry;
        }

        // increment pending bytes after adding message to the unflushed arrays.
        // See https://github.com/netty/netty/issues/1619
        incrementPendingOutboundBytes(size, false);
    }

这里维护了一个单项链表的结构,会不断的新传递过来的ByteBuf插入到链表尾部。

随后将调用incrementPendingOutboundBytes()这个函数设置写状态,其中channel.config().getWriteBufferHighWaterMark()默认被定义为64字节。

 

private void incrementPendingOutboundBytes(long size, boolean invokeLater) {
        if (size == 0) {
            return;
        }

        long newWriteBufferSize = TOTAL_PENDING_SIZE_UPDATER.addAndGet(this, size);
        if (newWriteBufferSize > channel.config().getWriteBufferHighWaterMark()) {
            setUnwritable(invokeLater);
        }
    }

 

上边只是将数据更新到了缓冲队列中,但是暂时还没有通过socket传递出去,这部分的流程主要是在缓冲队列的刷新流程中体现io.netty.channel.ChannelOutboundBuffer#addFlush:

    private Entry flushedEntry;//标记已经flush的指针
    private Entry unflushedEntry;//标记未flush的指针
    private Entry tailEntry;//标记尾结点的指针


public void addFlush() {
        // There is no need to process all entries if there was already a flush before and no new messages
        // where added in the meantime.
        //
        // See https://github.com/netty/netty/issues/2577
        Entry entry = unflushedEntry;
        if (entry != null) {
            if (flushedEntry == null) {
                // there is no flushedEntry yet, so start with the entry
                flushedEntry = entry;
            }
            do {
                flushed ++;
                if (!entry.promise.setUncancellable()) {
                    // Was cancelled so make sure we free up memory and notify about the freed bytes
                    int pending = entry.cancel();
                    decrementPendingOutboundBytes(pending, false, true);
                }
                entry = entry.next;
            } while (entry != null);

            // All flushed so reset unflushedEntry
            unflushedEntry = null;
        }
    }

首先是刷新标志并设置为写状态,之后通过调用io.netty.channel.nio.AbstractNioByteChannel#doWrite()方法遍历缓冲队列,过滤ByteBuf,最后调用jdk自旋锁自旋写数据到socket中,这边的自旋次数设置为16次:

private volatile int writeSpinCount = 16;

5. 总结

至此,关于Netty的编码流程分析完毕,周日快乐~

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