oracle查询语句大全 oracle 基本命令大全

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oracle查询语句大全 oracle 基本命令大全

1、运行SQLPLUS工具

  C:\Users\wd-pc>sqlplus

2、直接进入SQLPLUS命令提示符

  C:\Users\wd-pc>sqlplus /nolog

3、以OS身份连接 

  C:\Users\wd-pc>sqlplus / as sysdba   或

  SQL>connect / as sysdba

4、普通用户登录

  C:\Users\wd-pc>sqlplus scott/123456  或

  SQL>connect scott/123456  或

  SQL>connect scott/123456@servername

5、以管理员登录

  C:\Users\wd-pc>sqlplus sys/123456 as sysdba 或

  SQL>connect sys/123456 as sysdba

6、切换用户

  SQL>conn hr/123456



  1.create user username identified by password;//建用户名和密码oracle ,oracle

  2.grant connect,resource,dba to username;//授权 grant connect,resource,dba,sysdba to username;

  3.connect username/password//进入。

  4.select table_name,column_name from user_tab_columns where table_name='TABLE_NAME';//查询表中的表名,字段名等等。 最后的table_name要大写。

  5. 如何执行脚本SQL文件? SQL>@PATH/filename.sql;

  7.查询用户下的所有表 select distinct table_name from user_tab_columns; ===仅显示一列表名。

8.如何搜索出前N条记录?
select * from tablename where rownum<n;--足矣。(--是注释用的标记)

  9.查找用户下的所有表:select * from tab; --查询该用户下的所有表及视图(显示表名tname, 类型tabname和clusterid)

  2、显示当前连接用户

  SQL> show user –不能用在sql窗口 只能用在command命令窗口。

  3、查看系统拥有哪些用户

  SQL> select * from all_users;

  4、新建用户并授权

  SQL> create user a identified by a;(默认建在SYSTEM表空间下)

  SQL> grant connect,resource to a;

  5、连接到新用户

  SQL> conn a/a –或者是connect a/a

  6、查询当前用户下所有对象

  SQL> select * from tab; --table或是view

  7、建立第一个表

  SQL> create table a(a number);

  8、查询表结构

  SQL> desc a

  9、插入新记录

  SQL> insert into a values(1);

  10、查询记录

  SQL> select * from a;

  11、更改记录

  SQL> update a set a=2;

  12、删除记录

  SQL> delete from a;

  13、回滚

  SQL> roll;

  SQL> rollback;

  14、提交

  SQL> commit;

  select * from

  (select t.*,dense_rank() over (order by cardkind) rank from cardkind t)

  where rank = 2;

  46. 如何在字符串里加回车?

  select 'Welcome to visit'||chr(10)||'www.CSDN.NET' from dual ; --‘||chr(10)||’作为换行符

  53. 如何使select语句使查询结果自动生成序号?

  select rownum COL from table; --主要就是oracle中引入了rownum

  54. 如何知道数据裤中某个表所在的tablespace?

  select tablespace_name from user_tables where table_name='TEST'; --table_name名称要大写。

  select * from user_tables中有个字段TABLESPACE_NAME,(oracle);

  select * from dba_segments where …;

  55. 怎么可以快速做一个和原表一样的备份表?

  create table new_table as (select * from old_table);

  59. 请问如何修改一张表的主键?

  alter table aaa drop constraint aaa_key ;

  alter table aaa add constraint aaa_key primary key(a1,b1) ;

  60. 改变数据文件的大小?

  用 ALTER DATABASE .... DATAFILE .... ;

  手工改变数据文件的大小,对于原来的 数据文件有没有损害。

  61. 怎样查看ORACLE中有哪些程序在运行之中?

  查看v$session表

  62. 怎么可以看到数据库有多少个tablespace?

  select * from dba_tablespaces;

  
  72. 怎样查看哪些用户拥有SYSDBA、SYSOPER权限?

  SQL>conn sys/change_on_install –登不上去

  SQL>select * from V_$PWFILE_USERS;

76. 如何显示当前连接用户?

  SHOW USER

  77. 如何查看数据文件放置的路径 ?

  col file_name format a50

  SQL> select tablespace_name,file_id,bytes/1024/1024,file_name from dba_data_files order by file_id;

  79. 如何改变一个字段初始定义的Check范围?

  SQL> alter table xxx drop constraint constraint_name;

  之后再创建新约束:

  SQL> alter table xxx add constraint constraint_name check();

  83. 如何执行脚本SQL文件?

SQL>@所在的文件路径 /filename.sql;
例如放在E盘的根目录下则应该是
@E:\a.sql;回车就OK了。

  84. 如何快速清空一个大表?

  SQL>truncate table table_name;

  85. 如何查有多少个数据库实例?

  SQL>SELECT * FROM V$INSTANCE;

  86. 如何查询数据库有多少表?

  SQL>select * from all_tables;

  87. 如何测试SQL语句执行所用的时间?

  SQL>set timing on ;

  SQL>select * from tablename;

  89. 字符串的连接

  SELECT CONCAT(COL1,COL2) FROM TABLE ;

  SELECT COL1||COL2 FROM TABLE ;

  90. 怎么把select出来的结果导到一个文本文件中?

  SQL>SPOOL C:\ABCD.TXT;

  SQL>select * from table;

  SQL >spool off;

  91. 怎样估算SQL执行的I/O数 ?

  SQL>SET AUTOTRACE ON ;

  SQL>SELECT * FROM TABLE;

  OR

  SQL>SELECT * FROM v$filestat ;

  可以查看IO数

  92. 如何在sqlplus下改变字段大小?

  alter table table_name modify (field_name varchar2(100));

  改大行,改小不行(除非都是空的)

  93. 如何查询某天的数据?

select * from a where trunc(日期字段)=to_date('2003-05-02','yyyy-mm-dd');
若是date型数据
insert into bsyear values(to_date('20130427','yyyymmdd'));
或者是insert into bsyear values('27-4月-2013');
  94. sql 语句如何插入全年日期?

  create table BSYEAR (d date);

insert into BSYEAR select to_date('20030101','yyyymmdd')+rownum-1
from all_objects where rownum <= to_char(to_date('20031231','yyyymmdd'),'ddd'); --在表后直接插入365行数据日期。
紧急插入几条重要的:
如何在Oracle中复制表结构和表数据
1. 复制表结构及其数据:
create table table_name_new as select * from table_name_old
2. 只复制表结构:
create table table_name_new as select * from table_name_old where 1=2;
或者:
create table table_name_new like table_name_old
3. 只复制表数据:
如果两个表结构一样:
insert into table_name_new select * from table_name_old
如果两个表结构不一样:
insert into table_name_new(column1,column2...) select column1,column2... from table_name_old
创建带主键的表:
create table stuInfo(stuID int primary key,stuName varchar2(20),age int);
或是不直接增加主键
alter table stuInfo add constraint stuInfo _PK primary key (stuID)
  95. 如果修改表名?

  alter table old_table_name rename to new_table_name;

  

  97. 如何知道用户拥有的权限?

  SELECT * FROM dba_sys_privs ; --一个权限对应一条数据,这样对于同一个用户就有多条数据了。

  98. 从网上下载的ORACLE9I与市场上卖的标准版有什么区别?

  从功能上说没有区别,只不过oracle公司有明文规定;从网站上下载的oracle产品不得用于商业用途,否则侵权。

 
  101. 如何搜索出前N条记录?

SELECT * FROM empLOYEE WHERE ROWNUM < n ORDER BY empno;
Select * from a where rownum<N;

 

  104. 如何统计两个表的记录总数?

  select (select count(id) from aa)+(select count(id) from bb) 总数 from dual; --总数那是没有单引号的,双引号可以。

  106. 如何在给现有的日期加上2年?(

  select add_months(sysdate,24) from dual; -- 2015/4/27 9:28:52

  110. tablespace 是否不能大于4G?

  没有限制.

  111. 返回大于等于N的最小整数值?

  SELECT CEIL(N) FROM DUAL;

  112. 返回小于等于N的最小整数值?

  SELECT FLOOR(N) FROM DUAL;

  113. 返回当前月的最后一天?

  SELECT LAST_DAY(SYSDATE) FROM DUAL;

  ;

  115. 如何找数据库表的主键字段的名称?

  SQL>SELECT * FROM user_constraints WHERE CONSTRAINT_TYPE='P' and table_name='TABLE_NAME'; --我没有查出来。

  116. 两个结果集互加的函数?

  SQL>SELECT * FROM BSEMPMS_OLD INTERSECT SELECT * FROM BSEMPMS_NEW;

  SQL>SELECT * FROM BSEMPMS_OLD UNION SELECT * FROM BSEMPMS_NEW;

  SQL>SELECT * FROM BSEMPMS_OLD UNION ALL SELECT * FROM BSEMPMS_NEW;

  117. 两个结果集互减的函数?

  SQL>SELECT * FROM BSEMPMS_OLD MINUS SELECT * FROM BSEMPMS_NEW;

  139. 如何查找重复记录?

  SELECT * FROM TABLE_NAME WHERE ROWID!=(SELECT MAX(ROWID) FROM TABLE_NAMe WHERE TABLE_NAME.COL1=D.COL1 AND TABLE_NAME.COL2=D.COL2);

  140. 如何删除重复记录?

  DELETE FROM TABLE_NAME WHERE ROWID!=(SELECT MAX(ROWID) FROM TABLE_NAME D WHERE TABLE_NAME.COL1=D.COL1 AND TABLE_NAME.COL2=D.COL2);


  162. 如何知道表在表空间中的存储情况?

  select segment_name,sum(bytes),count(*) ext_quan from dba_extents where tablespace_name='&tablespace_name' and segment_type='TABLE' group by tablespace_name,segment_name; --把&tablespace_name改成相应的表空间名称。


第二部分《oracle常用命令大全》

ORACLE常用命令

一、ORACLE的启动和关闭

1、在单机环境下

要想启动或关闭ORACLE系统必须首先切换到ORACLE用户,如下

su - oracle

a、启动ORACLE系统

oracle>svrmgrl

SVRMGR>connect internal

SVRMGR>startup

SVRMGR>quit

b、关闭ORACLE系统

oracle>svrmgrl

SVRMGR>connect internal

SVRMGR>shutdown

SVRMGR>quit

启动oracle9i数据库命令:

$ sqlplus /nolog

SQL*Plus: Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production on Fri Oct 31 13:53:53 2003

Copyright (c) 1982, 2002, Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.

SQL> connect / as sysdba

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup^C

SQL> startup

ORACLE instance started.

2、在双机环境下

要想启动或关闭ORACLE系统必须首先切换到root用户,如下

su - root

a、启动ORACLE系统

hareg -y oracle

b、关闭ORACLE系统

hareg -n oracle

Oracle数据库有哪几种启动方式

说明:

有以下几种启动方式:

1、startup nomount

非安装启动,这种方式启动下可执行:重建控制文件、重建数据库

读取init.ora文件,启动instance,即启动SGA和后台进程,这种启动只需要init.ora文件。

2、startup mount dbname

安装启动,这种方式启动下可执行:

数据库日志归档、

数据库介质恢复、

使数据文件联机或脱机,

重新定位数据文件、重做日志文件。

执行“nomount”,然后打开控制文件,确认数据文件和联机日志文件的位置,

但此时不对数据文件和日志文件进行校验检查。

3、startup open dbname

先执行“nomount”,然后执行“mount”,再打开包括Redo log文件在内的所有数据库文件,

这种方式下可访问数据库中的数据。

4、startup,等于以下三个命令

startup nomount

alter database mount

alter database open

5、startup restrict

约束方式启动

这种方式能够启动数据库,但只允许具有一定特权的用户访问

非特权用户访问时,会出现以下提示:

ERROR:

ORA-01035: ORACLE 只允许具有 RESTRICTED SESSION 权限的用户使用

6、startup force

强制启动方式

当不能关闭数据库时,可以用startup force来完成数据库的关闭

先关闭数据库,再执行正常启动数据库命令

7、startup pfile=参数文件名

带初始化参数文件的启动方式

先读取参数文件,再按参数文件中的设置启动数据库

例:startup pfile=E:Oracleadminoradbpfileinit.ora

8、startup EXCLUSIVE

二、用户如何有效地利用数据字典

 ORACLE的数据字典是数据库的重要组成部分之一,它随着数据库的产生而产生, 随着数据库的变化而变化,

体现为sys用户下的一些表和视图。数据字典名称是大写的英文字符。

数据字典里存有用户信息、用户的权限信息、所有数据对象信息、表的约束条件、统计分析数据库的视图等。

们不能手工修改数据字典里的信息。

  很多时候,一般的ORACLE用户不知道如何有效地利用它。

  dictionary   全部数据字典表的名称和解释,它有一个同义词dict

dict_column   全部数据字典表里字段名称和解释

如果我们想查询跟索引有关的数据字典时,可以用下面这条SQL语句:

SQL>select * from dictionary where instr(comments,'index')>0;

如果我们想知道user_indexes表各字段名称的详细含义,可以用下面这条SQL语句:

SQL>select column_name,comments from dict_columns where table_name='USER_INDEXES';

依此类推,就可以轻松知道数据字典的详细名称和解释,不用查看ORACLE的其它文档资料了。

下面按类别列出一些ORACLE用户常用数据字典的查询使用方法。

1、用户

查看当前用户的缺省表空间

SQL>select username,default_tablespace from user_users;

查看当前用户的角色

SQL>select * from user_role_privs;

查看当前用户的系统权限和表级权限

SQL>select * from user_sys_privs;

SQL>select * from user_tab_privs;

2、表

查看用户下所有的表

SQL>select * from user_tables;

查看名称包含log字符的表

SQL>select object_name,object_id from user_objects

where instr(object_name,'LOG')>0;

查看某表的创建时间

SQL>select object_name,created from user_objects where object_name=upper('&table_name');

查看某表的大小

SQL>select sum(bytes)/(1024*1024) as "size(M)" from user_segments

where segment_name=upper('&table_name');

查看放在ORACLE的内存区里的表

SQL>select table_name,cache from user_tables where instr(cache,'Y')>0;

3、索引

查看索引个数和类别

SQL>select index_name,index_type,table_name from user_indexes order by table_name;

查看索引被索引的字段

SQL>select * from user_ind_columns where index_name=upper('&index_name');

查看索引的大小

SQL>select sum(bytes)/(1024*1024) as "size(M)" from user_segments

where segment_name=upper('&index_name');

4、序列号

查看序列号,last_number是当前值

SQL>select * from user_sequences;

5、视图

查看视图的名称

SQL>select view_name from user_views;

查看创建视图的select语句

SQL>set view_name,text_length from user_views;

SQL>set long 2000; 说明:可以根据视图的text_length值设定set long 的大小

SQL>select text from user_views where view_name=upper('&view_name');

6、同义词

查看同义词的名称

SQL>select * from user_synonyms;

7、约束条件

查看某表的约束条件

SQL>select constraint_name, constraint_type,search_condition, r_constraint_name

from user_constraints where table_name = upper('&table_name');

SQL>select c.constraint_name,c.constraint_type,cc.column_name

from user_constraints c,user_cons_columns cc

where c.owner = upper('&table_owner') and c.table_name = upper('&table_name')

and c.owner = cc.owner and c.constraint_name = cc.constraint_name

order by cc.position;

8、存储函数和过程

查看函数和过程的状态

SQL>select object_name,status from user_objects where object_type='FUNCTION';

SQL>select object_name,status from user_objects where object_type='PROCEDURE';

查看函数和过程的源代码

SQL>select text from all_source where owner=user and name=upper('&plsql_name');

三、查看数据库的SQL

1、查看表空间的名称及大小

select t.tablespace_name, round(sum(bytes/(1024*1024)),0) ts_size

from dba_tablespaces t, dba_data_files d

where t.tablespace_name = d.tablespace_name

group by t.tablespace_name;

2、查看表空间物理文件的名称及大小

select tablespace_name, file_id, file_name,

round(bytes/(1024*1024),0) total_space

from dba_data_files

order by tablespace_name;

3、查看回滚段名称及大小

select segment_name, tablespace_name, r.status,

(initial_extent/1024) InitialExtent,(next_extent/1024) NextExtent,

max_extents, v.curext CurExtent

From dba_rollback_segs r, v$rollstat v

Where r.segment_id = v.usn(+)

order by segment_name ;

4、查看控制文件

select name from v$controlfile;

5、查看日志文件

select member from v$logfile;

6、查看表空间的使用情况

select sum(bytes)/(1024*1024) as free_space,tablespace_name

from dba_free_space

group by tablespace_name;

SELECT A.TABLESPACE_NAME,A.BYTES TOTAL,B.BYTES USED, C.BYTES FREE,

(B.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% USED",(C.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% FREE"

