Codeforces Round #685 (Div. 2) D. Circle Game

Utkarsh is forced to play yet another one of Ashish’s games. The game progresses turn by turn and as usual, Ashish moves first.

Consider the 2D plane. There is a token which is initially at (0,0). In one move a player must increase either the x coordinate or the y coordinate of the token by exactly k. In doing so, the player must ensure that the token stays within a (Euclidean) distance d from (0,0).

In other words, if after a move the coordinates of the token are (p,q), then p2+q2≤d2 must hold.

The game ends when a player is unable to make a move. It can be shown that the game will end in a finite number of moves. If both players play optimally, determine who will win.

Input
The first line contains a single integer t (1≤t≤100) — the number of test cases.

The only line of each test case contains two space separated integers d (1≤d≤105) and k (1≤k≤d).

Output
For each test case, if Ashish wins the game, print “Ashish”, otherwise print “Utkarsh” (without the quotes).

Example
inputCopy
5
2 1
5 2
10 3
25 4
15441 33
outputCopy
Utkarsh
Ashish
Utkarsh
Utkarsh
Ashish
Note
In the first test case, one possible sequence of moves can be

(0,0)−→−−−Ashish (0,1)−→−−−−Utkarsh (0,2).

Ashish has no moves left, so Utkarsh wins.

假设最后的位置是x坐标增加a次k,y左边增加b次k,则位置为(ak,bk)根据题意可以得到一个公式: a 2 k 2 + b 2 k 2 < = d 2 a^2k^2 + b^2k^2 <= d^2 a2k2+b2k2<=d2 根据题意可以想到我们只要得到a+b的和s的最大值来判断谁会取得胜利(因为两个人采取的都是最佳策略,所以一定会到达最大值)。上面公司可以想象成一个圆的坐标公式,很显然当x坐标于y坐标相等或者差1(因为是整数)的时候二者和最大。假设a = b,则: 2 a 2 k 2 < = d 2 2a^2k^2 <= d^2 2a2k2<=d2可以得到: a = d 2 / ( 2 k 2 ) a = \sqrt{d^2/(2k^2)} a=d2/(2k2) ,这时因为二者和肯定时偶数,即Utkarsh获胜,这时判断一下,如果b = a+1仍满足上面的公式,则此时和时奇数,即Ashish获胜。(为什么最多加1?因为a,b的增量是相同的,都是K,b显然不可能额外增加2次,如果可以的话,上面算出的a就不是相同时候的最大值了)

代码如下:

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
 
using namespace  std;
typedef long long ll;
ll d,k;
bool solve(){
    ll a = sqrt((double)(d*d)/(2*k*k));
 
    if((a*a+(a+1)*(a+1))*(k*k) <= d*d){
        return true;
    }else{
        return false;
    }
}
int main(void){
    int T;
    cin >> T;
    while(T--){
        cin >> d >> k;
        if(solve()){
            cout << "Ashish" << endl;
        }else{
            cout << "Utkarsh" << endl;
        }
    }
 
 
    return 0;
}
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