浅析Android Activity的启动过程

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Activity作为Android的四大组件之一,也是最基本的组件,负责与用户交互的所有功能。Activity的启动过程也并非一件神秘的事情,接下来就简单的从源码的角度分析一下Activity的启动过程。

根Activity一般就是指我们项目中的MainActivity,代表了一个Android应用程序,一般也是在一个新的进程中启动起来。在Android系统中,所有的Activity组件都保存在堆栈中,我们启动一个新的Activity组件就位于上一个Activity的上面。那么我们从桌面(Launcher)打开一个App是一个怎样的过程呢,如下所示:

    (1)Launcher向ActivityManagerService发送一个启动MainActivity的请求;

    (2)ActivityManagerService首先将MainActivity的相关信息保存下来,然后向Launcher发送一个使之进入中止状态的请求;

    (3)Launcher收到中止状态之后,就会想ActivityManagerService发送一个已进入中止状态的请求,便于ActivityManagerService继续执行启动MainActivity的操作;

    (4)ActivityManagerService检查用于运行MainActivity的进程,如果不存在,则启动一个新的进程;

    (5)新的应用程序进程启动完成之后,就会向ActivityManagerService发送一个启动完成的请求,便于ActivityManagerService继续执行启动MainActivity的操作;

    (6)ActivityManagerService将第(2)步保存下来的MainActivity相关信息发送给新创建的进程,便于该进程启动MainActivity组件。

Launcher.startActivitySafely

boolean startActivitySafely(Intent intent, Object tag) {  
        intent.addFlags(Intent.FLAG_ACTIVITY_NEW_TASK);  
        try {  
            startActivity(intent);  
            return true;  
        } catch (ActivityNotFoundException e) {}  
}

当我们在Launcher上点击应用程序图标时,startActivitySafely方法会被调用。需要启动的Activity信息保存在intent中,包括action、category等等。那么Launcher是如何获得intent里面的这些信息呢?首先,系统在启动时会启动一个叫做PackageManagerService的管理服务,并且通过他来安装系统中的应用程序,在这个过程中,PackageManagerService会对应用程序的配置文件AndroidManifest.xml进行解析,从而得到程序里的组件信息(包括Activity、Service、Broadcast等),然后PackageManagerService去查询所有action为“android.intent.action.MAIN”并且category为“android.intent.category.LAUNCHER”的Activity,然后为每个应用程序创建一个快捷方式图标,并把程序信息与之关联。上述代码中,Activity的启动标志位设置为“Intent.FLAG_ACTIVITY_NEW_TASK”,便于他可以在一个新的任务中启动。

Activity.startActivity

@Override
    public void startActivity(Intent intent, @Nullable Bundle options) {
        if (options != null) {
            startActivityForResult(intent, -1, options);
        } else {
            startActivityForResult(intent, -1);
        }
    }
调用startActivityForResult,第二个参数(requestCode)为-1则表示在Activity关闭时不需要将结果传回来。

Activity.startActivityForResult

public void startActivityForResult(Intent intent, int requestCode, @Nullable Bundle options) {
        if (mParent == null) { //一般的Activity其mParent都为null
            Instrumentation.ActivityResult ar = mInstrumentation.execStartActivity(this, 
                       mMainThread.getApplicationThread(), mToken, this,intent, requestCode, options);
            if (ar != null) { //发送结果,即onActivityResult会被调用
                mMainThread.sendActivityResult(mToken, mEmbeddedID, requestCode, ar.getResultCode(),
                        ar.getResultData());
            }
            if (requestCode >= 0) {
                mStartedActivity = true;
            }

            final View decor = mWindow != null ? mWindow.peekDecorView() : null;
            if (decor != null) {
                decor.cancelPendingInputEvents();
            }
        } else { //在ActivityGroup内部的Activity,内部处理逻辑和上面是类似的
            if (options != null) {
                mParent.startActivityFromChild(this, intent, requestCode, options);
            } else {
                mParent.startActivityFromChild(this, intent, requestCode);
            }
        }
        if (options != null && !isTopOfTask()) {
            mActivityTransitionState.startExitOutTransition(this, options);
        }
    }

