AJAX实践之与服务器通信

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【导读】本文介绍如何利用AJAX实现与服务器通信的功能,并给出代码及其比较。

首先看下看下相对简单些的——向服务器发送一个包含有名/值对的简单查询串,在这种情况下XHP即可以用GET也可以用POST。

GET

function doRequestUsingGET() {

 createXMLHttpRequest();

 var queryString = " GetAndPostExample? " ;

 queryString = queryString + createQueryString()+

" &timeStamp= " + new Date().getTime();

 xmlHttp.onreadystatechange = handleStateChange;

 xmlHttp.open( " GET " , queryString, true );

 xmlHttp.send( null );

}

POST

function doRequestUsingPOST() {

 createXMLHttpRequest();

 var url = " GetAndPostExample?timeStamp= " + new Date().getTime();

 var queryString = createQueryString();

 xmlHttp.open( " POST " , url, true );

 xmlHttp.onreadystatechange = handleStateChange;

 xmlHttp.setRequestHeader( " Content-Type " ,

" application/x-www-form-urlencoded " );

 xmlHttp.send(queryString);

}

queryString就是名/值对的参数形式了(如name=LiLin&age=23),在调用OPEN方法中,当请求方法是用POST的时候为了确保服务器知道请求体中有请求参数,需要调用setRequestHeader,将Content-Type值设置为application/x-www-form-urlencoded.当然也可不放在请求体中(那就不要用POST啦!)

此时server处理:

import java.io. * ;

import java.net. * ;

import javax.servlet. * ;

import javax.servlet.http. * ;

public class GetAndPostExample extends HttpServlet {

 protected void processRequest(HttpServletRequest request,

HttpServletResponse response, String method)

throws ServletException, IOException {

// Set content type of the response to text/xml

response.setContentType( " text/xml " );

// Get the user's input

String firstName = request.getParameter( " firstName " );

String middleName = request.getParameter( " middleName " );

String birthday = request.getParameter( " birthday " );

// Create the response text

String responseText = " Hello " + firstName + " " + middleName

+ " . Your birthday is " + birthday + " . "

+ " [Method: " + method + " ] " ;

// Write the response back to the browser

PrintWriter out = response.getWriter();

out.println(responseText);

// Close the writer

out.close();

 }

 protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request,

HttpServletResponse response)

throws ServletException, IOException {

// Process the request in method processRequest

processRequest(request, response, " GET " );

 }

 protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request,

HttpServletResponse response)

throws ServletException, IOException {

// Process the request in method processRequest

processRequest(request, response, " POST " );

 }

}  

对get and post方法都用processRequest来处理。

要向服务器发送相关复杂的查询串,可以将模型变化为XML发送到server 。

client端:

function createXML() {

 var xml = " <pets> " ;

 var options = document.getElementById( " petTypes " ).childNodes;

 var option = null ;

 for ( var i = 0 ; i < options.length; i ++ ) {

option = options[i];

if (option.selected) {

 xml = xml + " <type> " + option.value + " <//type> " ;

}

 }

 xml = xml + " <//pets> " ;

 return xml;

}

function sendPetTypes() {

 createXMLHttpRequest();

 var xml = createXML();

 var url = " PostingXMLExample?timeStamp= " + new Date().getTime();

 xmlHttp.open( " POST " , url, true );

 xmlHttp.onreadystatechange = handleStateChange;

 xmlHttp.setRequestHeader( " Content-Type " ,

" application/x-www-form-urlencoded " );

 xmlHttp.send(xml);

}

 

关于这个控件有个方法可以在各broswer中通用的JS代码:

// ------------------------------------------------ 

// Function: CreateXMLDOM

//

// Purpose: Creates a new XML DOM.

//

// Parameters: None

//

// Returns: XMLDOM object OR null

// -------------------------------------------------

function CreateXmlDOM()

{

 var oXML = new ActiveXObject(GetXmlParserProgID());

 try

 {

oXML.setProperty( " AllowXsltScript " , true );

 }

 catch (err) {}

 oXML.async = false ;

 oXML.validateOnParse = false ;

 oXML.resolveExternals = false ;

 oXML.setProperty( " SelectionLanguage " , " XPath " );

 try {oXML.setProperty( " NewParser " , true );} catch (e) {}

 return oXML;

}

// -------------------------------------------------

// Function: GetXmlParserProgID

//

// Purpose:

// Gets the ProgID of the highest available version of the

// Microsoft XML parser.