FROM SYS.SM$TS_AVAIL A,SYS.SM$TS_USED B,SYS.SM$TS_FREE C

WHERE A.TABLESPACE_NAME=B.TABLESPACE_NAME AND A.TABLESPACE_NAME=C.TABLESPACE_NAME;

7、查看数据库库对象

select owner, object_type, status, count(*) count# from all_objects group by owner, object_type, status;

8、查看数据库的版本

Select version FROM Product_component_version

Where SUBSTR(PRODUCT,1,6)='Oracle';

9、查看数据库的创建日期和归档方式

Select Created, Log_Mode, Log_Mode From V$Database;

四、ORACLE用户连接的管理

用系统管理员,查看当前数据库有几个用户连接:

SQL> select username,sid,serial# from v$session;

如果要停某个连接用

SQL

> alter system kill session 'sid,serial#';

如果这命令不行,找它UNIX的进程数

SQL> select pro.spid from v$session ses,v$process pro where ses.sid=21 and ses.paddr=pro.addr;

说明:21是某个连接的sid数

然后用 kill 命令杀此进程号。

五、SQL*PLUS使用

a、近入SQL*Plus

$sqlplus 用户名/密码

退出SQL*Plus

SQL>exit

b、在sqlplus下得到帮助信息

列出全部SQL命令和SQL*Plus命令

SQL>help

列出某个特定的命令的信息

SQL>help 命令名

c、显示表结构命令DESCRIBE

SQL>DESC 表名

d、SQL*Plus中的编辑命令

显示SQL缓冲区命令

SQL>L

修改SQL命令

首先要将待改正行变为当前行

SQL>n

用CHANGE命令修改内容

SQL>c/旧/新

重新确认是否已正确

SQL>L

使用INPUT命令可以在SQL缓冲区中增加一行或多行

SQL>i

SQL>输入内容

e、调用外部系统编辑器

SQL>edit 文件名

可以使用DEFINE命令设置系统变量EDITOR来改变文本编辑器的类型,在login.sql文件中定义如下一行

DEFINE_EDITOR=vi

f、运行命令文件

SQL>START test

SQL>@test

常用SQL*Plus语句

a、表的创建、修改、删除

创建表的命令格式如下:

create table 表名 (列说明列表);

为基表增加新列命令如下:

ALTER TABLE 表名 ADD (列说明列表)

例:为test表增加一列Age,用来存放年龄

sql>alter table test

add (Age number(3));

修改基表列定义命令如下:

ALTER TABLE 表名

MODIFY (列名 数据类型)

例:将test表中的Count列宽度加长为10个字符

sql>alter atble test

modify (County char(10));

b、将一张表删除语句的格式如下:

DORP TABLE 表名;

例:表删除将同时删除表的数据和表的定义

sql>drop table test

c、表空间的创建、删除

六、ORACLE逻辑备份的SH文件

完全备份的SH文件:exp_comp.sh

rq=` date +"%m%d" `

su - oracle -c "exp system/manager full=y inctype=complete file=/oracle/export/db_comp$rq.dmp"

累计备份的SH文件:exp_cumu.sh

rq=` date +"%m%d" `

su - oracle -c "exp system/manager full=y inctype=cumulative file=/oracle/export/db_cumu$rq.dmp"

增量备份的SH文件: exp_incr.sh

rq=` date +"%m%d" `

su - oracle -c "exp system/manager full=y inctype=incremental file=/oracle/export/db_incr$rq.dmp"

root用户crontab文件

/var/spool/cron/crontabs/root增加以下内容

0 2 1 * * /oracle/exp_comp.sh

30 2 * * 0-5 /oracle/exp_incr.sh

45 2 * * 6 /oracle/exp_cumu.sh

当然这个时间表可以根据不同的需求来改变的,这只是一个例子。

七、ORACLE 常用的SQL语法和数据对象

一.数据控制语句 (DML) 部分

1.INSERT (往数据表里插入记录的语句)

INSERT INTO 表名(字段名1, 字段名2, ……) VALUES ( 值1, 值2, ……);

INSERT INTO 表名(字段名1, 字段名2, ……) SELECT (字段名1, 字段名2, ……

) FROM 另外的表名;

字符串类型的字段值必须用单引号括起来, 例如: ’GOOD DAY’

如果字段值里包含单引号’ 需要进行字符串转换, 我们把它替换成两个单引号''.

字符串类型的字段值超过定义的长度会出错, 最好在插入前进行长度校验.

日期字段的字段值可以用当前数据库的系统时间SYSDATE, 精确到秒

或者用字符串转换成日期型函数TO_DATE(‘2001-08-01’,’YYYY-MM-DD’)

TO_DATE()还有很多种日期格式, 可以参看ORACLE DOC.

年-月-日 小时:分钟:秒 的格式YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS

INSERT时最大可操作的字符串长度小于等于4000个单字节, 如果要插入更长的字符串, 请考虑字段用CLOB类型,

方法借用ORACLE里自带的DBMS_LOB程序包.

INSERT时如果要用到从1开始自动增长的序列号, 应该先建立一个序列号

CREATE SEQUENCE 序列号的名称 (最好是表名+序列号标记) INCREMENT BY 1 START WITH 1

MAXVALUE 99999 CYCLE NOCACHE;

其中最大的值按字段的长度来定, 如果定义的自动增长的序列号 NUMBER(6) , 最大值为999999

INSERT 语句插入这个字段值为: 序列号的名称.NEXTVAL

2.DELETE (删除数据表里记录的语句)

DELETE FROM表名 WHERE 条件;

注意:删除记录并不能释放ORACLE里被占用的数据块表空间. 它只把那些被删除的数据块标成unused.

如果确实要删除一个大表里的全部记录, 可以用 TRUNCATE 命令, 它可以释放占用的数据块表空间

TRUNCATE TABLE 表名;

此操作不可回退.

3.UPDATE (修改数据表里记录的语句)

UPDATE表名 SET 字段名1=值1, 字段名2=值2, …… WHERE 条件;

如果修改的值N没有赋值或定义时, 将把原来的记录内容清为NULL, 最好在修改前进行非空校验;

值N超过定义的长度会出错, 最好在插入前进行长度校验..

注意事项:

A. 以上SQL语句对表都加上了行级锁,

确认完成后, 必须加上事物处理结束的命令 COMMIT 才能正式生效,

否则改变不一定写入数据库里.

如果想撤回这些操作, 可以用命令 ROLLBACK 复原.

B. 在运行INSERT, DELETE 和 UPDATE 语句前最好估算一下可能操作的记录范围,

应该把它限定在较小 (一万条记录) 范围内,. 否则ORACLE处理这个事物用到很大的回退段.

程序响应慢甚至失去响应. 如果记录数上十万以上这些操作, 可以把这些SQL语句分段分次完成,

其间加上COMMIT 确认事物处理.

二.数据定义 (DDL) 部分

1.CREATE (创建表, 索引, 视图, 同义词, 过程, 函数, 数据库链接等)

ORACLE常用的字段类型有

CHAR 固定长度的字符串

VARCHAR2 可变长度的字符串

NUMBER(M,N) 数字型M是位数总长度, N是小数的长度

DATE 日期类型

建表时要把较小的不为空的字段放在前面, 可能为空的字段放在后面

创建表时可以用中文的字段名, 但最好还是用英文的字段名

创建表时可以给字段加上默认值, 例如 DEFAULT SYSDATE

这样每次插入和修改时, 不用程序操作这个字段都能得到动作的时间

创建表时可以给字段加上约束条件

例如 不允许重复 UNIQUE, 关键字 PRIMARY KEY

2.ALTER (改变表, 索引, 视图等)

改变表的名称

ALTER TABLE 表名1 TO 表名2;

在表的后面增加一个字段

ALTER TABLE表名 ADD 字段名 字段名描述;

修改表里字段的定义描述

ALTER TABLE表名 MODIFY字段名 字段名描述;

给表里的字段加上约束条件

ALTER TABLE 表名 ADD CONSTRAINT 约束名 PRIMARY KEY (字段名);

ALTER TABLE 表名 ADD CONSTRAINT 约束名 UNIQUE (字段名);

把表放在或取出数据库的内存区

ALTER TABLE 表名 CACHE;

ALTER TABLE 表名 NOCACHE;

3.DROP (删除表, 索引, 视图, 同义词, 过程, 函数, 数据库链接等)

删除表和它所有的约束条件

DROP TABLE 表名 CASCADE CONSTRAINTS;

4.TRUNCATE (清空表里的所有记录, 保留表的结构)

TRUNCATE 表名;

三.查询语句 (SELECT) 部分

SELECT字段名1, 字段名2, …… FROM 表名1, [表名2, ……] WHERE 条件;

字段名可以带入函数

例如: COUNT(*), MIN(字段名), MAX(字段名), AVG(字段名), DISTINCT(字段名),

TO_CHAR(DATE字段名,'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS')

NVL(EXPR1, EXPR2)函数

解释:

IF EXPR1=NULL

RETURN EXPR2

ELSE

RETURN EXPR1

DECODE(AA﹐V1﹐R1﹐V2﹐R2....)函数

解释:

IF AA=V1 THEN RETURN R1

IF AA=V2 THEN RETURN R2

..…

ELSE

RETURN NULL

LPAD(char1,n,char2)函数

解释:

字符char1按制定的位数n显示,不足的位数用char2字符串替换左边的空位

字段名之间可以进行算术运算

例如: (字段名1*字段名1)/3

查询语句可以嵌套

例如: SELECT …… FROM

(SELECT …… FROM表名1, [表名2, ……] WHERE 条件) WHERE 条件2;

两个查询语句的结果可以做集合操作

例如: 并集UNION(去掉重复记录), 并集UNION ALL(不去掉重复记录), 差集MINUS, 交集INTERSECT

分组查询

SELECT字段名1, 字段名2, …… FROM 表名1, [表名2, ……] GROUP BY字段名1

[HAVING 条件] ;

两个以上表之间的连接查询

SELECT字段名1, 字段名2, …… FROM 表名1, [表名2, ……] WHERE

表名1.字段名 = 表名2. 字段名 [ AND ……] ;

SELECT字段名1, 字段名2, …… FROM 表名1, [表名2, ……] WHERE

表名1.字段名 = 表名2. 字段名(+) [ AND ……] ;

有(+)号的字段位置自动补空值

查询结果集的排序操作, 默认的排序是升序ASC, 降序是DESC

SELECT字段名1, 字段名2, …… FROM 表名1, [表名2, ……]

ORDER BY字段名1, 字

段名2 DESC;

字符串模糊比较的方法

INSTR(字段名, ‘字符串’)>0

字段名 LIKE ‘字符串%’ [‘%字符串%’]

每个表都有一个隐含的字段ROWID, 它标记着记录的唯一性.

四.ORACLE里常用的数据对象 (SCHEMA)

1.索引 (INDEX)

CREATE INDEX 索引名ON 表名 ( 字段1, [字段2, ……] );

ALTER INDEX 索引名 REBUILD;

一个表的索引最好不要超过三个 (特殊的大表除外), 最好用单字段索引, 结合SQL语句的分析执行情况,

也可以建立多字段的组合索引和基于函数的索引

ORACLE8.1.7字符串可以索引的最大长度为1578 单字节

ORACLE8.0.6字符串可以索引的最大长度为758 单字节

2.视图 (VIEW)

CREATE VIEW 视图名AS SELECT …. FROM …..;

ALTER VIEW视图名 COMPILE;

视图仅是一个SQL查询语句, 它可以把表之间复杂的关系简洁化.

3.同义词 (SYNONMY)

CREATE SYNONYM同义词名FOR 表名;

CREATE SYNONYM同义词名FOR 表名@数据库链接名;

4.数据库链接 (DATABASE LINK)

CREATE DATABASE LINK数据库链接名CONNECT TO 用户名 IDENTIFIED BY 密码 USING ‘数据库连接字符串’;

数据库连接字符串可以用NET8 EASY CONFIG或者直接修改TNSNAMES.ORA里定义.

数据库参数global_name=true时要求数据库链接名称跟远端数据库名称一样

数据库全局名称可以用以下命令查出

SELECT * FROM GLOBAL_NAME;

查询远端数据库里的表

SELECT …… FROM 表名@数据库链接名;

五.权限管理 (DCL) 语句

1.GRANT 赋于权限

常用的系统权限集合有以下三个:

CONNECT(基本的连接), RESOURCE(程序开发), DBA(数据库管理)

常用的数据对象权限有以下五个:

ALL ON 数据对象名, SELECT ON 数据对象名, UPDATE ON 数据对象名,

DELETE ON 数据对象名, INSERT ON 数据对象名, ALTER ON 数据对象名

GRANT CONNECT, RESOURCE TO 用户名;

GRANT SELECT ON 表名 TO 用户名;

GRANT SELECT, INSERT, DELETE ON表名 TO 用户名1, 用户名2;

2.REVOKE 回收权限

REVOKE CONNECT, RESOURCE FROM 用户名;

REVOKE SELECT ON 表名 FROM 用户名;

REVOKE SELECT, INSERT, DELETE ON表名 FROM 用户名1, 用户名2;

查询数据库中第63号错误:

select orgaddr,destaddr from sm_histable0116 where error_code='63';

查询数据库中开户用户最大提交和最大下发数: select MSISDN,TCOS,OCOS from ms_usertable;

查询数据库中各种错误代码的总和:

select error_code,count(*) from sm_histable0513 group by error_code order

by error_code;

查询报表数据库中话单统计种类查询。

select sum(Successcount) from tbl_MiddleMt0411 where ServiceType2=111

select sum(successcount),servicetype from tbl_middlemt0411 group by servicetype

原文地址:http://www.cnoug.org/viewthread.php?tid=60293

//创建一个控制文件命令到跟踪文件

alter database backup controlfile

to trace;

//增加一个新的日志文件组的语句

connect internal as sysdba

alter database

add logfile group 4

(’/db01/oracle/CC1/log_1c.dbf’,

’/db02/oracle/CC1/log_2c.dbf’) size 5M;

alter database

add logfile member ’/db03/oracle/CC1/log_3c.dbf’

to group 4;

//在Server Manager上MOUNT并打开一个数据库:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount ORA1 exclusive;

alter database open;

//生成数据字典

@catalog

@catproc

//在init.ora 中备份数据库的位置

log_archive_dest_1 = ’/db00/arch’

log_archive_dest_state_1 = enable

log_archive_dest_2 = "service=stby.world mandatory reopen=60"

log_archive_dest_state_2 = enable

//对用户的表空间的指定和管理相关的语句

create user USERNAME identified by PASSWORD

default tablespace TABLESPACE_NAME;

alter user USERNAME default tablespace TABLESPACE_NAME;

alter user SYSTEM quota 0 on SYSTEM;

alter user SYSTEM quota 50M on TOOLS;

create user USERNAME identified by PASSWORD

default tablespace DATA

temporary tablespace TEMP;

alter user USERNAME temporary tablespace TEMP;

//重新指定一个数据文件的大小 :

alter database

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ resize 200M;

//创建一个自动扩展的数据文件:

create tablespace DATA

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ size 200M

autoextend ON

next 10M

maxsize 250M;

//在表空间上增加一个自动扩展的数据文件:

alter tablespace DATA

add datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data02.dbf’

size 50M

autoextend ON

maxsize 300M;

//修改参数:

alter database

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’

autoextend ON

maxsize 300M;

//在数据文件移动期间重新命名:

alter database rename file

’/db01/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’;

alter tablespace DATA rename datafile

’/db01/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’;

alter database rename file

’/db05/oracle/CC1/redo01CC1.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/redo01CC1.dbf’;

alter database datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’

resize 80M;

//创建和使用角色:

create role APPLICATION_USER;

grant CREATE SESSION to APPLICATION_USER;

grant APPLICATION_USER to username;

//回滚段的管理

create rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME

tablespace RBS;

alter rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME offline;

drop rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME;

alter rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME online;

//回滚段上指定事务

commit;

set transaction use rollback segment ROLL_BATCH;

insert into TABLE_NAME

select * from DATA_LOAD_TABLE;

commit;

//查询回滚段的 大小和优化参数

select * from DBA_SEGMENTS

where Segment_Type = ’ROLLBACK’;

select N.Name, /* rollback segment name */

S.OptSize /* rollback segment OPTIMAL size */

from V$ROLLNAME N, V$ROLLSTAT S

where N.USN=S.USN;

//回收回滚段

alter rollback segment R1 shrink to 15M;

alter rollback segment R1 shrink;

//例子

set transaction use rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME

alter tablespace RBS

default storage

(initial 125K next 125K minextents 18 maxextents 249)

create rollback segment R4 tablespace RBS

storage (optimal 2250K);

alter rollback segment R4 online;

select Sessions_Highwater from V$LICENSE;

grant select on EMPLOYEE to PUBLIC;

