数据验证框架 Apache BVal 简介(更新)

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/zhangxin09/article/details/50600575

Apache BVal源码)是实体数据验证 Java Bean Validation 的参考实现。Apache BVal 提供了 JSR 303 规范中所有内置 constraint 的实现,用于对 Bean 中的字段的值进行约束定义、描述和验证。若单单说 JSR 规范大渣可能还不清楚,但做过 POJO 的 Hibernate Validator 注解的朋友就知道是啥,——那为什么不使用主流的 Hibernate Validator 呢?因为这货净是个压缩包都已经 13mb 了(尽管可以有文档、源码其他在内),BVal 才只有 400 多 kb,而我只需要服务端验证而已,——天真的孩纸伤不起啊。俺的 ORM 也是 Mybatis 的,务求尽可能地轻量级。

Spring MVC 3.x 虽然自带了验证器 Validatior,可以在控制器中对表单提交的数据进行验证,但这个验证器是极其弱,因为你需要完全手工编码 if (null) else warn("不能空数据"),——太变态了(入下面的例子)——我们需要框架来减轻费时耗力的劳动,于是这类验证框架出现了。

    import org.springframework.validation.Errors;  
    import org.springframework.validation.ValidationUtils;  
    import org.springframework.validation.Validator;  
       
    public class UserValidator implements Validator {  
       
        public boolean supports(Class<?> clazz) {  
           // TODO Auto-generated method stub  
           return User.class.equals(clazz);  
        }  
       
        public void validate(Object obj, Errors errors) {  
           // TODO Auto-generated method stub  
           ValidationUtils.rejectIfEmpty(errors, "username", null, "Username is empty.");  
           User user = (User) obj;  
           if (null == user.getPassword() || "".equals(user.getPassword()))  
               errors.rejectValue("password", null, "Password is empty.");  
        }  
       
    }  

而我们理想的是这样的,在 POJO 身上声明验证条件的注解(Fields or Method 均可):

import javax.validation.constraints.Min;  
import javax.validation.constraints.NotNull;  
   
public class User {  
    @NotNull(message="用户名不能为空")  
private String username; private String password; private int age; public String getUsername() { return username; } public void setUsername(String username) { this.username = username; } @NotNull(message="密码不能为null") public String getPassword() { return password; } public void setPassword(String password) { this.password = password; } @Min(value=10, message="年龄的最小值为10") public int getAge() { return age; } public void setAge(int age) { this.age = age; } }

好了,现在准备一下 BVal jar 包:

加入测试用例:

import static org.junit.Assert.assertNotNull;

import java.util.Set;

import javax.validation.ConstraintViolation;
import javax.validation.Validation;
import javax.validation.Validator;
import javax.validation.ValidatorFactory;

import org.apache.bval.jsr.ApacheValidationProvider;
import org.junit.Test;

import com.ajaxjs.business.model.News;

public class TestValidation {
	@Test
	public void testValid() {
		News news = new News();
		ValidatorFactory avf = Validation.byProvider(ApacheValidationProvider.class).configure().buildValidatorFactory();
		Validator validator = avf.getValidator();
		//news.setName("dsdsa");
		Set<ConstraintViolation<News>> constraintViolations = validator.validate(news);

		for (ConstraintViolation<News> constraintViolation : constraintViolations) {
			System.out.println(constraintViolation.getMessage());
		}
		assertNotNull(constraintViolations);
	}
}

注解说明

@Vaild 是用于嵌套另外一个 pojo 的,如:

@NotNull
@Valid
private Person driver;
那么,

Car car = new Car(null, "", 1);
Person driver = new Person();
car.setDriver(driver);

