Java并发之AQS

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本文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/yangguosb/article/details/79686555

AQS介绍

  AQS(AbstractQueuedSynchronizer),是JDK并发包下的锁模板,包含共享模式和排他模式,是并发包下大部分的基础,如ReentrantLock、Semaphore和CountDownLatch等等。State属性和CLH队列是AQS的关键元素,子类通过State属性判断线程是否需要阻塞,CLH队列为线程阻塞队列,提供了线程阻塞和唤醒的实现。

AQS原理概述

  AQS采用“模板方法”的设计模式,自身为抽象类,提供线程入队和出队的功能实现,子类只需要根据场景决定何时入队和出队即可(利用state属性)。因此,AQS的核心就是等待线程的入队和出队
    这里写图片描述

等待队列节点Node

waitStatus

  1. 0:初始化值;
  2. SIGNAL:当前节点的后续节点线程需要被唤醒;
  3. CONDITION:当前节点的线程正在等待某种条件;
  4. PROPAGATE:当前节点的后续节点的acquireShared方法需要被触发;
  5. CANCELLED:等待线程节点被取消;

AQS重要属性

    /**
     *等待队列尾节点
     */
    private transient volatile Node head;

    /**
     * 等待队列尾节点
     */
    private transient volatile Node tail;

    /**
     * 等待队列状态
     */
    private volatile int state;

排它模式

  只有一个线程持有锁,其它线程阻塞等待。Head节点表示对应的线程正在持有锁,其它Node节点表示其线程正阻塞等待,Head节点释放锁后只会唤醒后续的节点,如下图所示:
这里写图片描述

锁的获取acquire

  大致过程:首先尝试获取排它锁,如果失败则创建排它节点,将当前线程阻塞加入等待队列。

    public final void acquire(int arg) {
        if (!tryAcquire(arg) &&
            acquireQueued(addWaiter(Node.EXCLUSIVE), arg))
            selfInterrupt();
    }

新增节点

   大致过程:首先尝试使用CAS操作插入队尾,如果失败则使用“自旋锁”(死循环)的方式入队。

    private Node addWaiter(Node mode) {
        Node node = new Node(Thread.currentThread(), mode);
        // Try the fast path of enq; backup to full enq on failure
        Node pred = tail;
        if (pred != null) {
            node.prev = pred;
            if (compareAndSetTail(pred, node)) {
                pred.next = node;
                return node;
            }
        }
        enq(node);
        return node;
    }
    private Node enq(final Node node) {
        for (;;) {
            Node t = tail;
            if (t == null) { // Must initialize
                if (compareAndSetHead(new Node()))
                    tail = head;
            } else {
                node.prev = t;
                if (compareAndSetTail(t, node)) {
                    t.next = node;
                    return t;
                }
            }
        }
    }

获取锁

   大致过程:如果锁获取成功,则将自身节点设为Head节点,然后返回;否则,利用LockSupport.park()将线程挂起,等待被唤醒。

    final boolean acquireQueued(final Node node, int arg) {
        boolean failed = true;
        try {
            boolean interrupted = false;
            for (;;) {
                final Node p = node.predecessor();
                if (p == head && tryAcquire(arg)) {
                    setHead(node);
                    p.next = null; // help GC
                    failed = false;
                    return interrupted;
                }
                if (shouldParkAfterFailedAcquire(p, node) &&
                    parkAndCheckInterrupt())
                    interrupted = true;
            }
        } finally {
            if (failed)
                cancelAcquire(node);
        }
    }

锁的释放release

   大致过程:将自身节点的waitStatus置为0,并唤醒后续节点的线程。

    public final boolean release(int arg) {
        if (tryRelease(arg)) {
            Node h = head;
            if (h != null && h.waitStatus != 0)
                unparkSuccessor(h);
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }
    private void unparkSuccessor(Node node) {
        /*
         * If status is negative (i.e., possibly needing signal) try
         * to clear in anticipation of signalling.  It is OK if this
         * fails or if status is changed by waiting thread.
         */
        int ws = node.waitStatus;
        if (ws < 0)
            compareAndSetWaitStatus(node, ws, 0);