//用户和角色

create role ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

grant CREATE SESSION, CREATE USER, ALTER USER

to ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

alter user THUMPER default role NONE;

alter user THUMPER default role CONNECT;

alter user THUMPER default role all except ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

alter profile DEFAULT

limit idle_time 60;

create profile LIMITED_PROFILE limit

FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS 5;

create user JANE identified by EYRE

profile LIMITED_PROFILE;

grant CREATE SESSION to JANE;

alter user JANE account unlock;

alter user JANE account lock;

alter profile LIMITED_PROFILE limit

PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME 30;

alter user jane password expire;

//创建操作系统用户

REM Creating OPS$ accounts

create user OPS$FARMER

identified by SOME_PASSWORD

default tablespace USERS

temporary tablespace TEMP;

REM Using identified externally

create user OPS$FARMER

identified externally

default tablespace USERS

temporary tablespace TEMP;

//执行ORAPWD

ORAPWD FILE=filename PASSWORD=password ENTRIES=max_users

create role APPLICATION_USER;

grant CREATE SESSION to APPLICATION_USER;

create role DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.EMPLOYEE to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.TIME_CARDS to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.DEPARTMENT to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant APPLICATION_USER to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant DATA_ENTRY_CLERK to MCGREGOR;

grant DATA_ENTRY_CLERK to BPOTTER with admin option;

//设置角色

set role DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

set role NONE;

//回收权利:

revoke delete on EMPLOYEE from PETER;

revoke all on EMPLOYEE from MCGREGOR;

//回收角色:

revoke ACCOUNT_CREATOR from HELPDESK;

drop user USERNAME cascade;

grant SELECT on EMPLOYEE to MCGREGOR with grant option;

grant SELECT on THUMPER.EMPLOYEE to BPOTTER with grant option;

revoke SELECT on EMPLOYEE from MCGREGOR;

create user MCGREGOR identified by VALUES ’1A2DD3CCEE354DFA’;

alter user OPS$FARMER identified by VALUES ’no way’;

//备份与恢复

使用 export 程序

exp system/manager file=expdat.dmp compress=Y owner=(HR,THUMPER)

exp system/manager file=hr.dmp owner=HR indexes=Y compress=Y

imp system/manager file=hr.dmp full=Y buffer=64000 commit=Y

//备份表

exp system/manager FILE=expdat.dmp TABLES=(Thumper.SALES)

//备份分区

exp system/manager FILE=expdat.dmp TABLES=(Thumper.SALES:Part1)

//输入例子

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp bu

ffer=64000 commit=Y

exp system/manager file=thumper.dat owner=thumper grants=N

indexes=Y compress=Y rows=Y

imp system/manager file=thumper.dat FROMUSER=thumper TOUSER=flower

rows=Y indexes=Y

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp full=Y commit=Y buffer=64000

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp ignore=N rows=N commit=Y buffer=64000

//使用操作系统备份命令

REM TAR examples

tar -cvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db0[1-9]/oracle/CC1

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /orasw/app/oracle/CC1/pfile/initcc1.ora

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db0[1-9]/oracle/CC1 /orasw/app/oracle/CC1/pfile/initcc1.ora

//离线备份的shell脚本

ORACLE_SID=cc1; export ORACLE_SID

ORAENV_ASK=NO; export ORAENV_ASK

. oraenv

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

shutdown immediate;

exit

EOF1

insert backup commands like the "tar" commands here

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

startup

EOF2

//在Server Manager上设置为archivelog mode:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount cc1;

alter database archivelog;

archive log start;

alter database open;

//在Server Manager上设置为archivelog mode:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount cc1;

alter database noarchivelog;

alter database open;

select Name,

Value

from V$PARAMETER

where Name like ’log_archive%’;

//联机备份的脚本

#

# Sample Hot Backup Script for a UNIX File System database

#

# Set up environment variables:

ORACLE_SID=cc1; export ORACLE_SID

ORAENV_ASK=NO; export ORAENV_ASK

. oraenv

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

REM

REM 备份 SYSTEM tablespace

REM

alter tablespace SYSTEM begin backup;

!tar -cvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db01/oracle/CC1/sys01.dbf

alter tablespace SYSTEM end backup;

REM

REM The SYSTEM tablespace has now been written to a

REM tar saveset on the tape device /dev/rmt/0hc. The

REM rest of the tars must use the "-rvf" clause to append

REM to that saveset.

REM

REM 备份 RBS tablespace

REM

alter tablespace RBS begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db02/oracle/CC1/rbs01.dbf

alter tablespace RBS end backup;

REM

REM 备份 DATA tablespace

REM For the purposes of this example, this tablespace

REM will contain two files, data01.dbf and data02.dbf.

REM The * wildcard will be used in the filename.

REM

alter tablespace DATA begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db03/oracle/CC1/data0*.dbf

alter tablespace DATA end backup;

REM

REM 备份 INDEXES tablespace

REM

alter tablespace INDEXES begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db04/oracle/CC1/indexes01.dbf

alter tablespace INDEXES end backup;

REM

REM 备份 TEMP tablespace

REM

alter tablespace TEMP begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db05/oracle/CC1/temp01.dbf

alter tablespace TEMP end backup;

REM

REM Follow the same pattern to back up the rest

REM of the tablespaces.

REM

REM

REM Step 2. 备份归档日志文件.

archive log

stop

REM

REM Exit Server Manager, using the indicator set earlier.

exit

EOFarch1

#

# Record which files are in the destination directory.

# Do this by setting an environment variable that is

# equal to the directory listing for the destination

# directory.

# For this example, the log_archive_dest is

# /db01/oracle/arch/CC1.

#

FILES=`ls /db01/oracle/arch/CC1/arch*.dbf`; export FILES

#

# Now go back into Server Manager and restart the

# archiving process. Set an indicator (called EOFarch2

# in this example).

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# Now back up the archived redo logs to the tape

# device via the "tar" command, then delete them

# from the destination device via the "rm" command.

# You may choose to compress them instead.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc $FILES

rm -f $FILES

#

# Step 3. 备份控制文件到磁盘.

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal

alter database backup controlfile to

’db01/oracle/CC1/CC1controlfile.bck’;

exit

EOFarch3

#

# 备份控制文件到磁带.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db01/oracle/CC1/CC1controlfile.bck

#

# End of hot backup script.

//自动生成开始备份的脚本

set pagesize 0 feedback off

select

’alter tablespace ’||Tablespace_Name||’ begin backup;’

from DBA_TABLESPACES

where Status <> ’INVALID’

spool alter_begin.sql

/

spool off

//自动生成备份结束的脚本

set pagesize 0 feedback off

select

’alter tablespace ’||Tablespace_Name||’ end backup;’

from DBA_TABLESPACES

where Status <> ’INVALID’

spool alter_end.sql

/

spool off

//备份归档日志文件的脚本.

REM See text for alternatives.

# Step 1: Stop the archiving process. This will keep

# additional archived redo log files from being written

# to the destination directory during this process.

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log stop;

REM

REM Exit Server Manager using the indicator set earlier.

exit

EOFarch1

#

# Step 2: Record which files are in the destination

# directory.

# Do this by setting an environment variable that is

# equal to the directory listing for the destination

# directory.

# For this example, the log_archive_dest is

# /db01/oracle/arch/CC1.

#

FILES=`ls /db01/oracle/arch/CC1/arch*.dbf`; export FILES

#

# Step 3: Go back into Server Manager and restart the

# archiving process. Set an indicator (called EOFarch2

# in this example).

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# Step 4. Back up the archived redo logs to the tape

# device via the "tar" command, then delete them

# from the destination device via the "rm" command.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc $FILES

#

# Step 5. Delete those files from the destination dire

ctory.

#

rm -f $FILES

#

# End of archived redo log file backup script.

REM 磁盘到磁盘的备份

REM

REM Back up the RBS tablespace - to another disk (UNIX)

REM

alter tablespace RBS begin backup;

!cp /db02/oracle/CC1/rbs01.dbf /db10/oracle/CC1/backups

alter tablespace RBS end backup;

REM

REM 移动归档日志文件的shell脚本

#

# Procedure for moving archived redo logs to another device

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log stop;

!mv /db01/oracle/arch/CC1 /db10/oracle/arch/CC1

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# end of archived redo log directory move.

//生成创建控制文件命令

alter database backup controlfile to trace;

//时间点恢复的例子

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount instance_name;

recover database until time ’1999-08-07:14:40:00’;

//创建恢复目录

rman rcvcat rman/rman@

// 在(UNIX)下创建恢复目录

RMAN> create catalog tablespace rcvcat;

// 在(NT)下创建恢复目录

RMAN> create catalog tablespace "RCVCAT";

//连接描述符范例

(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=TCP)

(HOST=HQ)

(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT DATA=

(SID=loc)))

// listener.ora 的条目entry

// listener.ora 的条目entry

LISTENER =

(ADDRESS_LIST =

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=IPC)

(KEY= loc.world)

)

)

SID_LIST_LISTENER =

(SID_LIST =

(SID_DESC =

(SID_NAME = loc)

(ORACLE_HOME = /orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.1)

)

)

// tnsnames.ora 的条目

LOC=

(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS =

(PROTOCOL = TCP)

(HOST = HQ)

(PORT = 1521))

)

(CONNECT_DATA =

(SERVICE_NAME = loc)

(INSTANCE_NAME = loc)

)

)

//连接参数的设置(sql*net)

LOC =(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS=

(COMMUNITY=TCP.HQ.COMPANY)

(PROTOCOL=TCP)

(HOST=HQ)

(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT DATA=

(SID=loc)))

//参数文件配置范例

// tnsnames.ora

HQ =(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=TCP)

(HOST=HQ)

(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT DATA=

(SID=loc)))

// listener.ora

LISTENER =

(ADDRESS_LIST =

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=IPC)

(KEY= loc)

)

)

SID_LIST_LISTENER =

(SID_LIST =

(SID_DESC =

(SID_NAME = loc)

(ORACLE_HOME = /orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.1)

)

)

// Oracle8I tnsnames.ora

LOC=

(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS =

(PROTOCOL = TCP)

(HOST = HQ)

(PORT = 1521))

)

(CONNECT_DATA =

(SERVICE_NAME = loc)

(INSTANCE_NAME = loc)

)

)

//使用 COPY 实现数据库之间的复制

copy from

remote_username/remote_password@service_name

to

username/password@service_name

[append|create|insert|replace]

TABLE_NAME

using subquery;

REM COPY example

set copycommit 1

set arraysize 1000

copy from HR/PUFFINSTUFF@loc -

create EMPLOYEE -

using -

select * from EMPLOYEE

//监视器的管理

lsnrctl start

lsnrctl start my_lsnr

lsnrctl status

lsnrctl status

hq

检查监视器的进程

ps -ef | grep tnslsnr

//在 lsnrctl 内停止监视器

set password lsnr_password

stop

//在lsnrctl 内列出所有的服务

set password lsnr_password

services

//启动或停止一个NT的listener

net start OracleTNSListener

net stop OracleTNSListener

// tnsnames.ora 文件的内容

fld1 =

(DESCRIPTION =

(ADDRESS_LIST =

(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)

(HOST = server1.fld.com)(PORT = 1521))

)

(CONNECT_DATA =

(SID = fld1)

)

)

//操作系统网络的管理

telnet host_name

ping host_name

/etc/hosts 文件

130.110.238.109 nmhost

130.110.238.101 txhost

130.110.238.102 azhost arizona

//oratab 表项

loc:/orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.1:Y

cc1:/orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.1:N

old:/orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.0:Y

//创建一个控制文件命令到跟踪文件

alter database backup controlfile to trace;

//增加一个新的日志文件组的语句

connect internal as sysdba

alter database

add logfile group 4

(’/db01/oracle/CC1/log_1c.dbf’,

’/db02/oracle/CC1/log_2c.dbf’) size 5M;

alter database

add logfile member ’/db03/oracle/CC1/log_3c.dbf’

to group 4;

//在Server Manager上MOUNT并打开一个数据库:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount ORA1 exclusive;

alter database open;

//生成数据字典

@catalog

@catproc

//在init.ora 中备份数据库的位置

log_archive_dest_1 = ’/db00/arch’

log_archive_dest_state_1 = enable

log_archive_dest_2 = "service=stby.world mandatory reopen=60"

log_archive_dest_state_2 = enable

//对用户的表空间的指定和管理相关的语句

create user USERNAME identified by PASSWORD

default tablespace TABLESPACE_NAME;

alter user USERNAME default tablespace TABLESPACE_NAME;

alter user SYSTEM quota 0 on SYSTEM;

alter user SYSTEM quota 50M on TOOLS;

create user USERNAME identified by PASSWORD

default tablespace DATA

temporary tablespace TEMP;

alter user USERNAME temporary tablespace TEMP;

//重新指定一个数据文件的大小 :

alter database

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ resize 200M;

//创建一个自动扩展的数据文件:

create tablespace DATA

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ size 200M

autoextend ON

next 10M

maxsize 250M;

//在表空间上增加一个自动扩展的数据文件:

alter tablespace DATA

add datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data02.dbf’

size 50M

autoextend ON

maxsize 300M;

//修改参数:

alter database

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’

autoextend ON

maxsize 300M;

//在数据文件移动期间重新命名:

alter database rename file

’/db01/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’;

alter tablespace DATA rename datafile

’/db01/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’;

alter database rename file

’/db05/oracle/CC1/redo01CC

1.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/redo01CC1.dbf’;

alter database datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’

resize 80M;

//创建和使用角色:

create role APPLICATION_USER;

grant CREATE SESSION to APPLICATION_USER;

grant APPLICATION_USER to username;

//回滚段的管理

create rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME

tablespace RBS;

alter rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME offline;

drop rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME;

alter rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME online;

//回滚段上指定事务

commit;

set transaction use rollback segment ROLL_BATCH;

insert into TABLE_NAME

select * from DATA_LOAD_TABLE;

commit;

//查询回滚段的 大小和优化参数

select * from DBA_SEGMENTS

where Segment_Type = ’ROLLBACK’;

select N.Name, /* rollback segment name */

S.OptSize /* rollback segment OPTIMAL size */

from V$ROLLNAME N, V$ROLLSTAT S

where N.USN=S.USN;

//回收回滚段

alter rollback segment R1 shrink to 15M;

alter rollback segment R1 shrink;

//例子

set transaction use rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME

alter tablespace RBS

default storage

(initial 125K next 125K minextents 18 maxextents 249)

create rollback segment R4 tablespace RBS

storage (optimal 2250K);

alter rollback segment R4 online;

select Sessions_Highwater from V$LICENSE;

grant select on EMPLOYEE to PUBLIC;

//用户和角色

create role ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

grant CREATE SESSION, CREATE USER, ALTER USER

to ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

alter user THUMPER default role NONE;

alter user THUMPER default role CONNECT;

alter user THUMPER default role all except ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

alter profile DEFAULT

limit idle_time 60;

create profile LIMITED_PROFILE limit

FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS 5;

create user JANE identified by EYRE

profile LIMITED_PROFILE;

grant CREATE SESSION to JANE;

alter user JANE account unlock;

alter user JANE account lock;

alter profile LIMITED_PROFILE limit

PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME 30;

alter user jane password expire;

//创建操作系统用户

REM Creating OPS$ accounts

create user OPS$FARMER

identified by SOME_PASSWORD

default tablespace USERS

temporary tablespace TEMP;

REM Using identified externally

create user OPS$FARMER

identified externally

default tablespace USERS

temporary tablespace TEMP;

//执行ORAPWD

ORAPWD FILE=filename PASSWORD=password ENTRIES=max_users

create role APPLICATION_USER;

grant CREATE SESSION to APPLICATION_USER;

create role DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.EMPLOYEE to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.TIME_CARDS to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.DEPARTMENT to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant APPLICATION_USER to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant DATA_ENTRY_CLERK to MCGREGOR;

grant DATA_ENTRY_CLERK to BPOTTER with admin option;

//设置角色

set role DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

set role NONE;

//回收权利:

revoke delete on EMPL

OYEE from PETER;

revoke all on EMPLOYEE from MCGREGOR;

//回收角色:

revoke ACCOUNT_CREATOR from HELPDESK;

drop user USERNAME cascade;

grant SELECT on EMPLOYEE to MCGREGOR with grant option;

grant SELECT on THUMPER.EMPLOYEE to BPOTTER with grant option;

revoke SELECT on EMPLOYEE from MCGREGOR;

create user MCGREGOR identified by VALUES ’1A2DD3CCEE354DFA’;

alter user OPS$FARMER identified by VALUES ’no way’;

//备份与恢复

使用 export 程序

exp system/manager file=expdat.dmp compress=Y owner=(HR,THUMPER)

exp system/manager file=hr.dmp owner=HR indexes=Y compress=Y

imp system/manager file=hr.dmp full=Y buffer=64000 commit=Y

//备份表

exp system/manager FILE=expdat.dmp TABLES=(Thumper.SALES)

//备份分区

exp system/manager FILE=expdat.dmp TABLES=(Thumper.SALES:Part1)

//输入例子

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp buffer=64000 commit=Y

exp system/manager file=thumper.dat owner=thumper grants=N

indexes=Y compress=Y rows=Y

imp system/manager file=thumper.dat FROMUSER=thumper TOUSER=flower

rows=Y indexes=Y

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp full=Y commit=Y buffer=64000

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp ignore=N rows=N commit=Y buffer=64000

//使用操作系统备份命令

REM TAR examples

tar -cvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db0[1-9]/oracle/CC1

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /orasw/app/oracle/CC1/pfile/initcc1.ora

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db0[1-9]/oracle/CC1 /orasw/app/oracle/CC1/pfile/initcc1.ora

//离线备份的shell脚本

ORACLE_SID=cc1; export ORACLE_SID

ORAENV_ASK=NO; export ORAENV_ASK

. oraenv

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

shutdown immediate;

exit

EOF1

insert backup commands like the "tar" commands here

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

startup

EOF2

//在Server Manager上设置为archivelog mode:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount cc1;

alter database archivelog;

archive log start;

alter database open;

//在Server Manager上设置为archivelog mode:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount cc1;

alter database noarchivelog;

alter database open;

select Name,

Value

from V$PARAMETER

where Name like ’log_archive%’;

//联机备份的脚本

#

# Sample Hot Backup Script for a UNIX File System database

#

# Set up environment variables:

ORACLE_SID=cc1; export ORACLE_SID

ORAENV_ASK=NO; export ORAENV_ASK

. oraenv

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

REM

REM 备份 SYSTEM tablespace

REM

alter tablespace SYSTEM begin backup;

!tar -cvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db01/oracle/CC1/sys01.dbf

alter tablespace SYSTEM end backup;

REM

REM The SYSTEM tablespace has now been written to a

REM tar saveset on the tape device /dev/rmt/0hc. The

REM rest of the tars must use the "-rvf" clause to append

REM to that saveset.