AnnotationSupported data typesUseHibernate metadata impact
@AssertFalseBoolean, booleanChecks that the annotated element is falseNone
@AssertTrueBoolean, booleanChecks that the annotated element is trueNone
@DecimalMax(value=, inclusive=)BigDecimal, BigInteger, CharSequence, byte, short, int, long and the respective wrappers of the primitive types; Additionally supported by HV: any sub-type of NumberChecks whether the annotated value is less than the specified maximum, when inclusive=false. Otherwise whether the value is less than or equal to the specified maximum. The parameter value is the string representation of the max value according to the BigDecimal string representation.None
@DecimalMin(value=, inclusive=)BigDecimal, BigInteger, CharSequence, byte, short, int, long and the respective wrappers of the primitive types; Additionally supported by HV: any sub-type of NumberChecks whether the annotated value is larger than the specified minimum, when inclusive=false. Otherwise whether the value is larger than or equal to the specified minimum. The parameter value is the string representation of the min value according to the BigDecimal string representation.None
@Digits(integer=, fraction=)BigDecimal, BigInteger, CharSequence, byte, short, int, long and the respective wrappers of the primitive types; Additionally supported by HV: any sub-type of NumberChecks whether the annoted value is a number having up to integer digits and fraction fractional digitsDefines column precision and scale
@Futurejava.util.Date, supported by HV, if the Joda Time date/time API is on the class path: any implementations of ReadablePartial and ReadableInstantChecks whether the annotated date is in the futureNone
@Max(value=)BigDecimal, BigInteger, byte, short, int, long and the respective wrappers of the primitive types; Additionally supported by HV: any sub-type of CharSequence (the numeric value represented by the character sequence is evaluated), any sub-type of NumberChecks whether the annotated value is less than or equal to the specified maximumAdds a check constraint on the column
@Min(value=)BigDecimal, BigInteger, byte, short, int, long and the respective wrappers of the primitive types; Additionally supported by HV: any sub-type of CharSequence (the numeric value represented by the char sequence is evaluated), any sub-type of NumberChecks whether the annotated value is higher than or equal to the specified minimumAdds a check constraint on the column
@NotNullAny typeChecks that the annotated value is not null.Column(s) are not nullable
@NullAny typeChecks that the annotated value is nullNone
@Pastjava.util.Date, java.util.Calendar; Additionally date/time API is on the class path: any implementations of ReadablePartial and ReadableInstantChecks whether the annotated date is in the pastNone
@Pattern(regex=, flag=)CharSequenceChecks if the annotated string matches the regular expression regex considering the given flag matchNone
@Size(min=, max=)CharSequence, Collection, Map and arraysChecks if the annotated element's size is between min and max (inclusive)Column length will be set to max
@ValidAny non-primitive typePerforms validation recursively on the associated object. If the object is a collection or an array, the elements are validated recursively. If the object is a map, the value elements are validated recursively.

翻译是:

Constraint详细信息
@Null被注释的元素必须为 null
@NotNull被注释的元素必须不为 null
@AssertTrue被注释的元素必须为 true
@AssertFalse被注释的元素必须为 false
@Min(value)被注释的元素必须是一个数字,其值必须大于等于指定的最小值
@Max(value)被注释的元素必须是一个数字,其值必须小于等于指定的最大值
@DecimalMin(value)被注释的元素必须是一个数字,其值必须大于等于指定的最小值
@DecimalMax(value)被注释的元素必须是一个数字,其值必须小于等于指定的最大值
@Size(max, min)被注释的元素的大小必须在指定的范围内
@Digits (integer, fraction)被注释的元素必须是一个数字,其值必须在可接受的范围内
@Past被注释的元素必须是一个过去的日期
@Future被注释的元素必须是一个将来的日期
@Pattern(value)被注释的元素必须符合指定的正则表达式

Apache BVal 提供额外的注解,在 org.apache.bval.constraints.* 下。

注入到 Spring

如果用 Apache BVal 结合 Spring 是怎么做的呢?首先在 MVC 的 xml 配置文件中加入以下:

<mvc:annotation-driven validator="validator"/>

<!-- 数据验证 Validator bean -->
<bean id="validator" class="org.springframework.validation.beanvalidation.LocalValidatorFactoryBean">
    <property name="providerClass" value="org.apache.bval.jsr.ApacheValidationProvider" />
</bean>
<!-- // -->

这是一种全局的配置方式,我们注入 Bval 的验证器,另外,还要让 MVC 打开注解驱动。加上了 <mvn:annotation-driven/> 之后 Spring 会自动检测 classpath 下的 JSR-303 提供者并自动启用对 JSR-303 的支持。然后就可以在 POJO 中添加注解,而且要在控制器中声明 bean 的验证,如下例的 @Valid T news,否则 Bval 不会起作用。

/**
 * 新建 
 * @return
 */
@RequestMapping(method = RequestMethod.POST)
public String create(@Valid T news,  BindingResult result,Model model) {
	System.out.println("新建");
	if (result.hasErrors()) {
		LOGGER.info("create error!");
	}else{
		LOGGER.info("create ok!");
	}
	news.setService(getService());
	try {
		getService().create(news);
		model.addAttribute("newlyId", news.getId());
	} catch (ServiceException e) {
		model.addAttribute("errMsg", e.toString());
	}
	
	return "common/entity/json_cud";
}

一定要注意的是,控制器方法的参数顺序。Binding Result 必须在 Bean 后面。这是 Spring MVC 的约定。MVC 对控制器其他参数的顺序没什么规定,唯独这个 BindingResult 作了如此规定。目的是为了可以允许有多个 bean,于是也就有多个 BindingResult。

怎么处理错误就不详细说了,不同场景下要求不同。

自定义验证

可否自定义验证条件?我还没试,应该可以参考 Hibernate Validator 的做法。下面这篇文章说得很详细。

《Springmvc validator 验证的使用》

JSR 303 - Bean Validation 介绍及最佳实践

lk

调用 Apache BVal

07-18 补充如下:

可否脱离 Spring 运行?本身 BVal 就是一个独立的框架,因此答案不仅是可以的,而且非常简单。下面使用工厂和单例两种模式,返回一个校验器。

import javax.validation.Validation;
import javax.validation.Validator;
import javax.validation.ValidatorFactory;

import org.apache.bval.jsr.ApacheValidationProvider;

public enum MyValidatorFactory {
	SINGLE_INSTANCE {
		// BVal 与 JSR 接口结合,返回 ValidatorFactory 工厂
		ValidatorFactory avf = Validation.byProvider(ApacheValidationProvider.class).configure().buildValidatorFactory();

		@Override
		public Validator getValidator() {
			return avf.getValidator();
		}

	};
	
	/**
	 * 返回一个校验器
	 * @return 校验器
	 */
	public abstract Validator getValidator();
}

这里一点技巧就是通过 Java 枚举来实现单例。

好了,拿一个 Bean 来测试下,分别有通过和报错两种情况的测试。

import java.util.Set;

import static org.junit.Assert.*;
import org.junit.*;

import javax.validation.ConstraintViolation;
import javax.validation.Validator;

import com.ajaxjs.framework.model.MyValidatorFactory;
import com.ajaxjs.framework.model.News;

public class TestValid {

	@Test
	public void testQuery()  {
		Validator v = MyValidatorFactory.SINGLE_INSTANCE.getValidator();
		News news = new News();
		news.setName("标题");
		Set<ConstraintViolation<News>> result = v.validate(news);
		assertTrue("应该通过校验", result.isEmpty());
		
		News news2 = new News();
		result = v.validate(news2);
		assertTrue("应该不通过校验", !result.isEmpty());
		
		System.out.println(result.size());
		for(ConstraintViolation<News> r : result) {
			System.out.println(r.getMessage());// 什么错?
			System.out.println(r.getPropertyPath());// 哪个字段错?
		}
		
	}
}

主要通过返回 ConstraintViolation 的 isEmpty() 方法来判断是否有错误。

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