[转]甲骨文函数大全

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SQL中的单记录函数1.ASCII返回与指定的字符对应的十进制数;SQL> select ascii('A') A,ascii('a') a,ascii('0') zero,ascii(' ') space from dual;

        A         A      ZERO     SPACE--------- --------- --------- ---------       65        97        48        32

2.CHR给出整数,返回对应的字符;SQL> select chr(54740) zhao,chr(65) chr65 from dual;

ZH C-- -赵 A

3.CONCAT连接两个字符串;SQL> select concat('010-','88888888')||'转23'  高乾竞电话 from dual;

高乾竞电话----------------010-88888888转23

4.INITCAP返回字符串并将字符串的第一个字母变为大写;SQL> select initcap('smith') upp from dual;

UPP-----Smith

5.INSTR(C1,C2,I,J)在一个字符串中搜索指定的字符,返回发现指定的字符的位置;C1    被搜索的字符串C2    希望搜索的字符串I     搜索的开始位置,默认为1J     出现的位置,默认为1SQL> select instr('oracle traning','ra',1,2) instring from dual;

 INSTRING---------        9

6.LENGTH返回字符串的长度;SQL> select name,length(name),addr,length(addr),sal,length(to_char(sal)) from gao.nchar_tst;

NAME   LENGTH(NAME) ADDR             LENGTH(ADDR)       SAL LENGTH(TO_CHAR(SAL))------ ------------ ---------------- ------------ --------- --------------------高乾竞            3 北京市海锭区                6   9999.99                    7

 

7.LOWER返回字符串,并将所有的字符小写SQL> select lower('AaBbCcDd')AaBbCcDd from dual;

AABBCCDD--------aabbccdd

8.UPPER返回字符串,并将所有的字符大写SQL> select upper('AaBbCcDd') upper from dual;

UPPER--------AABBCCDD

 

9.RPAD和LPAD(粘贴字符)RPAD  在列的右边粘贴字符LPAD  在列的左边粘贴字符SQL> select lpad(rpad('gao',10,'*'),17,'*')from dual;

LPAD(RPAD('GAO',1-----------------*******gao*******不够字符则用*来填满

10.LTRIM和RTRIMLTRIM  删除左边出现的字符串RTRIM  删除右边出现的字符串SQL> select ltrim(rtrim('   gao qian jing   ',' '),' ') from dual;

LTRIM(RTRIM('-------------gao qian jing

11.SUBSTR(string,start,count)取子字符串,从start开始,取count个SQL> select substr('13088888888',3,8) from dual;

SUBSTR('--------08888888

12.REPLACE('string','s1','s2')string   希望被替换的字符或变量 s1       被替换的字符串s2       要替换的字符串SQL> select replace('he love you','he','i') from dual;

REPLACE('H----------i love you

13.SOUNDEX返回一个与给定的字符串读音相同的字符串SQL> create table table1(xm varchar(8));SQL> insert into table1 values('weather');SQL> insert into table1 values('wether');SQL> insert into table1 values('gao');

SQL> select xm from table1 where soundex(xm)=soundex('weather');

XM--------weatherwether

14.TRIM('s' from 'string')LEADING   剪掉前面的字符TRAILING  剪掉后面的字符如果不指定,默认为空格符

15.ABS返回指定值的绝对值SQL> select abs(100),abs(-100) from dual;

 ABS(100) ABS(-100)--------- ---------      100       100

16.ACOS给出反余弦的值SQL> select acos(-1) from dual;

 ACOS(-1)---------3.1415927

17.ASIN给出反正弦的值SQL> select asin(0.5) from dual;

ASIN(0.5)---------.52359878

18.ATAN返回一个数字的反正切值SQL> select atan(1) from dual;

  ATAN(1)---------.78539816

19.CEIL返回大于或等于给出数字的最小整数SQL> select ceil(3.1415927) from dual;

CEIL(3.1415927)---------------              4

20.COS返回一个给定数字的余弦SQL> select cos(-3.1415927) from dual;

COS(-3.1415927)---------------             -1

21.COSH返回一个数字反余弦值SQL> select cosh(20) from dual;

 COSH(20)---------242582598

22.EXP返回一个数字e的n次方根SQL> select exp(2),exp(1) from dual;

   EXP(2)    EXP(1)--------- ---------7.3890561 2.7182818

23.FLOOR对给定的数字取整数SQL> select floor(2345.67) from dual;