REM

REM 备份 RBS tablespace

REM

alter tablespace RBS begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db02/oracle/CC1/rbs01.dbf

alter tablespace RBS end backup;

REM

REM 备份 DATA tablespace

REM For the purposes of this example, this tablespace

REM will contain two files, data01.dbf and data02.dbf.

REM The * wildcard will be used in the filename.

REM

alter tablespace DATA begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db03/oracle/CC1/data0*.dbf

alter tablespace DATA end backup;

REM

REM 备份 INDEXES tablespace

REM

alter tablespace INDEXES begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db04/oracle/CC1/indexes01.dbf

alter tablespace INDEXES end backup;

REM

REM 备份 TEMP tablespace

REM

alter tablespace TEMP begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db05/oracle/CC1/temp01.dbf

alter tablespace TEMP end backup;

REM

REM Follow the same pattern to back up the rest

REM of the tablespaces.

REM

REM

REM Step 2. 备份归档日志文件.

archive log stop

REM

REM Exit Server Manager, using the indicator set earlier.

exit

EOFarch1

#

# Record which files are in the destination directory.

# Do this by setting an environment variable that is

# equal to the directory listing for the destination

# directory.

# For this example, the log_archive_dest is

# /db01/oracle/arch/CC1.

#

FILES=`ls /db01/oracle/arch/CC1/arch*.dbf`; export FILES

#

# Now go back into Server Manager and restart the

# archiving process. Set an indicator (called EOFarch2

# in this example).

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# Now back up the archived redo logs to the tape

# device via the "tar" command, then delete them

# from the destination device via the "rm" command.

# You may choose to compress them instead.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc $FILES

rm -f $FILES

#

# Step 3. 备份控制文件到磁盘.

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal

alter database backup controlfile to

’db01/oracle/CC1/CC1controlfile.bck’;

exit

EOFarch3

#

# 备份控制文件到磁带.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db01/oracle/CC1/CC1controlfile.bck

#

# End of hot backup script.

//自动生成开始备份的脚本

set pagesize 0 feedback off

select

’alter tablespace ’||Tablespace_Name||’ begin backup;’

from DBA_TABLESPACES

where Status <> ’INVALID’

spool alter_begin.sql

/

spool off

//自动生成备份结束的脚本

set pagesize 0 feedback off

select

’alter tablespace ’||Tablespace_Name||’ end backup;’

from DBA_TABLESPACES

where Status <> ’INVALID’

spool alter_end.sql

/

spool off

//备份归档日志文件的脚本.

REM See text for alternatives.

# Step 1: Stop the archiving process. This will keep

# additional archived redo log files from being written

# to the destination directory during this process.

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log stop;

RE

M

REM Exit Server Manager using the indicator set earlier.

exit

EOFarch1

#

# Step 2: Record which files are in the destination

# directory.

# Do this by setting an environment variable that is

# equal to the directory listing for the destination

# directory.

# For this example, the log_archive_dest is

# /db01/oracle/arch/CC1.

#

FILES=`ls /db01/oracle/arch/CC1/arch*.dbf`; export FILES

#

# Step 3: Go back into Server Manager and restart the

# archiving process. Set an indicator (called EOFarch2

# in this example).

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# Step 4. Back up the archived redo logs to the tape

# device via the "tar" command, then delete them

# from the destination device via the "rm" command.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc $FILES

#

# Step 5. Delete those files from the destination directory.

#

rm -f $FILES

#

# End of archived redo log file backup script.

REM 磁盘到磁盘的备份

REM

REM Back up the RBS tablespace - to another disk (UNIX)

REM

alter tablespace RBS begin backup;

!cp /db02/oracle/CC1/rbs01.dbf /db10/oracle/CC1/backups

alter tablespace RBS end backup;

REM

REM 移动归档日志文件的shell脚本

#

# Procedure for moving archived redo logs to another device

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log stop;

!mv /db01/oracle/arch/CC1 /db10/oracle/arch/CC1

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# end of archived redo log directory move.

//生成创建控制文件命令

alter database backup controlfile to trace;

//时间点恢复的例子

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount instance_name;

recover database until time ’1999-08-07:14:40:00’;

//创建恢复目录

rman rcvcat rman/rman@

// 在(UNIX)下创建恢复目录

RMAN> create catalog tablespace rcvcat;

// 在(NT)下创建恢复目录

RMAN> create catalog tablespace "RCVCAT";

//连接描述符范例

(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=TCP)

(HOST=HQ)

(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT DATA=

(SID=loc)))

// listener.ora 的条目entry

//创建一个控制文件命令到跟踪文件

alter database backup controlfile to trace;

//增加一个新的日志文件组的语句

connect internal as sysdba

alter database

add logfile group 4

(’/db01/oracle/CC1/log_1c.dbf’,

’/db02/oracle/CC1/log_2c.dbf’) size 5M;

alter database

add logfile member ’/db03/oracle/CC1/log_3c.dbf’

to group 4;

//在Server Manager上MOUNT并打开一个数据库:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount ORA1 exclusive;

alter database open;

//生成数据字典

@catalog

@catproc

//在init.ora 中备份数据库的位置

log_archive_dest_1 = ’/db00/arch’

log_archive_dest_state_1 = enable

log_archive

_dest_2 = "service=stby.world mandatory reopen=60"

log_archive_dest_state_2 = enable

//对用户的表空间的指定和管理相关的语句

create user USERNAME identified by PASSWORD

default tablespace TABLESPACE_NAME;

alter user USERNAME default tablespace TABLESPACE_NAME;

alter user SYSTEM quota 0 on SYSTEM;

alter user SYSTEM quota 50M on TOOLS;

create user USERNAME identified by PASSWORD

default tablespace DATA

temporary tablespace TEMP;

alter user USERNAME temporary tablespace TEMP;

//重新指定一个数据文件的大小 :

alter database

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ resize 200M;

//创建一个自动扩展的数据文件:

create tablespace DATA

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ size 200M

autoextend ON

next 10M

maxsize 250M;

//在表空间上增加一个自动扩展的数据文件:

alter tablespace DATA

add datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data02.dbf’

size 50M

autoextend ON

maxsize 300M;

//修改参数:

alter database

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’

autoextend ON

maxsize 300M;

//在数据文件移动期间重新命名:

alter database rename file

’/db01/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’;

alter tablespace DATA rename datafile

’/db01/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’;

alter database rename file

’/db05/oracle/CC1/redo01CC1.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/redo01CC1.dbf’;

alter database datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’

resize 80M;

//创建和使用角色:

create role APPLICATION_USER;

grant CREATE SESSION to APPLICATION_USER;

grant APPLICATION_USER to username;

//回滚段的管理

create rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME

tablespace RBS;

alter rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME offline;

drop rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME;

alter rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME online;

//回滚段上指定事务

commit;

set transaction use rollback segment ROLL_BATCH;

insert into TABLE_NAME

select * from DATA_LOAD_TABLE;

commit;

//查询回滚段的 大小和优化参数

select * from DBA_SEGMENTS

where Segment_Type = ’ROLLBACK’;

select N.Name, /* rollback segment name */

S.OptSize /* rollback segment OPTIMAL size */

from V$ROLLNAME N, V$ROLLSTAT S

where N.USN=S.USN;

//回收回滚段

alter rollback segment R1 shrink to 15M;

alter rollback segment R1 shrink;

//例子

set transaction use rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME

alter tablespace RBS

default storage

(initial 125K next 125K minextents 18 maxextents 249)

create rollback segment R4 tablespace RBS

storage (optimal 2250K);

alter rollback segment R4 online;

select Sessions_Highwater from V$LICENSE;

grant select on EMPLOYEE to PUBLIC;

//用户和角色

create role ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

grant CREATE SESSION, CREATE USER, ALTER USER

to ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

alter user THUMPER default role N

ONE;

alter user THUMPER default role CONNECT;

alter user THUMPER default role all except ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

alter profile DEFAULT

limit idle_time 60;

create profile LIMITED_PROFILE limit

FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS 5;

create user JANE identified by EYRE

profile LIMITED_PROFILE;

grant CREATE SESSION to JANE;

alter user JANE account unlock;

alter user JANE account lock;

alter profile LIMITED_PROFILE limit

PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME 30;

alter user jane password expire;

//创建操作系统用户

REM Creating OPS$ accounts

create user OPS$FARMER

identified by SOME_PASSWORD

default tablespace USERS

temporary tablespace TEMP;

REM Using identified externally

create user OPS$FARMER

identified externally

default tablespace USERS

temporary tablespace TEMP;

//执行ORAPWD

ORAPWD FILE=filename PASSWORD=password ENTRIES=max_users

create role APPLICATION_USER;

grant CREATE SESSION to APPLICATION_USER;

create role DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.EMPLOYEE to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.TIME_CARDS to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.DEPARTMENT to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant APPLICATION_USER to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant DATA_ENTRY_CLERK to MCGREGOR;

grant DATA_ENTRY_CLERK to BPOTTER with admin option;

//设置角色

set role DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

set role NONE;

//回收权利:

revoke delete on EMPLOYEE from PETER;

revoke all on EMPLOYEE from MCGREGOR;

//回收角色:

revoke ACCOUNT_CREATOR from HELPDESK;

drop user USERNAME cascade;

grant SELECT on EMPLOYEE to MCGREGOR with grant option;

grant SELECT on THUMPER.EMPLOYEE to BPOTTER with grant option;

revoke SELECT on EMPLOYEE from MCGREGOR;

create user MCGREGOR identified by VALUES ’1A2DD3CCEE354DFA’;

alter user OPS$FARMER identified by VALUES ’no way’;

//备份与恢复

使用 export 程序

exp system/manager file=expdat.dmp compress=Y owner=(HR,THUMPER)

exp system/manager file=hr.dmp owner=HR indexes=Y compress=Y

imp system/manager file=hr.dmp full=Y buffer=64000 commit=Y

//备份表

exp system/manager FILE=expdat.dmp TABLES=(Thumper.SALES)

//备份分区

exp system/manager FILE=expdat.dmp TABLES=(Thumper.SALES:Part1)

//输入例子

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp buffer=64000 commit=Y

exp system/manager file=thumper.dat owner=thumper grants=N

indexes=Y compress=Y rows=Y

imp system/manager file=thumper.dat FROMUSER=thumper TOUSER=flower

rows=Y indexes=Y

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp full=Y commit=Y buffer=64000

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp ignore=N rows=N commit=Y buffer=64000

//使用操作系统备份命令

REM TAR examples

tar -cvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db0[1-9]/oracle/CC1

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /orasw/app/oracle/CC1/pfile/initcc1.ora

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db0[1-9]/oracle/CC1 /orasw/app/oracle/CC1/pfile/initcc1.ora

//离线备份

的shell脚本

ORACLE_SID=cc1; export ORACLE_SID

ORAENV_ASK=NO; export ORAENV_ASK

. oraenv

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

shutdown immediate;

exit

EOF1

insert backup commands like the "tar" commands here

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

startup

EOF2

//在Server Manager上设置为archivelog mode:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount cc1;

alter database archivelog;

archive log start;

alter database open;

//在Server Manager上设置为archivelog mode:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount cc1;

alter database noarchivelog;

alter database open;

select Name,

Value

from V$PARAMETER

where Name like ’log_archive%’;

//联机备份的脚本

#

# Sample Hot Backup Script for a UNIX File System database

#

# Set up environment variables:

ORACLE_SID=cc1; export ORACLE_SID

ORAENV_ASK=NO; export ORAENV_ASK

. oraenv

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

REM

REM 备份 SYSTEM tablespace

REM

alter tablespace SYSTEM begin backup;

!tar -cvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db01/oracle/CC1/sys01.dbf

alter tablespace SYSTEM end backup;

REM

REM The SYSTEM tablespace has now been written to a

REM tar saveset on the tape device /dev/rmt/0hc. The

REM rest of the tars must use the "-rvf" clause to append

REM to that saveset.

REM

REM 备份 RBS tablespace

REM

alter tablespace RBS begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db02/oracle/CC1/rbs01.dbf

alter tablespace RBS end backup;

REM

REM 备份 DATA tablespace

REM For the purposes of this example, this tablespace

REM will contain two files, data01.dbf and data02.dbf.

REM The * wildcard will be used in the filename.

REM

alter tablespace DATA begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db03/oracle/CC1/data0*.dbf

alter tablespace DATA end backup;

REM

REM 备份 INDEXES tablespace

REM

alter tablespace INDEXES begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db04/oracle/CC1/indexes01.dbf

alter tablespace INDEXES end backup;

REM

REM 备份 TEMP tablespace

REM

alter tablespace TEMP begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db05/oracle/CC1/temp01.dbf

alter tablespace TEMP end backup;

REM

REM Follow the same pattern to back up the rest

REM of the tablespaces.

REM

REM

REM Step 2. 备份归档日志文件.

archive log stop

REM

REM Exit Server Manager, using the indicator set earlier.

exit

EOFarch1

#

# Record which files are in the destination directory.

# Do this by setting an environment variable that is

# equal to the directory listing for the destination

# directory.

# For this example, the log_archive_dest is

# /db01/oracle/arch/CC1.

#

FILES=`ls /db01/oracle/arch/CC1/arch*.dbf`; export FILES

#

# Now go back into Server Manager and restart the

# archiving process. Set an indicator (called EOFarch2

# in this example).

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal

archive l

og start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# Now back up the archived redo logs to the tape

# device via the "tar" command, then delete them

# from the destination device via the "rm" command.

# You may choose to compress them instead.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc $FILES

rm -f $FILES

#

# Step 3. 备份控制文件到磁盘.

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal

alter database backup controlfile to

’db01/oracle/CC1/CC1controlfile.bck’;

exit

EOFarch3

#

# 备份控制文件到磁带.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db01/oracle/CC1/CC1controlfile.bck

#

# End of hot backup script.

//自动生成开始备份的脚本

set pagesize 0 feedback off

select

’alter tablespace ’||Tablespace_Name||’ begin backup;’

from DBA_TABLESPACES

where Status <> ’INVALID’

spool alter_begin.sql

/

spool off

//自动生成备份结束的脚本

set pagesize 0 feedback off

select

’alter tablespace ’||Tablespace_Name||’ end backup;’

from DBA_TABLESPACES

where Status <> ’INVALID’

spool alter_end.sql

/

spool off

//备份归档日志文件的脚本.

REM See text for alternatives.

