poj2331 Water pipe IDA*

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Description
The Eastowner city is perpetually haunted with water supply shortages, so in order to remedy this problem a new water-pipe has been built. Builders started the pipe from both ends simultaneously, and after some hard work both halves were connected. Well, almost. First half of pipe ended at a point (x1, y1), and the second half – at (x2, y2). Unfortunately only few pipe segments of different length were left. Moreover, due to the peculiarities of local technology the pipes can only be put in either north-south or east-west direction, and be connected to form a straight line or 90 degree turn. You program must, given L1, L2, … Lk – lengths of pipe segments available and C1, C2, … Ck – number of segments of each length, construct a water pipe connecting given points, or declare that it is impossible. Program must output the minimum required number of segments.

Constraints
1 <= k <= 4, 1 <= xi, yi, Li <= 1000, 1 <= Ci <= 10

Input
Input contains integers x1 y1 x2 y2 k followed by 2k integers L1 L2 … Lk C1 C2 … Ck

Output
Output must contain a single integer – the number of required segments, or −1 if the connection is impossible.

Sample Input
20 10 60 50 2 70 30 2 2

Sample Output
4

题目大意
在平面上有一个起点和一个终点,你需要用一些给定的管子将这两个点连起来,求最少需要多少管子。

输入
首先5个整数sx,sy,tx,ty,n。sx,sy代表起点坐标;tx,ty代表终点坐标;
n代表管子数量。接下来n个整数分别代表每个管子的长度,在接着n个整数分别代表每个管子的数量。

输出
一个整数代表最少的管子数。

总结
昨天学了A*和IDA*启发式搜索,一直在改这道题,后来发现就是dfs没有回溯,弄了我将近两个小时。我觉得有些无语。

先简要谈一下对A*以及IDA*的看法。
A*以及IDA*都是启发式搜索,他们都是在一般搜索的基础上增加了启发式函数(估价函数),对于一个启发式搜索,估价函数是非常重要的,估价函数通俗来讲就是一个估算到目的地要花费多少,有了一个好的估价函数,就少了很多不必要的搜索。相反,一个错误估价函数,会将你的搜索引入歧途。既然估价函数对我们这么重要,那我们应该怎么求呢?其实在不同的题目之中有不同的估价函数,比较常见的就是曼哈顿函数,通过计算两点之间绝对值之差来算。

那我们又要问A*与IDA*之间有什么区别呢?
其实很简单。A*是由bfs加估价函数构成的,而IDA*是由dfs加估价函数构成的,由于dfs不能控制深度,我们需要通过枚举深度来算,一旦出现解,必定是最优解。

回到这一道题,这一道题我们的估价函数是通过bfs不计线段数量算出来的,而实际情况是大于等于这种情况的。

WA的原因
一直b[i].num–之后忘记++了——

#include<cstdio>
#include<cstdlib>
#include<cstring>
#include<cmath>
#include<string>
#include<vector>
#include<stack>
#include<set>
#include<queue>
using namespace std;
const int maxn=1001,inf=1e9;
int sx,sy,tx,ty,sum,ans,h1[maxn],h2[maxn],n;
struct node{
    int len,num;
};
bool dfs1(node *a,int x,int z){
    int i,j;
    if(h2[x]==-1 || h2[x]+z>ans) return false;
    if(h2[x]==0){
        //printf("->h2--%d___%d\n",x,z);
        return true;
    }
    node b[11];
    for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
        b[i]=a[i];
    for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
        if(b[i].num>0){
            b[i].num--;
            if(x-b[i].len>=1)
                if(dfs1(b,x-b[i].len,z+1)){
                    //printf("->h2--%d\n",x);
                    return true;  
                }
            if(x+b[i].len<=1000)
                if(dfs1(b,x+b[i].len,z+1)){
                    //printf("->h2--%d\n",x); 
                    return true;
                }
            b[i].num++;
        }
    return false;
}
bool dfs(node *a,int x,int z){
    int i,j;
    if(h1[x]==-1 || h1[x]+z>ans) return false;
    if(h1[x]==0){
        //printf("%d__%d\n",x,z);
        //for(i=1;i<=n;i++) printf("%d-----",a[i].num);
        return dfs1(a,sy,z);
    }
    node b[11];
    for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
        b[i]=a[i];
    for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
        if(b[i].num>0){
            b[i].num--;
            if(x-b[i].len>=1)
                if(dfs(b,x-b[i].len,z+1)){
                    //printf("->h1--%d----id:%d\n",x,i);
                    return true;  
                }
            if(x+b[i].len<=1000)
                if(dfs(b,x+b[i].len,z+1)){
                    //printf("->h1--%d----id:%d=====x+b[i]=%d\n",x,i,x+b[i].len); 
                    return true;
                }
            b[i].num++;
        }
    return false;
}
node a[11];
void bfs(int *h,int st){
    int i,j;
    queue <int> q;
    h[st]=0;
    q.push(st);
    while(!q.empty()){
        int x;
        x=q.front();
        q.pop();
        for(i=1;i<=n;i++){
            if(x-a[i].len>=1)
                if(h[x-a[i].len]==-1){
                    h[x-a[i].len]=h[x]+1;
                    q.push(x-a[i].len);
                }
            if(x+a[i].len<=1000)
                if(h[x+a[i].len]==-1){
                    h[x+a[i].len]=h[x]+1;
                    q.push(x+a[i].len);
                }
        }
    }
}
void id_astar(){
    int i;
    if(sx==tx && sy==ty){
        puts("0");
        return;
    }
    memset(h1,-1,sizeof(h1));
    memset(h2,-1,sizeof(h2));
    bfs(h1,tx);
    bfs(h2,ty);
    /*for(i=1;i<=1000;i++)
        if(h1[i]!=-1 || h2[i]!=-1)
            printf("h1[%d]=%d    h2[%d]=%d\n",i,h1[i],i,h2[i]);*/
    for(ans=1;ans<=sum;ans++){
        //if(ans==4)
            //system("pause");
        if(dfs(a,sx,0))
            break;
    }
    if(ans<=sum)
        printf("%d\n",ans);
    else puts("-1");
    return;
}   
int main(){
    int i,j,k;
    int x1,y1,x2,y2;
    //freopen("test.in","r",stdin);
    //freopen("test.out","w",stdout);
    scanf("%d%d%d%d%d",&sx,&sy,&tx,&ty,&n);
    for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
        scanf("%d",&a[i].len);
    for(i=1;i<=n;i++){
        scanf("%d",&a[i].num);
        sum+=a[i].num;
    }
    id_astar();
    return 0;
}
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