FLOOR(2345.67)--------------          2345

24.LN返回一个数字的对数值SQL> select ln(1),ln(2),ln(2.7182818) from dual;

    LN(1)     LN(2) LN(2.7182818)--------- --------- -------------        0 .69314718     .99999999

25.LOG(n1,n2)返回一个以n1为底n2的对数 SQL> select log(2,1),log(2,4) from dual;

 LOG(2,1)  LOG(2,4)--------- ---------        0         2

26.MOD(n1,n2)返回一个n1除以n2的余数SQL> select mod(10,3),mod(3,3),mod(2,3) from dual;

MOD(10,3)  MOD(3,3)  MOD(2,3)--------- --------- ---------        1         0         2

27.POWER返回n1的n2次方根SQL> select power(2,10),power(3,3) from dual;

POWER(2,10) POWER(3,3)----------- ----------       1024         27

28.ROUND和TRUNC按照指定的精度进行舍入SQL> select round(55.5),round(-55.4),trunc(55.5),trunc(-55.5) from dual;

ROUND(55.5) ROUND(-55.4) TRUNC(55.5) TRUNC(-55.5)----------- ------------ ----------- ------------         56          -55          55          -55

29.SIGN取数字n的符号,大于0返回1,小于0返回-1,等于0返回0SQL> select sign(123),sign(-100),sign(0) from dual;

SIGN(123) SIGN(-100)   SIGN(0)--------- ---------- ---------        1         -1         0

30.SIN返回一个数字的正弦值SQL> select sin(1.57079) from dual;

SIN(1.57079)------------           1

31.SIGH返回双曲正弦的值SQL> select sin(20),sinh(20) from dual;

  SIN(20)  SINH(20)--------- ---------.91294525 242582598

32.SQRT返回数字n的根SQL> select sqrt(64),sqrt(10) from dual;

 SQRT(64)  SQRT(10)--------- ---------        8 3.1622777

33.TAN返回数字的正切值SQL> select tan(20),tan(10) from dual;

  TAN(20)   TAN(10)--------- ---------2.2371609 .64836083

34.TANH返回数字n的双曲正切值SQL> select tanh(20),tan(20) from dual;

 TANH(20)   TAN(20)--------- ---------        1 2.2371609

 

35.TRUNC按照指定的精度截取一个数SQL> select trunc(124.1666,-2) trunc1,trunc(124.16666,2) from dual;

   TRUNC1 TRUNC(124.16666,2)--------- ------------------      100             124.16

 

36.ADD_MONTHS增加或减去月份SQL> select to_char(add_months(to_date('199912','yyyymm'),2),'yyyymm') from dual;

TO_CHA------200002SQL> select to_char(add_months(to_date('199912','yyyymm'),-2),'yyyymm') from dual;

TO_CHA------199910

37.LAST_DAY返回日期的最后一天SQL> select to_char(sysdate,'yyyy.mm.dd'),to_char((sysdate)+1,'yyyy.mm.dd') from dual;

TO_CHAR(SY TO_CHAR((S---------- ----------2004.05.09 2004.05.10SQL> select last_day(sysdate) from dual;

LAST_DAY(S----------31-5月 -04

38.MONTHS_BETWEEN(date2,date1)给出date2-date1的月份SQL> select months_between('19-12月-1999','19-3月-1999') mon_between from dual;

MON_BETWEEN-----------          9SQL>selectmonths_between(to_date('2000.05.20','yyyy.mm.dd'),to_date('2005.05.20','yyyy.mm.dd')) mon_betw from dual;

 MON_BETW---------      -60

39.NEW_TIME(date,'this','that')给出在this时区=other时区的日期和时间SQL> select to_char(sysdate,'yyyy.mm.dd hh24:mi:ss') bj_time,to_char(new_time  2  (sysdate,'PDT','GMT'),'yyyy.mm.dd hh24:mi:ss') los_angles from dual;

BJ_TIME             LOS_ANGLES------------------- -------------------2004.05.09 11:05:32 2004.05.09 18:05:32

40.NEXT_DAY(date,'day')给出日期date和星期x之后计算下一个星期的日期SQL> select next_day('18-5月-2001','星期五') next_day from dual;

NEXT_DAY----------25-5月 -01

 