# Step 1: Stop the archiving process. This will keep

# additional archived redo log files from being written

# to the destination directory during this process.

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log stop;

REM

REM Exit Server Manager using the indicator set earlier.

exit

EOFarch1

#

# Step 2: Record which files are in the destination

# directory.

# Do this by setting an environment variable that is

# equal to the directory listing for the destination

# directory.

# For this example, the log_archive_dest is

# /db01/oracle/arch/CC1.

#

FILES=`ls /db01/oracle/arch/CC1/arch*.dbf`; export FILES

#

# Step 3: Go back into Server Manager and restart the

# archiving process. Set an indicator (called EOFarch2

# in this example).

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# Step 4. Back up the archived redo logs to the tape

# device via the "tar" command, then delete them

# from the destination device via the "rm" command.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc $FILES

#

# Step 5. Delete those files from the destination directory.

#

rm -f $FILES

#

# End of archived redo log file backup script.

REM 磁盘到磁盘的备份

REM

REM Back up the RBS tablespace - to another disk (UNIX)

REM

alter tablespace RBS begin backup;

!cp /db02/oracle/CC1/rbs01.dbf /db10/oracle/CC1/backups

alter tablespace RBS end backup;

REM

REM 移动归档日志文件的shell脚本

#

# Procedure for moving archived redo logs to another device

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log stop;

!mv /db01/oracle/arch/CC1 /db10/oracle/arch/CC1

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# end of ar

chived redo log directory move.

//生成创建控制文件命令

alter database backup controlfile to trace;

//时间点恢复的例子

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount instance_name;

recover database until time ’1999-08-07:14:40:00’;

//创建恢复目录

rman rcvcat rman/rman@

// 在(UNIX)下创建恢复目录

RMAN> create catalog tablespace rcvcat;

// 在(NT)下创建恢复目录

RMAN> create catalog tablespace "RCVCAT";

//连接描述符范例

(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=TCP)

(HOST=HQ)

(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT DATA=

(SID=loc)))

// listener.ora 的条目entry

LISTENER =

(ADDRESS_LIST =

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=IPC)

转贴于 学生大读书网 http://

(KEY= loc.world)

)

)

SID_LIST_LISTENER =

(SID_LIST =

(SID_DESC =

(SID_NAME = loc)

(ORACLE_HOME = /orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.1)

)

)

// tnsnames.ora 的条目

LOC=

(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS =

(PROTOCOL = TCP)

(HOST = HQ)

(PORT = 1521))

)

(CONNECT_DATA =

(SERVICE_NAME = loc)

(INSTANCE_NAME = loc)

)

)

//连接参数的设置(sql*net)

LOC =(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS=

(COMMUNITY=TCP.HQ.COMPANY)

(PROTOCOL=TCP)

(HOST=HQ)

(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT DATA=

(SID=loc)))

//参数文件配置范例

// tnsnames.ora

HQ =(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=TCP)

(HOST=HQ)

(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT DATA=

(SID=loc)))

// listener.ora

LISTENER =

(ADDRESS_LIST =

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=IPC)

(KEY= loc)

)

)

SID_LIST_LISTENER =

(SID_LIST =

(SID_DESC =

(SID_NAME = loc)

(ORACLE_HOME = /orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.1)

)

)

// Oracle8I tnsnames.ora

LOC=

(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS =

(PROTOCOL = TCP)

(HOST = HQ)

(PORT = 1521))

)

(CONNECT_DATA =

(SERVICE_NAME = loc)

(INSTANCE_NAME = loc)

)

)

//使用 COPY 实现数据库之间的复制

copy from

remote_username/remote_password@service_name

to

username/password@service_name

[append|create|insert|replace]

TABLE_NAME

using subquery;

REM COPY example

set copycommit 1

set arraysize 1000

copy from HR/PUFFINSTUFF@loc -

create EMPLOYEE -

using -

select * from EMPLOYEE

//监视器的管理

lsnrctl start

lsnrctl start my_lsnr

lsnrctl status

lsnrctl status hq

检查监视器的进程

ps -ef | grep tnslsnr

//在 lsnrctl 内停止监视器

set password lsnr_password

stop

//在lsnrctl 内列出所有的服务

set password lsnr_password

services

//启动或停止一个NT的listener

net s

tart OracleTNSListener

net stop OracleTNSListener

// tnsnames.ora 文件的内容

fld1 =

(DESCRIPTION =

(ADDRESS_LIST =

(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)

(HOST = server1.fld.com)(PORT = 1521))

)

(CONNECT_DATA =

(SID = fld1)

)

)

//操作系统网络的管理

telnet host_name

ping host_name

/etc/hosts 文件

130.110.238.109 nmhost

130.110.238.101 txhost

130.110.238.102 azhost arizona

//oratab 表项

loc:/orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.1:Y

cc1:/orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.1:N

old:/orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.0:Y

ORACLE常用命令

一、ORACLE的启动和关闭

1、在单机环境下

要想启动或关闭ORACLE系统必须首先切换到ORACLE用户,如下

su - oracle

a、启动ORACLE系统

oracle>svrmgrl

SVRMGR>connect internal

SVRMGR>startup

SVRMGR>quit

b、关闭ORACLE系统

oracle>svrmgrl

SVRMGR>connect internal

SVRMGR>shutdown

SVRMGR>quit

启动oracle9i数据库命令:

$ sqlplus /nolog

SQL*Plus: Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production on Fri Oct 31 13:53:53 2003

Copyright (c) 1982, 2002, Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.

SQL> connect / as sysdba

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup^C

SQL> startup

ORACLE instance started.

2、在双机环境下

要想启动或关闭ORACLE系统必须首先切换到root用户,如下

su - root

a、启动ORACLE系统

hareg -y oracle

b、关闭ORACLE系统

hareg -n oracle

Oracle数据库有哪几种启动方式

说明:

有以下几种启动方式:

1、startup nomount

非安装启动,这种方式启动下可执行:重建控制文件、重建数据库

读取init.ora文件,启动instance,即启动SGA和后台进程,这种启动只需要init.ora文件。

2、startup mount dbname

安装启动,这种方式启动下可执行:

数据库日志归档、

数据库介质恢复、

使数据文件联机或脱机,

重新定位数据文件、重做日志文件。

执行“nomount”,然后打开控制文件,确认数据文件和联机日志文件的位置,

但此时不对数据文件和日志文件进行校验检查。

3、startup open dbname

先执行“nomount”,然后执行“mount”,再打开包括Redo log文件在内的所有数据库文件,

这种方式下可访问数据库中的数据。

4、startup,等于以下三个命令

startup nomount

alter database mount

alter database open

5、startup restrict

约束方式启动

这种方式能够启动数据库,但只允许具有一定特权的用户访问

非特权用户访问时,会出现以下提示:

ERROR:

ORA-01035: ORACLE 只允许具有 RESTRICTED SESSION 权限的用户使用

6、startup force

强制启动方式

当不能关闭数据库时,可以用startup force来完成数据库的关闭

先关闭数据库,再执行正常启动数据库命令

7、startup pfile=参数

文件名

带初始化参数文件的启动方式

先读取参数文件,再按参数文件中的设置启动数据库

例:startup pfile=E:Oracleadminoradbpfileinit.ora

8、startup EXCLUSIVE

二、用户如何有效地利用数据字典

 ORACLE的数据字典是数据库的重要组成部分之一,它随着数据库的产生而产生, 随着数据库的变化而变化,

体现为sys用户下的一些表和视图。数据字典名称是大写的英文字符。

数据字典里存有用户信息、用户的权限信息、所有数据对象信息、表的约束条件、统计分析数据库的视图等。

我们不能手工修改数据字典里的信息。

  很多时候,一般的ORACLE用户不知道如何有效地利用它。

  dictionary   全部数据字典表的名称和解释,它有一个同义词dict

dict_column   全部数据字典表里字段名称和解释

如果我们想查询跟索引有关的数据字典时,可以用下面这条SQL语句:

SQL>select * from dictionary where instr(comments,'index')>0;

如果我们想知道user_indexes表各字段名称的详细含义,可以用下面这条SQL语句:

SQL>select column_name,comments from dict_columns where table_name='USER_INDEXES';

依此类推,就可以轻松知道数据字典的详细名称和解释,不用查看ORACLE的其它文档资料了。

下面按类别列出一些ORACLE用户常用数据字典的查询使用方法。

1、用户

查看当前用户的缺省表空间

SQL>select username,default_tablespace from user_users;

查看当前用户的角色

SQL>select * from user_role_privs;

查看当前用户的系统权限和表级权限

SQL>select * from user_sys_privs;

SQL>select * from user_tab_privs;

2、表

查看用户下所有的表

SQL>select * from user_tables;

查看名称包含log字符的表

SQL>select object_name,object_id from user_objects

where instr(object_name,'LOG')>0;

查看某表的创建时间

SQL>select object_name,created from user_objects where object_name=upper('&table_name');

查看某表的大小

SQL>select sum(bytes)/(1024*1024) as "size(M)" from user_segments

where segment_name=upper('&table_name');

查看放在ORACLE的内存区里的表

SQL>select table_name,cache from user_tables where instr(cache,'Y')>0;

3、索引

查看索引个数和类别

SQL>select index_name,index_type,table_name from user_indexes order by table_name;

查看索引被索引的字段

SQL>select * from user_ind_columns where index_name=upper('&index_name');

查看索引的大小

SQL>select sum(bytes)/(1024*1024) as "size(M)" from us

er_segments

where segment_name=upper('&index_name');

4、序列号

查看序列号,last_number是当前值

SQL>select * from user_sequences;

5、视图

查看视图的名称

SQL>select view_name from user_views;

查看创建视图的select语句

SQL>set view_name,text_length from user_views;

SQL>set long 2000; 说明:可以根据视图的text_length值设定set long 的大小

SQL>select text from user_views where view_name=upper('&view_name');

6、同义词

查看同义词的名称

SQL>select * from user_synonyms;

7、约束条件

查看某表的约束条件

SQL>select constraint_name, constraint_type,search_condition, r_constraint_name

from user_constraints where table_name = upper('&table_name');

SQL>select c.constraint_name,c.constraint_type,cc.column_name

from user_constraints c,user_cons_columns cc

where c.owner = upper('&table_owner') and c.table_name = upper('&table_name')

and c.owner = cc.owner and c.constraint_name = cc.constraint_name

order by cc.position;

8、存储函数和过程

查看函数和过程的状态

SQL>select object_name,status from user_objects where object_type='FUNCTION';

SQL>select object_name,status from user_objects where object_type='PROCEDURE';

查看函数和过程的源代码

SQL>select text from all_source where owner=user and name=upper('&plsql_name');

三、查看数据库的SQL

1、查看表空间的名称及大小

select t.tablespace_name, round(sum(bytes/(1024*1024)),0) ts_size

from dba_tablespaces t, dba_data_files d

where t.tablespace_name = d.tablespace_name

group by t.tablespace_name;

2、查看表空间物理文件的名称及大小

select tablespace_name, file_id, file_name,

round(bytes/(1024*1024),0) total_space

from dba_data_files

order by tablespace_name;

3、查看回滚段名称及大小

select segment_name, tablespace_name, r.status,

(initial_extent/1024) InitialExtent,(next_extent/1024) NextExtent,

max_extents, v.curext CurExtent

From dba_rollback_segs r, v$rollstat v

Where r.segment_id = v.usn(+)

order by segment_name ;

4、查看控制文件

select name from v$controlfile;

5、查看日志文件

select member from v$logfile;

6、查看表空间的使用情况

select sum(bytes)/(1024*1024) as free_space,tablespace_name

from dba_free_space

group by tablespace_name;

SELECT A.TABLESPACE_NAME,A.BYTES TOTAL,B.BYTES USED, C.BYTES FREE,

(B.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% USED",(C.BYTES*100)/A.BYTES "% FREE"

FROM SYS.SM$TS_AVAIL A,SYS.SM$TS_USED B,SYS.SM$TS_FREE C

WHERE A.TABLESPACE_NA

ME=B.TABLESPACE_NAME AND A.TABLESPACE_NAME=C.TABLESPACE_NAME;

7、查看数据库库对象

select owner, object_type, status, count(*) count# from all_objects group by owner, object_type, status;

8、查看数据库的版本

Select version FROM Product_component_version

Where SUBSTR(PRODUCT,1,6)='Oracle';

9、查看数据库的创建日期和归档方式

Select Created, Log_Mode, Log_Mode From V$Database;

四、ORACLE用户连接的管理

用系统管理员,查看当前数据库有几个用户连接:

SQL> select username,sid,serial# from v$session;

如果要停某个连接用

SQL> alter system kill session 'sid,serial#';

如果这命令不行,找它UNIX的进程数

SQL> select pro.spid from v$session ses,v$process pro where ses.sid=21 and ses.paddr=pro.addr;

说明:21是某个连接的sid数

然后用 kill 命令杀此进程号。

五、SQL*PLUS使用

a、近入SQL*Plus

$sqlplus 用户名/密码

退出SQL*Plus

SQL>exit

b、在sqlplus下得到帮助信息

列出全部SQL命令和SQL*Plus命令

SQL>help

列出某个特定的命令的信息

SQL>help 命令名

c、显示表结构命令DESCRIBE

SQL>DESC 表名

d、SQL*Plus中的编辑命令

显示SQL缓冲区命令

SQL>L

修改SQL命令

首先要将待改正行变为当前行

SQL>n

用CHANGE命令修改内容

SQL>c/旧/新

重新确认是否已正确

SQL>L

使用INPUT命令可以在SQL缓冲区中增加一行或多行

SQL>i

SQL>输入内容

e、调用外部系统编辑器

SQL>edit 文件名

可以使用DEFINE命令设置系统变量EDITOR来改变文本编辑器的类型,在login.sql文件中定义如下一行

DEFINE_EDITOR=vi

f、运行命令文件

SQL>START test

SQL>@test

常用SQL*Plus语句

a、表的创建、修改、删除

创建表的命令格式如下:

create table 表名 (列说明列表);

为基表增加新列命令如下:

ALTER TABLE 表名 ADD (列说明列表)

例:为test表增加一列Age,用来存放年龄

sql>alter table test

add (Age number(3));

修改基表列定义命令如下:

ALTER TABLE 表名

MODIFY (列名 数据类型)

例:将test表中的Count列宽度加长为10个字符

sql>alter atble test

modify (County char(10));

b、将一张表删除语句的格式如下:

DORP TABLE 表名;

例:表删除将同时删除表的数据和表的定义

sql>drop table test

c、表空间的创建、删除

六、ORACLE逻辑备份的SH文件

完全备份的SH文件:exp_comp.sh

rq=` date +"%m%d" `

su - oracle -c "exp system/manager full=y inctype=complete file=/oracle/export/db_comp$rq.dmp"

累计备份的SH文件:exp_cumu.sh

rq=` date +"%m%d" `

su - oracle -c "exp system/manager full=y inctype=cumulative file=/oracle/export/db_cumu$rq.dmp"

增量备份的SH文件: exp_incr.sh

rq=` date +"%m%d" `

su - oracle -c "exp system/manager full=y inctyp

e=incremental file=/oracle/export/db_incr$rq.dmp"

root用户crontab文件

/var/spool/cron/crontabs/root增加以下内容

0 2 1 * * /oracle/exp_comp.sh

30 2 * * 0-5 /oracle/exp_incr.sh

45 2 * * 6 /oracle/exp_cumu.sh

当然这个时间表可以根据不同的需求来改变的,这只是一个例子。

七、ORACLE 常用的SQL语法和数据对象

一.数据控制语句 (DML) 部分

1.INSERT (往数据表里插入记录的语句)

INSERT INTO 表名(字段名1, 字段名2, ……) VALUES ( 值1, 值2, ……);

INSERT INTO 表名(字段名1, 字段名2, ……) SELECT (字段名1, 字段名2, ……) FROM 另外的表名;

字符串类型的字段值必须用单引号括起来, 例如: ’GOOD DAY’

如果字段值里包含单引号’ 需要进行字符串转换, 我们把它替换成两个单引号''.

字符串类型的字段值超过定义的长度会出错, 最好在插入前进行长度校验.

日期字段的字段值可以用当前数据库的系统时间SYSDATE, 精确到秒

或者用字符串转换成日期型函数TO_DATE(‘2001-08-01’,’YYYY-MM-DD’)

TO_DATE()还有很多种日期格式, 可以参看ORACLE DOC.

年-月-日 小时:分钟:秒 的格式YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS

INSERT时最大可操作的字符串长度小于等于4000个单字节, 如果要插入更长的字符串, 请考虑字段用CLOB类型,

方法借用ORACLE里自带的DBMS_LOB程序包.