        /*
         * Thread to unpark is held in successor, which is normally
         * just the next node.  But if cancelled or apparently null,
         * traverse backwards from tail to find the actual
         * non-cancelled successor.
         */
        Node s = node.next;
        if (s == null || s.waitStatus > 0) {
            s = null;
            for (Node t = tail; t != null && t != node; t = t.prev)
                if (t.waitStatus <= 0)
                    s = t;
        }
        if (s != null)
            LockSupport.unpark(s.thread);
    }

共享模式

  多个线程可以同时持有锁,某个Node节点被唤醒后,除了将自身节点设为Head节点外,还要唤醒后续的节点,如下图所示:
这里写图片描述

锁的获取acquireShared

  大致过程:首先尝试获取共享锁,如果成功则将自身节点设为Head节点,并向后传播(继续唤醒其它线程);否则创建共享节点,将当前线程挂起,加入阻塞等待队列,等待被唤醒。

    public final void acquireShared(int arg) {
        if (tryAcquireShared(arg) < 0)
            doAcquireShared(arg);
    }
    private void doAcquireShared(int arg) {
        final Node node = addWaiter(Node.SHARED);
        boolean failed = true;
        try {
            boolean interrupted = false;
            for (;;) {
                final Node p = node.predecessor();
                if (p == head) {
                    int r = tryAcquireShared(arg);
                    if (r >= 0) {
                        setHeadAndPropagate(node, r);
                        p.next = null; // help GC
                        if (interrupted)
                            selfInterrupt();
                        failed = false;
                        return;
                    }
                }
                if (shouldParkAfterFailedAcquire(p, node) &&
                    parkAndCheckInterrupt())
                    interrupted = true;
            }
        } finally {
            if (failed)
                cancelAcquire(node);
        }
    }

向后传播setHeadAndPropagate

  大致过程:调用方法releaseShared释放锁,并唤醒其它线程。

private void setHeadAndPropagate(Node node, int propagate) {
        Node h = head; // Record old head for check below
        setHead(node);
        /*
         * Try to signal next queued node if:
         *   Propagation was indicated by caller,
         *     or was recorded (as h.waitStatus either before
         *     or after setHead) by a previous operation
         *     (note: this uses sign-check of waitStatus because
         *      PROPAGATE status may transition to SIGNAL.)
         * and
         *   The next node is waiting in shared mode,
         *     or we don't know, because it appears null
         *
         * The conservatism in both of these checks may cause
         * unnecessary wake-ups, but only when there are multiple
         * racing acquires/releases, so most need signals now or soon
         * anyway.
         */
        if (propagate > 0 || h == null || h.waitStatus < 0 ||
            (h = head) == null || h.waitStatus < 0) {
            Node s = node.next;
            if (s == null || s.isShared())
                doReleaseShared();
        }
    }

锁的释放releaseShared

  大致过程:唤醒后续节点的线程,并将自身节点的waitStatus设置为PROPAGATE。

    private void doReleaseShared() {
        /*
         * Ensure that a release propagates, even if there are other
         * in-progress acquires/releases.  This proceeds in the usual
         * way of trying to unparkSuccessor of head if it needs
         * signal. But if it does not, status is set to PROPAGATE to
         * ensure that upon release, propagation continues.
         * Additionally, we must loop in case a new node is added
         * while we are doing this. Also, unlike other uses of
         * unparkSuccessor, we need to know if CAS to reset status
         * fails, if so rechecking.
         */
        for (;;) {
            Node h = head;
            if (h != null && h != tail) {
                int ws = h.waitStatus;
                if (ws == Node.SIGNAL) {
                    if (!compareAndSetWaitStatus(h, Node.SIGNAL, 0))
                        continue;            // loop to recheck cases
                    unparkSuccessor(h);
                }
                else if (ws == 0 &&
                         !compareAndSetWaitStatus(h, 0, Node.PROPAGATE))
                    continue;                // loop on failed CAS
            }
            if (h == head)                   // loop if head changed
                break;
        }
    }

参考:

  1. http://www.infoq.com/cn/articles/jdk1.8-abstractqueuedsynchronizer
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