41.SYSDATE用来得到系统的当前日期SQL> select to_char(sysdate,'dd-mm-yyyy day') from dual;

TO_CHAR(SYSDATE,'-----------------09-05-2004 星期日trunc(date,fmt)按照给出的要求将日期截断,如果fmt='mi'表示保留分,截断秒SQL> select to_char(trunc(sysdate,'hh'),'yyyy.mm.dd hh24:mi:ss') hh,  2  to_char(trunc(sysdate,'mi'),'yyyy.mm.dd hh24:mi:ss') hhmm from dual;

HH                  HHMM------------------- -------------------2004.05.09 11:00:00 2004.05.09 11:17:00

 

42.CHARTOROWID将字符数据类型转换为ROWID类型SQL> select rowid,rowidtochar(rowid),ename from scott.emp;

ROWID              ROWIDTOCHAR(ROWID) ENAME------------------ ------------------ ----------AAAAfKAACAAAAEqAAA AAAAfKAACAAAAEqAAA SMITHAAAAfKAACAAAAEqAAB AAAAfKAACAAAAEqAAB ALLENAAAAfKAACAAAAEqAAC AAAAfKAACAAAAEqAAC WARDAAAAfKAACAAAAEqAAD AAAAfKAACAAAAEqAAD JONES

43.CONVERT(c,dset,sset)将源字符串 sset从一个语言字符集转换到另一个目的dset字符集SQL> select convert('strutz','we8hp','f7dec') "conversion" from dual;

conver------strutz

44.HEXTORAW将一个十六进制构成的字符串转换为二进制

45.RAWTOHEXT将一个二进制构成的字符串转换为十六进制

 

46.ROWIDTOCHAR将ROWID数据类型转换为字符类型

 

47.TO_CHAR(date,'format')SQL> select to_char(sysdate,'yyyy/mm/dd hh24:mi:ss') from dual;

TO_CHAR(SYSDATE,'YY-------------------2004/05/09 21:14:41

 

48.TO_DATE(string,'format')将字符串转化为ORACLE中的一个日期

49.TO_MULTI_BYTE将字符串中的单字节字符转化为多字节字符SQL>  select to_multi_byte('高') from dual;

TO--高

50.TO_NUMBER将给出的字符转换为数字SQL> select to_number('1999') year from dual;

     YEAR---------     1999

51.BFILENAME(dir,file)指定一个外部二进制文件SQL>insert into file_tb1 values(bfilename('lob_dir1','image1.gif'));

52.CONVERT('x','desc','source')将x字段或变量的源source转换为descSQL> select sid,serial#,username,decode(command,  2  0,'none',  3  2,'insert',  4  3,  5  'select',  6  6,'update',  7  7,'delete',  8  8,'drop',  9  'other') cmd  from v$session where type!='background';

      SID   SERIAL# USERNAME                       CMD--------- --------- ------------------------------ ------        1         1                                none        2         1                                none        3         1                                none        4         1                                none        5         1                                none        6         1                                none        7      1275                                none        8      1275                                none        9        20 GAO                            select       10        40 GAO                            none

53.DUMP(s,fmt,start,length)DUMP函数以fmt指定的内部数字格式返回一个VARCHAR2类型的值SQL> col global_name for a30SQL> col dump_string for a50SQL> set lin 200SQL> select global_name,dump(global_name,1017,8,5) dump_string from global_name;

GLOBAL_NAME                    DUMP_STRING------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------ORACLE.WORLD                   Typ=1 Len=12 CharacterSet=ZHS16GBK: W,O,R,L,D

54.EMPTY_BLOB()和EMPTY_CLOB()这两个函数都是用来对大数据类型字段进行初始化操作的函数

55.GREATEST返回一组表达式中的最大值,即比较字符的编码大小.SQL> select greatest('AA','AB','AC') from dual;

GR--ACSQL> select greatest('啊','安','天') from dual;

GR--天

56.LEAST返回一组表达式中的最小值 SQL> select least('啊','安','天') from dual;

LE--啊

57.UID返回标识当前用户的唯一整数SQL> show userUSER 为"GAO"SQL> select username,user_id from dba_users where user_id=uid;

USERNAME                         USER_ID------------------------------ ---------GAO                                   25

 

58.USER返回当前用户的名字SQL> select user from  dual;