INSERT时如果要用到从1开始自动增长的序列号, 应该先建立一个序列号

CREATE SEQUENCE 序列号的名称 (最好是表名+序列号标记) INCREMENT BY 1 START WITH 1

MAXVALUE 99999 CYCLE NOCACHE;

其中最大的值按字段的长度来定, 如果定义的自动增长的序列号 NUMBER(6) , 最大值为999999

INSERT 语句插入这个字段值为: 序列号的名称.NEXTVAL

2.DELETE (删除数据表里记录的语句)

DELETE FROM表名 WHERE 条件;

注意:删除记录并不能释放ORACLE里被占用的数据块表空间. 它只把那些被删除的数据块标成unused.

如果确实要删除一个大表里的全部记录, 可以用 TRUNCATE 命令, 它可以释放占用的数据块表空间

TRUNCATE TABLE 表名;

此操作不可回退.

3.UPDATE (修改数据表里记录的语句)

UPDATE表名 SET 字段名1=值1, 字段名2=值2, …… WHERE 条件;

如果修改的值N没有赋值或定义时, 将把原来的记录内容清为NULL, 最好在修改前进行非空校验;

值N超过定义的长度会出错, 最好在插入前进行长度校验..

注意事项:

A. 以上SQL语句对表都加上了行级锁,

确认完成后, 必须加上事物处理结束的命令 COMMIT 才能正式生效,

否则改变不一定写入数据库里.

如果想撤回这些操作, 可以用命令 ROLLBACK 复原.

B. 在运行INSERT, DELETE 和 UPDATE 语句前最好估算一下可能操作的记录范围,

应该把它限定在较小 (一万条

记录) 范围内,. 否则ORACLE处理这个事物用到很大的回退段.

程序响应慢甚至失去响应. 如果记录数上十万以上这些操作, 可以把这些SQL语句分段分次完成,

其间加上COMMIT 确认事物处理.

二.数据定义 (DDL) 部分

1.CREATE (创建表, 索引, 视图, 同义词, 过程, 函数, 数据库链接等)

ORACLE常用的字段类型有

CHAR 固定长度的字符串

VARCHAR2 可变长度的字符串

NUMBER(M,N) 数字型M是位数总长度, N是小数的长度

DATE 日期类型

创建表时要把较小的不为空的字段放在前面, 可能为空的字段放在后面

创建表时可以用中文的字段名, 但最好还是用英文的字段名

创建表时可以给字段加上默认值, 例如 DEFAULT SYSDATE

这样每次插入和修改时, 不用程序操作这个字段都能得到动作的时间

创建表时可以给字段加上约束条件

例如 不允许重复 UNIQUE, 关键字 PRIMARY KEY

2.ALTER (改变表, 索引, 视图等)

改变表的名称

ALTER TABLE 表名1 TO 表名2;

在表的后面增加一个字段

ALTER TABLE表名 ADD 字段名 字段名描述;

修改表里字段的定义描述

ALTER TABLE表名 MODIFY字段名 字段名描述;

给表里的字段加上约束条件

ALTER TABLE 表名 ADD CONSTRAINT 约束名 PRIMARY KEY (字段名);

ALTER TABLE 表名 ADD CONSTRAINT 约束名 UNIQUE (字段名);

把表放在或取出数据库的内存区

ALTER TABLE 表名 CACHE;

ALTER TABLE 表名 NOCACHE;

3.DROP (删除表, 索引, 视图, 同义词, 过程, 函数, 数据库链接等)

删除表和它所有的约束条件

DROP TABLE 表名 CASCADE CONSTRAINTS;

4.TRUNCATE (清空表里的所有记录, 保留表的结构)

TRUNCATE 表名;

三.查询语句 (SELECT) 部分

SELECT字段名1, 字段名2, …… FROM 表名1, [表名2, ……] WHERE 条件;

字段名可以带入函数

例如: COUNT(*), MIN(字段名), MAX(字段名), AVG(字段名), DISTINCT(字段名),

TO_CHAR(DATE字段名,'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS')

NVL(EXPR1, EXPR2)函数

解释:

IF EXPR1=NULL

RETURN EXPR2

ELSE

RETURN EXPR1

DECODE(AA﹐V1﹐R1﹐V2﹐R2....)函数

解释:

IF AA=V1 THEN RETURN R1

IF AA=V2 THEN RETURN R2

..…

ELSE

RETURN NULL

LPAD(char1,n,char2)函数

解释:

字符char1按制定的位数n显示,不足的位数用char2字符串替换左边的空位

字段名之间可以进行算术运算

例如: (字段名1*字段名1)/3

查询语句可以嵌套

例如: SELECT …… FROM

(SELECT …… FROM表名1, [表名2, ……] WHERE 条件) WHERE 条件2;

两个查询语句的结果可以做集合操作

例如: 并集UNION(去掉重复记录), 并集UNION ALL(不去掉重复记录), 差集MINUS, 交集INTERSECT

分组查询

SELECT字段名1, 字段名2,

…… FROM 表名1, [表名2, ……] GROUP BY字段名1

[HAVING 条件] ;

两个以上表之间的连接查询

SELECT字段名1, 字段名2, …… FROM 表名1, [表名2, ……] WHERE

表名1.字段名 = 表名2. 字段名 [ AND ……] ;

SELECT字段名1, 字段名2, …… FROM 表名1, [表名2, ……] WHERE

表名1.字段名 = 表名2. 字段名(+) [ AND ……] ;

有(+)号的字段位置自动补空值

查询结果集的排序操作, 默认的排序是升序ASC, 降序是DESC

SELECT字段名1, 字段名2, …… FROM 表名1, [表名2, ……]

ORDER BY字段名1, 字段名2 DESC;

字符串模糊比较的方法

INSTR(字段名, ‘字符串’)>0

字段名 LIKE ‘字符串%’ [‘%字符串%’]

每个表都有一个隐含的字段ROWID, 它标记着记录的唯一性.

四.ORACLE里常用的数据对象 (SCHEMA)

1.索引 (INDEX)

CREATE INDEX 索引名ON 表名 ( 字段1, [字段2, ……] );

ALTER INDEX 索引名 REBUILD;

一个表的索引最好不要超过三个 (特殊的大表除外), 最好用单字段索引, 结合SQL语句的分析执行情况,

也可以建立多字段的组合索引和基于函数的索引

ORACLE8.1.7字符串可以索引的最大长度为1578 单字节

ORACLE8.0.6字符串可以索引的最大长度为758 单字节

2.视图 (VIEW)

CREATE VIEW 视图名AS SELECT …. FROM …..;

ALTER VIEW视图名 COMPILE;

视图仅是一个SQL查询语句, 它可以把表之间复杂的关系简洁化.

3.同义词 (SYNONMY)

CREATE SYNONYM同义词名FOR 表名;

CREATE SYNONYM同义词名FOR 表名@数据库链接名;

4.数据库链接 (DATABASE LINK)

CREATE DATABASE LINK数据库链接名CONNECT TO 用户名 IDENTIFIED BY 密码 USING ‘数据库连接字符串’;

数据库连接字符串可以用NET8 EASY CONFIG或者直接修改TNSNAMES.ORA里定义.

数据库参数global_name=true时要求数据库链接名称跟远端数据库名称一样

数据库全局名称可以用以下命令查出

SELECT * FROM GLOBAL_NAME;

查询远端数据库里的表

SELECT …… FROM 表名@数据库链接名;

五.权限管理 (DCL) 语句

1.GRANT 赋于权限

常用的系统权限集合有以下三个:

CONNECT(基本的连接), RESOURCE(程序开发), DBA(数据库管理)

常用的数据对象权限有以下五个:

ALL ON 数据对象名, SELECT ON 数据对象名, UPDATE ON 数据对象名,

DELETE ON 数据对象名, INSERT ON 数据对象名, ALTER ON 数据对象名

GRANT CONNECT, RESOURCE TO 用户名;

GRANT SELECT ON 表名 TO 用户名;

GRANT SELECT, INSERT, DELETE ON表名 TO 用户名1, 用户名2;

2.REVOKE 回收权限

REVOKE CONNECT, RESOURCE FROM 用户名;

REVOKE SELECT ON 表名 FROM 用户名;

REVOKE SELECT, INSERT, DELETE ON表名 FROM 用户名1, 用户名2;

查询数据库中第63号错误:

select orgaddr,destaddr from sm_histable0116 w

here error_code='63';

查询数据库中开户用户最大提交和最大下发数: select MSISDN,TCOS,OCOS from ms_usertable;

查询数据库中各种错误代码的总和:

select error_code,count(*) from sm_histable0513 group by error_code order

by error_code;

查询报表数据库中话单统计种类查询。

select sum(Successcount) from tbl_MiddleMt0411 where ServiceType2=111

select sum(successcount),servicetype from tbl_middlemt0411 group by servicetype

原文地址:http://www.cnoug.org/viewthread.php?tid=60293

//创建一个控制文件命令到跟踪文件

alter database backup controlfile to trace;

//增加一个新的日志文件组的语句

connect internal as sysdba

alter database

add logfile group 4

(’/db01/oracle/CC1/log_1c.dbf’,

’/db02/oracle/CC1/log_2c.dbf’) size 5M;

alter database

add logfile member ’/db03/oracle/CC1/log_3c.dbf’

to group 4;

//在Server Manager上MOUNT并打开一个数据库:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount ORA1 exclusive;

alter database open;

//生成数据字典

@catalog

@catproc

//在init.ora 中备份数据库的位置

log_archive_dest_1 = ’/db00/arch’

log_archive_dest_state_1 = enable

log_archive_dest_2 = "service=stby.world mandatory reopen=60"

log_archive_dest_state_2 = enable

//对用户的表空间的指定和管理相关的语句

create user USERNAME identified by PASSWORD

default tablespace TABLESPACE_NAME;

alter user USERNAME default tablespace TABLESPACE_NAME;

alter user SYSTEM quota 0 on SYSTEM;

alter user SYSTEM quota 50M on TOOLS;

create user USERNAME identified by PASSWORD

default tablespace DATA

temporary tablespace TEMP;

alter user USERNAME temporary tablespace TEMP;

//重新指定一个数据文件的大小 :

alter database

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ resize 200M;

//创建一个自动扩展的数据文件:

create tablespace DATA

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ size 200M

autoextend ON

next 10M

maxsize 250M;

//在表空间上增加一个自动扩展的数据文件:

alter tablespace DATA

add datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data02.dbf’

size 50M

autoextend ON

maxsize 300M;

//修改参数:

alter database

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’

autoextend ON

maxsize 300M;

//在数据文件移动期间重新命名:

alter database rename file

’/db01/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’;

alter tablespace DATA rename datafile

’/db01/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’;

alter database rename file

’/db05/oracle/CC1/redo01CC1.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/redo01CC1.dbf’;

alter database datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’

resize 80M;

//创建和使用角色:

create role APPLICATION_USER;

grant CREATE SESSION to APPLICATION_USER;

grant APPLICATION_USER to username;

//回滚段的管理

create rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME

tablespace RBS;

alter rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME offline;

drop rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME;

alter rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME online;

//回滚段上指定事务

commit;

set transaction use rollback segment ROLL_BATCH;

insert into TABLE_NAME

select * from DATA_LOAD_TABLE;

commit;

//查询回滚段的 大小和优化参数

select * from DBA_SEGMENTS

where Segment_Type = ’ROLLBACK’;

select N.Name, /* rollback segment name */

S.OptSize /* rollback segment OPTIMAL size */

from V$ROLLNAME N, V$ROLLSTAT S

where N.USN=S.USN;

//回收回滚段

alter rollback segment R1 shrink to 15M;

alter rollback segment R1 shrink;

//例子

set transaction use rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME

alter tablespace RBS

default storage

(initial 125K next 125K minextents 18 maxextents 249)

create rollback segment R4 tablespace RBS

storage (optimal 2250K);

alter rollback segment R4 online;

select Sessions_Highwater from V$LICENSE;

grant select on EMPLOYEE to PUBLIC;

//用户和角色

create role ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

grant CREATE SESSION, CREATE USER, ALTER USER

to ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

alter user THUMPER default role NONE;

alter user THUMPER default role CONNECT;

alter user THUMPER default role all except ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

alter profile DEFAULT

limit idle_time 60;

create profile LIMITED_PROFILE limit

FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS 5;

create user JANE identified by EYRE

profile LIMITED_PROFILE;

grant CREATE SESSION to JANE;

alter user JANE account unlock;

alter user JANE account lock;

alter profile LIMITED_PROFILE limit

PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME 30;

alter user jane password expire;

//创建操作系统用户

REM Creating OPS$ accounts

create user OPS$FARMER

identified by SOME_PASSWORD

default tablespace USERS

temporary tablespace TEMP;

REM Using identified externally

create user OPS$FARMER

identified externally

default tablespace USERS

temporary tablespace TEMP;

//执行ORAPWD

ORAPWD FILE=filename PASSWORD=password ENTRIES=max_users

create role APPLICATION_USER;

grant CREATE SESSION to APPLICATION_USER;

create role DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.EMPLOYEE to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.TIME_CARDS to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.DEPARTMENT to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant APPLICATION_USER to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant DATA_ENTRY_CLERK to MCGREGOR;

grant DATA_ENTRY_CLERK to BPOTTER with admin option;

//设置角色

set role DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

set role NONE;

//回收权利:

revoke delete on EMPLOYEE from PETER;

revoke all on EMPLOYEE from MCGREGOR;

//回收角色:

revoke ACCOUNT_CREATOR from HELPDESK;

drop user USERNAME cascade;

grant SELECT on EMPLOYEE to MCGREGOR with grant option;

grant SELECT on THUMPER.EMPLOYEE to BPOTTER with grant option;

revoke SELECT on EMPLOYEE

from MCGREGOR;

create user MCGREGOR identified by VALUES ’1A2DD3CCEE354DFA’;

alter user OPS$FARMER identified by VALUES ’no way’;

//备份与恢复

使用 export 程序

exp system/manager file=expdat.dmp compress=Y owner=(HR,THUMPER)

exp system/manager file=hr.dmp owner=HR indexes=Y compress=Y

imp system/manager file=hr.dmp full=Y buffer=64000 commit=Y

//备份表

exp system/manager FILE=expdat.dmp TABLES=(Thumper.SALES)

//备份分区

exp system/manager FILE=expdat.dmp TABLES=(Thumper.SALES:Part1)

//输入例子

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp buffer=64000 commit=Y

exp system/manager file=thumper.dat owner=thumper grants=N

indexes=Y compress=Y rows=Y

imp system/manager file=thumper.dat FROMUSER=thumper TOUSER=flower

rows=Y indexes=Y

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp full=Y commit=Y buffer=64000

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp ignore=N rows=N commit=Y buffer=64000

//使用操作系统备份命令

REM TAR examples

tar -cvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db0[1-9]/oracle/CC1

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /orasw/app/oracle/CC1/pfile/initcc1.ora

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db0[1-9]/oracle/CC1 /orasw/app/oracle/CC1/pfile/initcc1.ora

//离线备份的shell脚本

ORACLE_SID=cc1; export ORACLE_SID

ORAENV_ASK=NO; export ORAENV_ASK

. oraenv

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

shutdown immediate;

exit

EOF1

insert backup commands like the "tar" commands here

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

startup

EOF2

//在Server Manager上设置为archivelog mode:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount cc1;

alter database archivelog;

archive log start;

alter database open;

//在Server Manager上设置为archivelog mode:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount cc1;

alter database noarchivelog;

alter database open;

select Name,

Value

from V$PARAMETER

where Name like ’log_archive%’;

//联机备份的脚本

#

# Sample Hot Backup Script for a UNIX File System database

#

# Set up environment variables:

ORACLE_SID=cc1; export ORACLE_SID

ORAENV_ASK=NO; export ORAENV_ASK

. oraenv

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

REM

REM 备份 SYSTEM tablespace

REM

alter tablespace SYSTEM begin backup;

!tar -cvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db01/oracle/CC1/sys01.dbf

alter tablespace SYSTEM end backup;

REM

REM The SYSTEM tablespace has now been written to a

REM tar saveset on the tape device /dev/rmt/0hc. The

REM rest of the tars must use the "-rvf" clause to append

REM to that saveset.

REM

REM 备份 RBS tablespace

REM

alter tablespace RBS begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db02/oracle/CC1/rbs01.dbf

alter tablespace RBS end backup;

REM

REM 备份 DATA tablespace

REM For the purposes of this example, this tablespace

REM will contain two files, data01.dbf and data02.dbf.

REM The * wildcard will be used in the filename.

REM

alter tablespace DATA begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db03/oracle/CC1/data0*.dbf

alter tablespace DATA end backup;

REM

REM 备份 INDEXES tablespace

REM

alter tablespace INDEXES begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db04/oracle/CC1/indexes01.dbf

alter tablespace INDEXES end backup;

REM

REM 备份 TEMP tablespace

REM

alter tablespace TEMP begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db05/oracle/CC1/temp01.dbf

alter tablespace TEMP end backup;

REM

REM Follow the same pattern to back up the rest

REM of the tablespaces.