不难发现,最后实际上是调用mInstrumentation.execStartActivity来启动Activity,mInstrumentation类型为Instrumentation,用于监控程序和系统之间的交互操作。mInstrumentation代为执行Activity的启动操作,便于他可以监控这一个交互过程。mMainThread的类型为ActivityThread,用于描述一个应用程序进程,系统每启动一个程序都会在它里面加载一个ActivityThread的实例,并且将该实例保存在Activity的成员变量mMainThread中,而mMainThread.getApplicationThread()则用于获取其内部一个类型为ApplicationThread的本地Binder对象。mToken的类型为IBinder,他是一个Binder的代理对象,只想了ActivityManagerService中一个类型为ActivityRecord的本地Binder对象。每一个已经启动的Activity在ActivityManagerService中都有一个对应的ActivityRecord对象,用于维护Activity的运行状态及信息。

Instrumentation.execStartActivity

public ActivityResult execStartActivity(Context who, IBinder contextThread, IBinder token, Activity target,
            Intent intent, int requestCode, Bundle options) {
        IApplicationThread whoThread = (IApplicationThread) contextThread;
        if (mActivityMonitors != null) {
            synchronized (mSync) {
                final int N = mActivityMonitors.size();
                for (int i=0; i<N; i++) { //先查找一遍看是否存在这个activity
                    final ActivityMonitor am = mActivityMonitors.get(i);
                    if (am.match(who, null, intent)) {
                        am.mHits++;
                        if (am.isBlocking()) {
                            return requestCode >= 0 ? am.getResult() : null;
                        }
                        break;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        try {
            intent.migrateExtraStreamToClipData();
            intent.prepareToLeaveProcess();
            int result = ActivityManagerNative.getDefault().startActivity(whoThread, who.getBasePackageName(), intent,
                        intent.resolveTypeIfNeeded(who.getContentResolver()),token, target != null ? target.mEmbeddedID : null,
                        requestCode, 0, null, options); //这里才是真正打开activity的地方,其核心功能在whoThread中完成。
            checkStartActivityResult(result, intent); // 处理各种异常,如ActivityNotFound
        } catch (RemoteException e) {
        }
        return null;
    }
上述代码可知,通过ActivityManagerNative.getDefault()获取一个ActivityManagerService的代理对象,然后调用他的startActivity方法来通知ActivityManagerService去启动Activity。

中间还有一系列过程,跟着源码走下去,不难发现,最后,是调用ApplicationThread的scheduleLaunchActivity来进行Activity的启动。

Application.scheduleLaunchActivity

public final void scheduleLaunchActivity(Intent intent, IBinder token, int ident,
                ActivityInfo info, Configuration curConfig, CompatibilityInfo compatInfo,
                String referrer, IVoiceInteractor voiceInteractor, int procState, Bundle state,
                PersistableBundle persistentState, List<ResultInfo> pendingResults,
                List<ReferrerIntent> pendingNewIntents, boolean notResumed, boolean isForward,
                ProfilerInfo profilerInfo) {

            updateProcessState(procState, false);

            ActivityClientRecord r = new ActivityClientRecord();

            r.token = token;
            r.ident = ident;
            r.intent = intent;
            r.referrer = referrer;
            r.voiceInteractor = voiceInteractor;
            r.activityInfo = info;
            r.compatInfo = compatInfo;
            r.state = state;
            r.persistentState = persistentState;

            r.pendingResults = pendingResults;
            r.pendingIntents = pendingNewIntents;

            r.startsNotResumed = notResumed;
            r.isForward = isForward;

            r.profilerInfo = profilerInfo;

            updatePendingConfiguration(curConfig);

            sendMessage(H.LAUNCH_ACTIVITY, r);
        }

上述代码主要做的事就是构造一个ActivityClientRecord,然后调用sendMessage发送一个消息。在应用程序对应的进程中,每一个Activity组件都使用一个ActivityClientRecord对象来描述,他们保存在ActivityThread类的成员变量mActivities中。那么Handler是如何处理这个消息的呢?

H.handleMessage

        switch (msg.what) { // 消息类型
                case LAUNCH_ACTIVITY: {
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "activityStart");
                    final ActivityClientRecord r = (ActivityClientRecord) msg.obj;

                    r.packageInfo = getPackageInfoNoCheck(
                            r.activityInfo.applicationInfo, r.compatInfo);
                    handleLaunchActivity(r, null); // 处理消息
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                } break;
                case RELAUNCH_ACTIVITY: {
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "activityRestart");
                    ActivityClientRecord r = (ActivityClientRecord)msg.obj;
                    handleRelaunchActivity(r);
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                } break;
                case PAUSE_ACTIVITY:
                    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER, "activityPause");
                    handlePauseActivity((IBinder)msg.obj, false, (msg.arg1&1) != 0, msg.arg2,
                            (msg.arg1&2) != 0);
                    maybeSnapshot();
                    Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_ACTIVITY_MANAGER);
                    break;
                ... ...
        }