USER------------------------------GAO

59.USEREVN返回当前用户环境的信息,opt可以是:ENTRYID,SESSIONID,TERMINAL,ISDBA,LABLE,LANGUAGE,CLIENT_INFO,LANG,VSIZEISDBA  查看当前用户是否是DBA如果是则返回trueSQL> select userenv('isdba') from dual;

USEREN------FALSESQL> select userenv('isdba') from dual;

USEREN------TRUESESSION返回会话标志SQL> select userenv('sessionid') from dual;

USERENV('SESSIONID')--------------------                 152ENTRYID返回会话人口标志SQL> select userenv('entryid') from dual;

USERENV('ENTRYID')------------------                 0INSTANCE返回当前INSTANCE的标志SQL> select userenv('instance') from dual;

USERENV('INSTANCE')-------------------                  1LANGUAGE返回当前环境变量SQL> select userenv('language') from dual;

USERENV('LANGUAGE')----------------------------------------------------SIMPLIFIED CHINESE_CHINA.ZHS16GBKLANG返回当前环境的语言的缩写SQL> select userenv('lang') from dual;

USERENV('LANG')----------------------------------------------------ZHSTERMINAL返回用户的终端或机器的标志SQL> select userenv('terminal') from dual;

USERENV('TERMINA----------------GAOVSIZE(X)返回X的大小(字节)数SQL> select vsize(user),user from dual;

VSIZE(USER) USER----------- ------------------------------          6 SYSTEM

 

60.AVG(DISTINCT|ALL)all表示对所有的值求平均值,distinct只对不同的值求平均值SQLWKS> create table table3(xm varchar(8),sal number(7,2));语句已处理。SQLWKS>  insert into table3 values('gao',1111.11);SQLWKS>  insert into table3 values('gao',1111.11);SQLWKS>  insert into table3 values('zhu',5555.55);SQLWKS> commit;

SQL> select avg(distinct sal) from gao.table3;

AVG(DISTINCTSAL)----------------         3333.33

SQL> select avg(all sal) from gao.table3;

AVG(ALLSAL)-----------    2592.59

61.MAX(DISTINCT|ALL)求最大值,ALL表示对所有的值求最大值,DISTINCT表示对不同的值求最大值,相同的只取一次SQL> select max(distinct sal) from scott.emp;

MAX(DISTINCTSAL)----------------            5000

62.MIN(DISTINCT|ALL)求最小值,ALL表示对所有的值求最小值,DISTINCT表示对不同的值求最小值,相同的只取一次SQL> select min(all sal) from gao.table3;

MIN(ALLSAL)-----------    1111.11

63.STDDEV(distinct|all)求标准差,ALL表示对所有的值求标准差,DISTINCT表示只对不同的值求标准差SQL> select stddev(sal) from scott.emp;

STDDEV(SAL)-----------  1182.5032

SQL> select stddev(distinct sal) from scott.emp;

STDDEV(DISTINCTSAL)-------------------           1229.951

 

64.VARIANCE(DISTINCT|ALL)求协方差

SQL> select variance(sal) from scott.emp;

VARIANCE(SAL)-------------    1398313.9

65.GROUP BY主要用来对一组数进行统计SQL> select deptno,count(*),sum(sal) from scott.emp group by deptno;

   DEPTNO  COUNT(*)  SUM(SAL)--------- --------- ---------       10         3      8750       20         5     10875       30         6      9400

 

66.HAVING对分组统计再加限制条件SQL> select deptno,count(*),sum(sal) from scott.emp group by deptno having count(*)>=5;

   DEPTNO  COUNT(*)  SUM(SAL)--------- --------- ---------       20         5     10875       30         6      9400SQL> select deptno,count(*),sum(sal) from scott.emp having count(*)>=5 group by deptno ;

   DEPTNO  COUNT(*)  SUM(SAL)--------- --------- ---------       20         5     10875       30         6      9400

67.ORDER BY用于对查询到的结果进行排序输出SQL> select deptno,ename,sal from scott.emp order by deptno,sal desc;

   DEPTNO ENAME            SAL--------- ---------- ---------       10 KING            5000       10 CLARK           2450       10 MILLER          1300       20 SCOTT           3000       20 FORD            3000       20 JONES           2975       20 ADAMS           1100       20 SMITH            800       30 BLAKE           2850       30 ALLEN           1600       30 TURNER          1500       30 WARD            1250       30 MARTIN          1250       30 JAMES            950

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