REM

REM

REM Step 2. 备份归档日志文件.

archive log stop

REM

REM Exit Server Manager, using the indicator set earlier.

exit

EOFarch1

#

# Record which files are in the destination directory.

# Do this by setting an environment variable that is

# equal to the directory listing for the destination

# directory.

# For this example, the log_archive_dest is

# /db01/oracle/arch/CC1.

#

FILES=`ls /db01/oracle/arch/CC1/arch*.dbf`; export FILES

#

# Now go back into Server Manager and restart the

# archiving process. Set an indicator (called EOFarch2

# in this example).

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# Now back up the archived redo logs to the tape

# device via the "tar" command, then delete them

# from the destination device via the "rm" command.

# You may choose to compress them instead.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc $FILES

rm -f $FILES

#

# Step 3. 备份控制文件到磁盘.

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal

alter database backup controlfile to

’db01/oracle/CC1/CC1controlfile.bck’;

exit

EOFarch3

#

# 备份控制文件到磁带.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db01/oracle/CC1/CC1controlfile.bck

#

# End of hot backup script.

//自动生成开始备份的脚本

set pagesize 0 feedback off

select

’alter tablespace ’||Tablespace_Name||’ begin backup;’

from DBA_TABLESPACES

where Status <> ’INVALID’

spool alter_begin.sql

/

spool off

//自动生成备份结束的脚本

set pagesize 0 feedback off

select

’alter tablespace ’||Tablespace_Name||’ end backup;’

from DBA_TABLESPACES

where Status <> ’INVALID’

spool alter_end.sql

/

spool off

//备份归档日志文件的脚本.

REM See text for alternatives.

# Step 1: Stop the archiving process. This will keep

# additional archived redo log files from being written

# to the destination directory during this process.

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log stop;

REM

REM Exit Server Manager using the indicator set earlier.

exit

EOFarch1

#

# Step 2: Record which files are in the destination

# directory.

# Do this by setting an environment variable that is

# equal to the directory listing for the destination

# directory.

# Fo

r this example, the log_archive_dest is

# /db01/oracle/arch/CC1.

#

FILES=`ls /db01/oracle/arch/CC1/arch*.dbf`; export FILES

#

# Step 3: Go back into Server Manager and restart the

# archiving process. Set an indicator (called EOFarch2

# in this example).

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# Step 4. Back up the archived redo logs to the tape

# device via the "tar" command, then delete them

# from the destination device via the "rm" command.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc $FILES

#

# Step 5. Delete those files from the destination directory.

#

rm -f $FILES

#

# End of archived redo log file backup script.

REM 磁盘到磁盘的备份

REM

REM Back up the RBS tablespace - to another disk (UNIX)

REM

alter tablespace RBS begin backup;

!cp /db02/oracle/CC1/rbs01.dbf /db10/oracle/CC1/backups

alter tablespace RBS end backup;

REM

REM 移动归档日志文件的shell脚本

#

# Procedure for moving archived redo logs to another device

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log stop;

!mv /db01/oracle/arch/CC1 /db10/oracle/arch/CC1

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# end of archived redo log directory move.

//生成创建控制文件命令

alter database backup controlfile to trace;

//时间点恢复的例子

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount instance_name;

recover database until time ’1999-08-07:14:40:00’;

//创建恢复目录

rman rcvcat rman/rman@

// 在(UNIX)下创建恢复目录

RMAN> create catalog tablespace rcvcat;

// 在(NT)下创建恢复目录

RMAN> create catalog tablespace "RCVCAT";

//连接描述符范例

(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=TCP)

(HOST=HQ)

(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT DATA=

(SID=loc)))

// listener.ora 的条目entry

// listener.ora 的条目entry

LISTENER =

(ADDRESS_LIST =

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=IPC)

(KEY= loc.world)

)

)

SID_LIST_LISTENER =

(SID_LIST =

(SID_DESC =

(SID_NAME = loc)

(ORACLE_HOME = /orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.1)

)

)

// tnsnames.ora 的条目

LOC=

(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS =

(PROTOCOL = TCP)

(HOST = HQ)

(PORT = 1521))

)

(CONNECT_DATA =

(SERVICE_NAME = loc)

(INSTANCE_NAME = loc)

)

)

//连接参数的设置(sql*net)

LOC =(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS=

(COMMUNITY=TCP.HQ.COMPANY)

(PROTOCOL=TCP)

(HOST=HQ)

(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT DATA=

(SID=loc)))

//参数文件配置范例

// tnsnames.ora

HQ =(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=TCP)

(HOST=HQ)

(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT DATA=

(SID=loc)))

// listener.ora

LISTENER =

(ADDRESS_LIST =

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=IPC)

(KEY= loc)

)

)

SID_LIST_LISTENER =

(SID_LIST =

(SID_DESC =

(SID_NAME = loc)

(ORACLE_HOME = /orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.1)

)

)

// Oracle8

I tnsnames.ora

LOC=

(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS =

(PROTOCOL = TCP)

(HOST = HQ)

(PORT = 1521))

)

(CONNECT_DATA =

(SERVICE_NAME = loc)

(INSTANCE_NAME = loc)

)

)

//使用 COPY 实现数据库之间的复制

copy from

remote_username/remote_password@service_name

to

username/password@service_name

[append|create|insert|replace]

TABLE_NAME

using subquery;

REM COPY example

set copycommit 1

set arraysize 1000

copy from HR/PUFFINSTUFF@loc -

create EMPLOYEE -

using -

select * from EMPLOYEE

//监视器的管理

lsnrctl start

lsnrctl start my_lsnr

lsnrctl status

lsnrctl status hq

检查监视器的进程

ps -ef | grep tnslsnr

//在 lsnrctl 内停止监视器

set password lsnr_password

stop

//在lsnrctl 内列出所有的服务

set password lsnr_password

services

//启动或停止一个NT的listener

net start OracleTNSListener

net stop OracleTNSListener

// tnsnames.ora 文件的内容

fld1 =

(DESCRIPTION =

(ADDRESS_LIST =

(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)

(HOST = server1.fld.com)(PORT = 1521))

)

(CONNECT_DATA =

(SID = fld1)

)

)

//操作系统网络的管理

telnet host_name

ping host_name

/etc/hosts 文件

130.110.238.109 nmhost

130.110.238.101 txhost

130.110.238.102 azhost arizona

//oratab 表项

loc:/orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.1:Y

cc1:/orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.1:N

old:/orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.0:Y

//创建一个控制文件命令到跟踪文件

alter database backup controlfile to trace;

//增加一个新的日志文件组的语句

connect internal as sysdba

alter database

add logfile group 4

(’/db01/oracle/CC1/log_1c.dbf’,

’/db02/oracle/CC1/log_2c.dbf’) size 5M;

alter database

add logfile member ’/db03/oracle/CC1/log_3c.dbf’

to group 4;

//在Server Manager上MOUNT并打开一个数据库:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount ORA1 exclusive;

alter database open;

//生成数据字典

@catalog

@catproc

//在init.ora 中备份数据库的位置

log_archive_dest_1 = ’/db00/arch’

log_archive_dest_state_1 = enable

log_archive_dest_2 = "service=stby.world mandatory reopen=60"

log_archive_dest_state_2 = enable

//对用户的表空间的指定和管理相关的语句

create user USERNAME identified by PASSWORD

default tablespace TABLESPACE_NAME;

alter user USERNAME default tablespace TABLESPACE_NAME;

alter user SYSTEM quota 0 on SYSTEM;

alter user SYSTEM quota 50M on TOOLS;

create user USERNAME identified by PASSWORD

default tablespace DATA

temporary tablespace TEMP;

alter user USERNAME temporary tablespace TEMP;

//重新指定一个数据文件的大小 :

alter database

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ resize 200M;

//创建一个自动扩展的数据文件:

create tablespace DATA

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ size 200M

autoextend ON

next 10M

maxsi

ze 250M;

//在表空间上增加一个自动扩展的数据文件:

alter tablespace DATA

add datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data02.dbf’

size 50M

autoextend ON

maxsize 300M;

//修改参数:

alter database

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’

autoextend ON

maxsize 300M;

//在数据文件移动期间重新命名:

alter database rename file

’/db01/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’;

alter tablespace DATA rename datafile

’/db01/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’;

alter database rename file

’/db05/oracle/CC1/redo01CC1.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/redo01CC1.dbf’;

alter database datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’

resize 80M;

//创建和使用角色:

create role APPLICATION_USER;

grant CREATE SESSION to APPLICATION_USER;

grant APPLICATION_USER to username;

//回滚段的管理

create rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME

tablespace RBS;

alter rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME offline;

drop rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME;

alter rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME online;

//回滚段上指定事务

commit;

set transaction use rollback segment ROLL_BATCH;

insert into TABLE_NAME

select * from DATA_LOAD_TABLE;

commit;

//查询回滚段的 大小和优化参数

select * from DBA_SEGMENTS

where Segment_Type = ’ROLLBACK’;

select N.Name, /* rollback segment name */

S.OptSize /* rollback segment OPTIMAL size */

from V$ROLLNAME N, V$ROLLSTAT S

where N.USN=S.USN;

//回收回滚段

alter rollback segment R1 shrink to 15M;

alter rollback segment R1 shrink;

//例子

set transaction use rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME

alter tablespace RBS

default storage

(initial 125K next 125K minextents 18 maxextents 249)

create rollback segment R4 tablespace RBS

storage (optimal 2250K);

alter rollback segment R4 online;

select Sessions_Highwater from V$LICENSE;

grant select on EMPLOYEE to PUBLIC;

//用户和角色

create role ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

grant CREATE SESSION, CREATE USER, ALTER USER

to ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

alter user THUMPER default role NONE;

alter user THUMPER default role CONNECT;

alter user THUMPER default role all except ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

alter profile DEFAULT

limit idle_time 60;

create profile LIMITED_PROFILE limit

FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS 5;

create user JANE identified by EYRE

profile LIMITED_PROFILE;

grant CREATE SESSION to JANE;

alter user JANE account unlock;

alter user JANE account lock;

alter profile LIMITED_PROFILE limit

PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME 30;

alter user jane password expire;

//创建操作系统用户

REM Creating OPS$ accounts

create user OPS$FARMER

identified by SOME_PASSWORD

default tablespace USERS

temporary tablespace TEMP;

REM Using identified externally

create user OPS$FARMER

identified externally

default tablespace USERS

temporary tablespace

TEMP;

//执行ORAPWD

ORAPWD FILE=filename PASSWORD=password ENTRIES=max_users

create role APPLICATION_USER;

grant CREATE SESSION to APPLICATION_USER;

create role DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.EMPLOYEE to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.TIME_CARDS to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.DEPARTMENT to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant APPLICATION_USER to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant DATA_ENTRY_CLERK to MCGREGOR;

grant DATA_ENTRY_CLERK to BPOTTER with admin option;

//设置角色

set role DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

set role NONE;

//回收权利:

revoke delete on EMPLOYEE from PETER;

revoke all on EMPLOYEE from MCGREGOR;

//回收角色:

revoke ACCOUNT_CREATOR from HELPDESK;

drop user USERNAME cascade;

grant SELECT on EMPLOYEE to MCGREGOR with grant option;

grant SELECT on THUMPER.EMPLOYEE to BPOTTER with grant option;

revoke SELECT on EMPLOYEE from MCGREGOR;

create user MCGREGOR identified by VALUES ’1A2DD3CCEE354DFA’;

alter user OPS$FARMER identified by VALUES ’no way’;

//备份与恢复

使用 export 程序

exp system/manager file=expdat.dmp compress=Y owner=(HR,THUMPER)

exp system/manager file=hr.dmp owner=HR indexes=Y compress=Y

imp system/manager file=hr.dmp full=Y buffer=64000 commit=Y

//备份表

exp system/manager FILE=expdat.dmp TABLES=(Thumper.SALES)

//备份分区

exp system/manager FILE=expdat.dmp TABLES=(Thumper.SALES:Part1)

//输入例子

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp buffer=64000 commit=Y

exp system/manager file=thumper.dat owner=thumper grants=N

indexes=Y compress=Y rows=Y

imp system/manager file=thumper.dat FROMUSER=thumper TOUSER=flower

rows=Y indexes=Y

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp full=Y commit=Y buffer=64000

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp ignore=N rows=N commit=Y buffer=64000

//使用操作系统备份命令

REM TAR examples

tar -cvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db0[1-9]/oracle/CC1

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /orasw/app/oracle/CC1/pfile/initcc1.ora

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db0[1-9]/oracle/CC1 /orasw/app/oracle/CC1/pfile/initcc1.ora

//离线备份的shell脚本

ORACLE_SID=cc1; export ORACLE_SID

ORAENV_ASK=NO; export ORAENV_ASK

. oraenv

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

shutdown immediate;

exit

EOF1

insert backup commands like the "tar" commands here

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

startup

EOF2

//在Server Manager上设置为archivelog mode:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount cc1;

alter database archivelog;

archive log start;

alter database open;

//在Server Manager上设置为archivelog mode:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount cc1;

alter database noarchivelog;

alter database open;

select Name,

Value

from V$PARAMETER

where Name like ’log_archive%’;

//联机备份的脚本

#

# Sample Hot Backup Script for a UNIX File System d

atabase

#

# Set up environment variables:

ORACLE_SID=cc1; export ORACLE_SID

ORAENV_ASK=NO; export ORAENV_ASK

. oraenv

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

REM

REM 备份 SYSTEM tablespace

REM

alter tablespace SYSTEM begin backup;

!tar -cvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db01/oracle/CC1/sys01.dbf

alter tablespace SYSTEM end backup;

REM

REM The SYSTEM tablespace has now been written to a

REM tar saveset on the tape device /dev/rmt/0hc. The

REM rest of the tars must use the "-rvf" clause to append

REM to that saveset.

REM

REM 备份 RBS tablespace

REM

alter tablespace RBS begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db02/oracle/CC1/rbs01.dbf

alter tablespace RBS end backup;

REM

REM 备份 DATA tablespace

REM For the purposes of this example, this tablespace

REM will contain two files, data01.dbf and data02.dbf.

REM The * wildcard will be used in the filename.

REM

alter tablespace DATA begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db03/oracle/CC1/data0*.dbf

alter tablespace DATA end backup;

REM

REM 备份 INDEXES tablespace

REM

alter tablespace INDEXES begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db04/oracle/CC1/indexes01.dbf

alter tablespace INDEXES end backup;

REM

REM 备份 TEMP tablespace

REM

alter tablespace TEMP begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db05/oracle/CC1/temp01.dbf

alter tablespace TEMP end backup;

REM

REM Follow the same pattern to back up the rest

REM of the tablespaces.

REM

REM

REM Step 2. 备份归档日志文件.

archive log stop

REM

REM Exit Server Manager, using the indicator set earlier.

exit

EOFarch1

#

# Record which files are in the destination directory.

# Do this by setting an environment variable that is

# equal to the directory listing for the destination

# directory.

# For this example, the log_archive_dest is

# /db01/oracle/arch/CC1.

#

FILES=`ls /db01/oracle/arch/CC1/arch*.dbf`; export FILES

#

# Now go back into Server Manager and restart the

# archiving process. Set an indicator (called EOFarch2

# in this example).

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# Now back up the archived redo logs to the tape

# device via the "tar" command, then delete them

# from the destination device via the "rm" command.

# You may choose to compress them instead.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc $FILES

rm -f $FILES

#

# Step 3. 备份控制文件到磁盘.

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal

alter database backup controlfile to

’db01/oracle/CC1/CC1controlfile.bck’;

exit

EOFarch3

#

# 备份控制文件到磁带.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db01/oracle/CC1/CC1controlfile.bck

#

# End of hot backup script.

//自动生成开始备份的脚本

set pagesize 0 feedback off

select

’alter tablespace ’||Tablespace_Name||’ begin backup;’

from DBA_TABLESPACES

where S

tatus <> ’INVALID’

spool alter_begin.sql

/

spool off

//自动生成备份结束的脚本

set pagesize 0 feedback off

select

’alter tablespace ’||Tablespace_Name||’ end backup;’

from DBA_TABLESPACES

where Status <> ’INVALID’

spool alter_end.sql

/

spool off

//备份归档日志文件的脚本.

REM See text for alternatives.