首先将msg里面的obj转成一个ActivityClientRecord对象,然后调用来获取一个LoaderApk对象并保存在ActivityClientRecord对象的成员变量packageInfo中。Loader对象用于描述一个已经加载的APK文件。最后调用handleLaunchActivity来启动Activity组件。

ActivityThread.handleLaunchActivity

private void handleLaunchActivity(ActivityClientRecord r, Intent customIntent) {
        unscheduleGcIdler();
        mSomeActivitiesChanged = true;

        if (r.profilerInfo != null) {
            mProfiler.setProfiler(r.profilerInfo);
            mProfiler.startProfiling();
        }

        handleConfigurationChanged(null, null);

        if (localLOGV) Slog.v(
            TAG, "Handling launch of " + r);

        WindowManagerGlobal.initialize();

        Activity a = performLaunchActivity(r, customIntent); //performLaunchActivity真正完成了activity的调起,Activity被实例化,onCreate被调用

        if (a != null) {
            r.createdConfig = new Configuration(mConfiguration);
            Bundle oldState = r.state;
            handleResumeActivity(r.token, false, r.isForward, // 再调用Activity实例的Resume(用户界面可见)
                    !r.activity.mFinished && !r.startsNotResumed);

            if (!r.activity.mFinished && r.startsNotResumed) {
                try {
                    r.activity.mCalled = false;
                    mInstrumentation.callActivityOnPause(r.activity); // finish的时候先调onPause
                    if (r.isPreHoneycomb()) {
                        r.state = oldState;
                    }
                    if (!r.activity.mCalled) {
                        throw new SuperNotCalledException(
                            "Activity " + r.intent.getComponent().toShortString() +
                            " did not call through to super.onPause()");
                    }

                } catch (SuperNotCalledException e) {
                    throw e;

                } catch (Exception e) {
                    if (!mInstrumentation.onException(r.activity, e)) {
                        throw new RuntimeException(
                                "Unable to pause activity "
                                + r.intent.getComponent().toShortString()
                                + ": " + e.toString(), e);
                    }
                }
                r.paused = true;
            }
        } else {
            try {
                ActivityManagerNative.getDefault() // finishActivity    一样的原理
                    .finishActivity(r.token, Activity.RESULT_CANCELED, null, false);
            } catch (RemoteException ex) {
            }
        }
    }
到了这一步,那就很清晰了。憋了一口气到这里,是不是突然放松了一下~~  再来看看performLaunchActivity做的事儿~~performLaunchActivity函数加载用户自定义的Activity的派生类,并执行其onCreate函数,它将返回此Activity对象。

ActivityThread.performLaunchActivity

private Activity performLaunchActivity(ActivityClientRecord r, Intent customIntent) {
        ActivityInfo aInfo = r.activityInfo;
        if (r.packageInfo == null) {
            r.packageInfo = getPackageInfo(aInfo.applicationInfo, r.compatInfo,
                    Context.CONTEXT_INCLUDE_CODE);
        }
        //从intent中取出目标activity的启动参数(包名、类名等)
        ComponentName component = r.intent.getComponent();
        if (component == null) {
            component = r.intent.resolveActivity(
                mInitialApplication.getPackageManager());
            r.intent.setComponent(component);
        }

        if (r.activityInfo.targetActivity != null) {
            component = new ComponentName(r.activityInfo.packageName,
                    r.activityInfo.targetActivity);
        }

        Activity activity = null;
        try {
            java.lang.ClassLoader cl = r.packageInfo.getClassLoader(); // 将Activity类文件加载到内存中
            activity = mInstrumentation.newActivity( // 创建Activity实例
                    cl, component.getClassName(), r.intent);
            StrictMode.incrementExpectedActivityCount(activity.getClass());
            r.intent.setExtrasClassLoader(cl);
            r.intent.prepareToEnterProcess();
            if (r.state != null) {
                r.state.setClassLoader(cl);
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            if (!mInstrumentation.onException(activity, e)) {
                throw new RuntimeException(
                    "Unable to instantiate activity " + component
                    + ": " + e.toString(), e);
            }
        }

        try {
            Application app = r.packageInfo.makeApplication(false, mInstrumentation);