//

// Parameters: None

//

// Returns: String (i.e. "Msxml2.DOMDocument.4.0")

//

// -------------------------------------------------

function GetXmlParserProgID()

{

 var MAX_MAJOR_PARSER_VERSION = 10 ;

 var MIN_MAJOR_PARSER_VERSION = 0 ;

 var MAX_MINOR_PARSER_VERSION = 9 ;

 var MIN_MINOR_PARSER_VERSION = 0 ;

 var sProgID = g_sXmlParserProgID;

 var bFound = false ;

 if ( ! sProgID)

 {

// Iterate through possible versions

for ( var nMajor = MAX_MAJOR_PARSER_VERSION;

nMajor >= MIN_MAJOR_PARSER_VERSION; nMajor -- )

{

 for ( var nMinor = MAX_MINOR_PARSER_VERSION;

nMinor >= MIN_MINOR_PARSER_VERSION; nMinor -- )

 {

// Set up the classname for the version that

we're trying to instantiate

sProgID = " Msxml2.DOMDocument. " + nMajor + " . " + nMinor;

try

{

 if ( new ActiveXObject(sProgID))

 {

bFound = true ;

break ;

 }

}

catch (e)

{}

 }

 if (bFound)

 {

// store in a global variable to

speedup subsequent calls

g_sXmlParserProgID = sProgID;

break ;

 }

}

 }

 return sProgID;

}然后直接用其load方法(本地)。

var xmlDoc = new ActiveXObject( " MSXML2.DOMDocument.3.0 " );

xmlDoc.load(local_XML_FileName);

当然也可以直接从server取来(用get方法即可),然后以responseText的方法。

xmlht.Open( " GET " ,server_XML_FileName, true );

xmlht.onreadystatechange = stateChange;

xmlht.Send( null );

function handleStateChange() {

 if (xmlHttp.readyState == 4 ) {

if (xmlHttp.status == 200 ) {

 xmlDoc.loadXML(xmlht.responseText);

}

 }

}

实际上xmlDoc.loadXML(xmlht.responseText)所得到的就是一个于内存中的DOM了,而直接用responseXML的话就直接可以解析为一个DOM了!(注意load(FILE)与loadXML(DOM)是不同的)

此时servert process :

import java.io. * ;

import javax.servlet. * ;

import javax.servlet.http. * ;

import javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilderFactory;

import javax.xml.parsers.ParserConfigurationException;

import org.w3c.dom.Document;

import org.w3c.dom.NodeList;

import org.xml.sax.SAXException;

public class PostingXMLExample extends HttpServlet {

protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request,

HttpServletResponse response)

throws ServletException, IOException {

String xml = readXMLFromRequestBody(request);

Document xmlDoc = null ;

try {

xmlDoc =

DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance().newDocumentBuilder()

.parse( new ByteArrayInputStream(xml.getBytes()));

}

catch (ParserConfigurationException e) {

System.out.println( " ParserConfigurationException: " + e);

}

catch (SAXException e) {

System.out.println( " SAXException: " + e);

}

/**/ /* Note how the Java implementation of

the W3C DOM has the same methods

* as the JavaScript implementation, such as getElementsByTagName and

* getNodeValue.

*/

NodeList selectedPetTypes = xmlDoc.getElementsByTagName( " type " );

String type = null ;

String responseText = " Selected Pets: " ;

for ( int i = 0 ; i < selectedPetTypes.getLength(); i ++ ) {

type = selectedPetTypes.item(i).getFirstChild().getNodeValue();

responseText = responseText + " " + type;

}

response.setContentType( " text/xml " );

response.getWriter().print(responseText);

}

private String readXMLFromRequestBody(HttpServletRequest request) {

StringBuffer xml = new StringBuffer();

String line = null ;

try {

BufferedReader reader = request.getReader();

while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null ) {

xml.append(line);

}

}

catch (Exception e) {

System.out.println( " Error reading XML: " + e.toString());

}

return xml.toString();

}

}

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