# Step 1: Stop the archiving process. This will keep

# additional archived redo log files from being written

# to the destination directory during this process.

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log stop;

REM

REM Exit Server Manager using the indicator set earlier.

exit

EOFarch1

#

# Step 2: Record which files are in the destination

# directory.

# Do this by setting an environment variable that is

# equal to the directory listing for the destination

# directory.

# For this example, the log_archive_dest is

# /db01/oracle/arch/CC1.

#

FILES=`ls /db01/oracle/arch/CC1/arch*.dbf`; export FILES

#

# Step 3: Go back into Server Manager and restart the

# archiving process. Set an indicator (called EOFarch2

# in this example).

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# Step 4. Back up the archived redo logs to the tape

# device via the "tar" command, then delete them

# from the destination device via the "rm" command.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc $FILES

#

# Step 5. Delete those files from the destination directory.

#

rm -f $FILES

#

# End of archived redo log file backup script.

REM 磁盘到磁盘的备份

REM

REM Back up the RBS tablespace - to another disk (UNIX)

REM

alter tablespace RBS begin backup;

!cp /db02/oracle/CC1/rbs01.dbf /db10/oracle/CC1/backups

alter tablespace RBS end backup;

REM

REM 移动归档日志文件的shell脚本

#

# Procedure for moving archived redo logs to another device

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log stop;

!mv /db01/oracle/arch/CC1 /db10/oracle/arch/CC1

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# end of archived redo log directory move.

//生成创建控制文件命令

alter database backup controlfile to trace;

//时间点恢复的例子

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount instance_name;

recover database until time ’1999-08-07:14:40:00’;

//创建恢复目录

rman rcvcat rman/rman@

// 在(UNIX)下创建恢复目录

RMAN> create catalog tablespace rcvcat;

// 在(NT)下创建恢复目录

RMAN> create catalog tablespace "RCVCAT";

//连接描述符范例

(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=TCP)

(HOST=HQ)

(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT DATA=

(SID=loc)))

// listener.ora 的条目entry

//创建一个控制文件命令到跟踪文件

alter database ba

ckup controlfile to trace;

//增加一个新的日志文件组的语句

connect internal as sysdba

alter database

add logfile group 4

(’/db01/oracle/CC1/log_1c.dbf’,

’/db02/oracle/CC1/log_2c.dbf’) size 5M;

alter database

add logfile member ’/db03/oracle/CC1/log_3c.dbf’

to group 4;

//在Server Manager上MOUNT并打开一个数据库:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount ORA1 exclusive;

alter database open;

//生成数据字典

@catalog

@catproc

//在init.ora 中备份数据库的位置

log_archive_dest_1 = ’/db00/arch’

log_archive_dest_state_1 = enable

log_archive_dest_2 = "service=stby.world mandatory reopen=60"

log_archive_dest_state_2 = enable

//对用户的表空间的指定和管理相关的语句

create user USERNAME identified by PASSWORD

default tablespace TABLESPACE_NAME;

alter user USERNAME default tablespace TABLESPACE_NAME;

alter user SYSTEM quota 0 on SYSTEM;

alter user SYSTEM quota 50M on TOOLS;

create user USERNAME identified by PASSWORD

default tablespace DATA

temporary tablespace TEMP;

alter user USERNAME temporary tablespace TEMP;

//重新指定一个数据文件的大小 :

alter database

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ resize 200M;

//创建一个自动扩展的数据文件:

create tablespace DATA

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ size 200M

autoextend ON

next 10M

maxsize 250M;

//在表空间上增加一个自动扩展的数据文件:

alter tablespace DATA

add datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data02.dbf’

size 50M

autoextend ON

maxsize 300M;

//修改参数:

alter database

datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’

autoextend ON

maxsize 300M;

//在数据文件移动期间重新命名:

alter database rename file

’/db01/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’;

alter tablespace DATA rename datafile

’/db01/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’;

alter database rename file

’/db05/oracle/CC1/redo01CC1.dbf’ to

’/db02/oracle/CC1/redo01CC1.dbf’;

alter database datafile ’/db05/oracle/CC1/data01.dbf’

resize 80M;

//创建和使用角色:

create role APPLICATION_USER;

grant CREATE SESSION to APPLICATION_USER;

grant APPLICATION_USER to username;

//回滚段的管理

create rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME

tablespace RBS;

alter rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME offline;

drop rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME;

alter rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME online;

//回滚段上指定事务

commit;

set transaction use rollback segment ROLL_BATCH;

insert into TABLE_NAME

select * from DATA_LOAD_TABLE;

commit;

//查询回滚段的 大小和优化参数

select * from DBA_SEGMENTS

where Segment_Type = ’ROLLBACK’;

select N.Name, /* rollback segment name */

S.OptSize /* rollback segment OPTIMAL size */

from V$ROLLNAME N, V$ROLLSTAT S

where N

.USN=S.USN;

//回收回滚段

alter rollback segment R1 shrink to 15M;

alter rollback segment R1 shrink;

//例子

set transaction use rollback segment SEGMENT_NAME

alter tablespace RBS

default storage

(initial 125K next 125K minextents 18 maxextents 249)

create rollback segment R4 tablespace RBS

storage (optimal 2250K);

alter rollback segment R4 online;

select Sessions_Highwater from V$LICENSE;

grant select on EMPLOYEE to PUBLIC;

//用户和角色

create role ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

grant CREATE SESSION, CREATE USER, ALTER USER

to ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

alter user THUMPER default role NONE;

alter user THUMPER default role CONNECT;

alter user THUMPER default role all except ACCOUNT_CREATOR;

alter profile DEFAULT

limit idle_time 60;

create profile LIMITED_PROFILE limit

FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS 5;

create user JANE identified by EYRE

profile LIMITED_PROFILE;

grant CREATE SESSION to JANE;

alter user JANE account unlock;

alter user JANE account lock;

alter profile LIMITED_PROFILE limit

PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME 30;

alter user jane password expire;

//创建操作系统用户

REM Creating OPS$ accounts

create user OPS$FARMER

identified by SOME_PASSWORD

default tablespace USERS

temporary tablespace TEMP;

REM Using identified externally

create user OPS$FARMER

identified externally

default tablespace USERS

temporary tablespace TEMP;

//执行ORAPWD

ORAPWD FILE=filename PASSWORD=password ENTRIES=max_users

create role APPLICATION_USER;

grant CREATE SESSION to APPLICATION_USER;

create role DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.EMPLOYEE to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.TIME_CARDS to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant select, insert on THUMPER.DEPARTMENT to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant APPLICATION_USER to DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

grant DATA_ENTRY_CLERK to MCGREGOR;

grant DATA_ENTRY_CLERK to BPOTTER with admin option;

//设置角色

set role DATA_ENTRY_CLERK;

set role NONE;

//回收权利:

revoke delete on EMPLOYEE from PETER;

revoke all on EMPLOYEE from MCGREGOR;

//回收角色:

revoke ACCOUNT_CREATOR from HELPDESK;

drop user USERNAME cascade;

grant SELECT on EMPLOYEE to MCGREGOR with grant option;

grant SELECT on THUMPER.EMPLOYEE to BPOTTER with grant option;

revoke SELECT on EMPLOYEE from MCGREGOR;

create user MCGREGOR identified by VALUES ’1A2DD3CCEE354DFA’;

alter user OPS$FARMER identified by VALUES ’no way’;

//备份与恢复

使用 export 程序

exp system/manager file=expdat.dmp compress=Y owner=(HR,THUMPER)

exp system/manager file=hr.dmp owner=HR indexes=Y compress=Y

imp system/manager file=hr.dmp full=Y buffer=64000 commit=Y

//备份表

exp system/manager FILE=expdat.dmp TABLES=(Thumper.SALES)

//备份分区

exp system/manager FILE=expdat.dmp TABLES=(Thumper.SALES:Part1)

//输入例子

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp

imp system/manager fi

le=expdat.dmp buffer=64000 commit=Y

exp system/manager file=thumper.dat owner=thumper grants=N

indexes=Y compress=Y rows=Y

imp system/manager file=thumper.dat FROMUSER=thumper TOUSER=flower

rows=Y indexes=Y

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp full=Y commit=Y buffer=64000

imp system/manager file=expdat.dmp ignore=N rows=N commit=Y buffer=64000

//使用操作系统备份命令

REM TAR examples

tar -cvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db0[1-9]/oracle/CC1

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /orasw/app/oracle/CC1/pfile/initcc1.ora

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db0[1-9]/oracle/CC1 /orasw/app/oracle/CC1/pfile/initcc1.ora

//离线备份的shell脚本

ORACLE_SID=cc1; export ORACLE_SID

ORAENV_ASK=NO; export ORAENV_ASK

. oraenv

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

shutdown immediate;

exit

EOF1

insert backup commands like the "tar" commands here

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

startup

EOF2

//在Server Manager上设置为archivelog mode:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount cc1;

alter database archivelog;

archive log start;

alter database open;

//在Server Manager上设置为archivelog mode:

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount cc1;

alter database noarchivelog;

alter database open;

select Name,

Value

from V$PARAMETER

where Name like ’log_archive%’;

//联机备份的脚本

#

# Sample Hot Backup Script for a UNIX File System database

#

# Set up environment variables:

ORACLE_SID=cc1; export ORACLE_SID

ORAENV_ASK=NO; export ORAENV_ASK

. oraenv

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

REM

REM 备份 SYSTEM tablespace

REM

alter tablespace SYSTEM begin backup;

!tar -cvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db01/oracle/CC1/sys01.dbf

alter tablespace SYSTEM end backup;

REM

REM The SYSTEM tablespace has now been written to a

REM tar saveset on the tape device /dev/rmt/0hc. The

REM rest of the tars must use the "-rvf" clause to append

REM to that saveset.

REM

REM 备份 RBS tablespace

REM

alter tablespace RBS begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db02/oracle/CC1/rbs01.dbf

alter tablespace RBS end backup;

REM

REM 备份 DATA tablespace

REM For the purposes of this example, this tablespace

REM will contain two files, data01.dbf and data02.dbf.

REM The * wildcard will be used in the filename.

REM

alter tablespace DATA begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db03/oracle/CC1/data0*.dbf

alter tablespace DATA end backup;

REM

REM 备份 INDEXES tablespace

REM

alter tablespace INDEXES begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db04/oracle/CC1/indexes01.dbf

alter tablespace INDEXES end backup;

REM

REM 备份 TEMP tablespace

REM

alter tablespace TEMP begin backup;

!tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db05/oracle/CC1/temp01.dbf

alter tablespace TEMP end backup;

REM

REM Follow the same pattern to back up the rest

REM of the tablespaces.

REM

REM

REM Step 2. 备份归档日志

文件.

archive log stop

REM

REM Exit Server Manager, using the indicator set earlier.

exit

EOFarch1

#

# Record which files are in the destination directory.

# Do this by setting an environment variable that is

# equal to the directory listing for the destination

# directory.

# For this example, the log_archive_dest is

# /db01/oracle/arch/CC1.

#

FILES=`ls /db01/oracle/arch/CC1/arch*.dbf`; export FILES

#

# Now go back into Server Manager and restart the

# archiving process. Set an indicator (called EOFarch2

# in this example).

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# Now back up the archived redo logs to the tape

# device via the "tar" command, then delete them

# from the destination device via the "rm" command.

# You may choose to compress them instead.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc $FILES

rm -f $FILES

#

# Step 3. 备份控制文件到磁盘.

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal

alter database backup controlfile to

’db01/oracle/CC1/CC1controlfile.bck’;

exit

EOFarch3

#

# 备份控制文件到磁带.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc /db01/oracle/CC1/CC1controlfile.bck

#

# End of hot backup script.

//自动生成开始备份的脚本

set pagesize 0 feedback off

select

’alter tablespace ’||Tablespace_Name||’ begin backup;’

from DBA_TABLESPACES

where Status <> ’INVALID’

spool alter_begin.sql

/

spool off

//自动生成备份结束的脚本

set pagesize 0 feedback off

select

’alter tablespace ’||Tablespace_Name||’ end backup;’

from DBA_TABLESPACES

where Status <> ’INVALID’

spool alter_end.sql

/

spool off

//备份归档日志文件的脚本.

REM See text for alternatives.

# Step 1: Stop the archiving process. This will keep

# additional archived redo log files from being written

# to the destination directory during this process.

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log stop;

REM

REM Exit Server Manager using the indicator set earlier.

exit

EOFarch1

#

# Step 2: Record which files are in the destination

# directory.

# Do this by setting an environment variable that is

# equal to the directory listing for the destination

# directory.

# For this example, the log_archive_dest is

# /db01/oracle/arch/CC1.

#

FILES=`ls /db01/oracle/arch/CC1/arch*.dbf`; export FILES

#

# Step 3: Go back into Server Manager and restart the

# archiving process. Set an indicator (called EOFarch2

# in this example).

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# Step 4. Back up the archived redo logs to the tape

# device via the "tar" command, then delete them

# from the destination device via the "rm" command.

#

tar -rvf /dev/rmt/0hc $FILES

#

# Step 5. Delete those files from t

he destination directory.

#

rm -f $FILES

#

# End of archived redo log file backup script.

REM 磁盘到磁盘的备份

REM

REM Back up the RBS tablespace - to another disk (UNIX)

REM

alter tablespace RBS begin backup;

!cp /db02/oracle/CC1/rbs01.dbf /db10/oracle/CC1/backups

alter tablespace RBS end backup;

REM

REM 移动归档日志文件的shell脚本

#

# Procedure for moving archived redo logs to another device

#

svrmgrl <

connect internal as sysdba

archive log stop;

!mv /db01/oracle/arch/CC1 /db10/oracle/arch/CC1

archive log start;

exit

EOFarch2

#

# end of archived redo log directory move.

//生成创建控制文件命令

alter database backup controlfile to trace;

//时间点恢复的例子

connect internal as sysdba

startup mount instance_name;

recover database until time ’1999-08-07:14:40:00’;

//创建恢复目录

rman rcvcat rman/rman@

// 在(UNIX)下创建恢复目录

RMAN> create catalog tablespace rcvcat;

// 在(NT)下创建恢复目录

RMAN> create catalog tablespace "RCVCAT";

//连接描述符范例

(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=TCP)

(HOST=HQ)

(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT DATA=

(SID=loc)))

// listener.ora 的条目entry

LISTENER =

(ADDRESS_LIST =

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=IPC)

转贴于 学生大读书网 http://

(KEY= loc.world)

)

)

SID_LIST_LISTENER =

(SID_LIST =

(SID_DESC =

(SID_NAME = loc)

(ORACLE_HOME = /orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.1)

)

)

// tnsnames.ora 的条目

LOC=

(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS =

(PROTOCOL = TCP)

(HOST = HQ)

(PORT = 1521))

)

(CONNECT_DATA =

(SERVICE_NAME = loc)

(INSTANCE_NAME = loc)

)

)

//连接参数的设置(sql*net)

LOC =(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS=

(COMMUNITY=TCP.HQ.COMPANY)

(PROTOCOL=TCP)

(HOST=HQ)

(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT DATA=

(SID=loc)))

//参数文件配置范例

// tnsnames.ora

HQ =(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=TCP)

(HOST=HQ)

(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT DATA=

(SID=loc)))

// listener.ora

LISTENER =

(ADDRESS_LIST =

(ADDRESS=

(PROTOCOL=IPC)

(KEY= loc)

)

)

SID_LIST_LISTENER =

(SID_LIST =

(SID_DESC =

(SID_NAME = loc)

(ORACLE_HOME = /orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.1)

)

)

// Oracle8I tnsnames.ora

LOC=

(DESCRIPTION=

(ADDRESS =

(PROTOCOL = TCP)

(HOST = HQ)

(PORT = 1521))

)

(CONNECT_DATA =

(SERVICE_NAME = loc)

(INSTANCE_NAME = loc)

)

)

//使用 COPY 实现数据库之间的复制

copy from

remote_userna

me/remote_password@service_name

to

username/password@service_name

[append|create|insert|replace]

TABLE_NAME

using subquery;

REM COPY example

set copycommit 1

set arraysize 1000

copy from HR/PUFFINSTUFF@loc -

create EMPLOYEE -

using -

select * from EMPLOYEE

//监视器的管理

lsnrctl start

lsnrctl start my_lsnr

lsnrctl status

lsnrctl status hq

检查监视器的进程

ps -ef | grep tnslsnr

//在 lsnrctl 内停止监视器

set password lsnr_password

stop

//在lsnrctl 内列出所有的服务

set password lsnr_password

services

//启动或停止一个NT的listener

net start OracleTNSListener

net stop OracleTNSListener

// tnsnames.ora 文件的内容

fld1 =

(DESCRIPTION =

(ADDRESS_LIST =

(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)

(HOST = server1.fld.com)(PORT = 1521))

)

(CONNECT_DATA =

(SID = fld1)

)

)

//操作系统网络的管理

telnet host_name

ping host_name

/etc/hosts 文件

130.110.238.109 nmhost

130.110.238.101 txhost

130.110.238.102 azhost arizona

//oratab 表项

loc:/orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.1:Y

cc1:/orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.1:N

old:/orasw/app/oracle/product/8.1.5.0:Y





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