            if (localLOGV) Slog.v(TAG, "Performing launch of " + r);
            if (localLOGV) Slog.v(
                    TAG, r + ": app=" + app
                    + ", appName=" + app.getPackageName()
                    + ", pkg=" + r.packageInfo.getPackageName()
                    + ", comp=" + r.intent.getComponent().toShortString()
                    + ", dir=" + r.packageInfo.getAppDir());

            if (activity != null) {
                Context appContext = createBaseContextForActivity(r, activity); // 初始化Context对象,作为Activity的上下文
                CharSequence title = r.activityInfo.loadLabel(appContext.getPackageManager());
                Configuration config = new Configuration(mCompatConfiguration);
                if (DEBUG_CONFIGURATION) Slog.v(TAG, "Launching activity "
                        + r.activityInfo.name + " with config " + config);
                activity.attach(appContext, this, getInstrumentation(), r.token,
                        r.ident, app, r.intent, r.activityInfo, title, r.parent,
                        r.embeddedID, r.lastNonConfigurationInstances, config,
                        r.referrer, r.voiceInteractor);

                if (customIntent != null) {
                    activity.mIntent = customIntent;
                }
                r.lastNonConfigurationInstances = null;
                activity.mStartedActivity = false;
                int theme = r.activityInfo.getThemeResource();
                if (theme != 0) {
                    activity.setTheme(theme);
                }

                activity.mCalled = false;
                if (r.isPersistable()) { //下面就是调用到acitivity的onCreate方法了
                    mInstrumentation.callActivityOnCreate(activity, r.state, r.persistentState);
                } else {
                    mInstrumentation.callActivityOnCreate(activity, r.state);
                } // 至此,Activity启动过程就结束了,其生命周期由ApplicationThread来管理
                if (!activity.mCalled) {
                    throw new SuperNotCalledException(
                        "Activity " + r.intent.getComponent().toShortString() +
                        " did not call through to super.onCreate()");
                }
                r.activity = activity;
                r.stopped = true;
                if (!r.activity.mFinished) {
                    activity.performStart();
                    r.stopped = false;
                }
                if (!r.activity.mFinished) {
                    if (r.isPersistable()) {
                        if (r.state != null || r.persistentState != null) {
                            mInstrumentation.callActivityOnRestoreInstanceState(activity, r.state,
                                    r.persistentState);
                        }
                    } else if (r.state != null) {
                        mInstrumentation.callActivityOnRestoreInstanceState(activity, r.state);
                    }
                }
                if (!r.activity.mFinished) {
                    activity.mCalled = false;
                    if (r.isPersistable()) {
                        mInstrumentation.callActivityOnPostCreate(activity, r.state,
                                r.persistentState);
                    } else {
                        mInstrumentation.callActivityOnPostCreate(activity, r.state);
                    }
                    if (!activity.mCalled) {
                        throw new SuperNotCalledException(
                            "Activity " + r.intent.getComponent().toShortString() +
                            " did not call through to super.onPostCreate()");
                    }
                }
            }
            r.paused = true;
            mActivities.put(r.token, r); // 将ActivityRecord对象保存在ActivityThread的mActivities中
        } catch (SuperNotCalledException e) {
            throw e;
        } catch (Exception e) {
            if (!mInstrumentation.onException(activity, e)) {
                throw new RuntimeException(
                    "Unable to start activity " + component
                    + ": " + e.toString(), e);
            }
        }
        return activity;
    }

ActivityRecord里面的token,是一个Binder的代理对象,和ActivityClientRecord对象一样,都是用来描述所启动的Activity组件,只不过前者是在ActivityManagerService中使用,后者是在应用程序进程中使用。

至此,Activity的启动过程就分析完了。MainActivity的启动过程,其实也可以认为是应用程序的启动过程。

子Activity的启动过程和根Activity的启动过程也是类似的,过程如下:

    (1)MainActivity向ActivityManagerService发送一个自动ChildActivity的请求;

    (2)ActivityManagerService首先将ChildActivity的信息保存下来,再向MainActivity发送一个中止的请求;

    (3)MainActivity收到请求进入中止状态,告诉ActivityManagerService,便于ActivityManagerService继续执行启动ChildActivity的操作

    (4)ActivityManagerService检查ChildActivity所运行的进程是否存在,存在就发送ChildActivity信息给他,以进行启动。

源代码方面,原理类似,相比起来会比MainActivity的稍微简单一些,这里就不再详细叙述了,各位可以自行根据前面步骤,阅读源代码。

感谢阅读~~

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