Java 自定义注解

原文地址:http://joe5456536.blog.163.com/blog/static/85374773201242194942586/


@Retention 指定注释的生存时期
 * CLASS:注释记录在类文件中,但在运行时 VM 不需要保留注释(默认)。
 * RUNTIME:注释记录在类文件中,在运行时 VM 将保留注释,因此可以使用反射机制读取注释内容。
 * SOURCE:编译器要丢弃的注释。

 @Target 
 * 指示注释类型所适用的程序元素的种类,如果注释类型声明中不存在 Target 元注释,
 * 则声明的类型可以用在任一程序元素上。
 * ElementType.ANNOTATION_TYPE:注释类型声明
 * ElementType.CONSTRUCTOR:构造方法声明
 * ElementType.FILED:字段声明
 * ElementType.LOCAL_VARIABLE:局部变量声明
 * ElementType.METHOD:方法声明
 * ElementType.PACKAGE:包声明
 * ElementType.PARAMETER:参数声明
 * ElementType.TYPE:类、借口或枚举声明


● 定义注解
@Target({ElementType.FIELD})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
public @interface NotNull {

          String message() default "Element is not null";
}

@Target({ElementType.FIELD})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
public @interface Null {

        String message() default "Element must be null";
}

@Target({ElementType.FIELD})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
public @interface Min {

          long value() default 0;
}

@Target({ElementType.FIELD})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
public @interface Max {
         long value();
}

@Target({ElementType.FIELD})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
public @interface Size {

          int min();
          int max();
}

● 实现类(利用反射机制)

public abstract class Validator {

          public <T, E> void validate(T t, E e) {
                    if (e instanceof Field) {
                            Field f = (Field) e;
                            validateField(t, f);
                    } else if (e instanceof Method) {
                           Method m = (Method) e;
                           validateMethod(t, m);
                    }
          }
 
          public <T> void validateField(T t, Field f) {
                    //TODO implements in subclass
          }
 
          public <T> void validateMethod(T t, Method m) {
                  //TODO implements in subclass
          }

}

public class NotNullValidator extends Validator {

          @Override
          public <T> void validateField(T t, Field f) {
                   if (f.isAnnotationPresent(NotNull.class)) {
                         try {
                               f.setAccessible(true);
                               if (f.get(t) == null) {
                                          throw new ValidatorException(f.getAnnotation(NotNull.class).message());
                               }
                          } catch (Exception e) {
                                 e.printStackTrace();
                          }
                 }
        }
}

public class NullValidator extends Validator {

          @Override
          public <T> void validateField(T t, Field f) {
                   if (f.isAnnotationPresent(Null.class)) {
                         try {
                               f.setAccessible(true);
                               if (f.get(t) != null) {
                                          throw new ValidatorException(f.getAnnotation(Null.class).message());
                               }
                          } catch (Exception e) {
                                 e.printStackTrace();
                          }
                 }
        }
}

public class MinValidator extends Validator {

          @Override
          public <T> void validateField(T t, Field f) {
                   if (f.isAnnotationPresent(Min.class)) {
                          try {
                              f.setAccessible(true);
                              Object value = f.get(t);
                              if( value instanceof Short || value instanceof Integer || value instanceof Long) {
                                    long val = f.getAnnotation(Min.class).value();
                                    if(Long.valueOf(value.toString()) < val) {
                                              throw new ValidatorException(f.getName()+"'value is not samller than " + val);
                                    }
                              } else {
                                      throw new ValidatorException(f.getName()+" is not number.");
                              }  

                         } catch (Exception e) {
                                   e.printStackTrace();
                         }
                  }
         }

}

public class MaxValidator extends Validator {

          @Override
          public <T> void validateField(T t, Field f) {
                   if (f.isAnnotationPresent(Max.class)) {
                          try {
                              f.setAccessible(true);
                              Object value = f.get(t);
                              if( value instanceof Short || value instanceof Integer || value instanceof Long) {
                                    long val = f.getAnnotation(Max.class).value();
                                    if(Long.valueOf(value.toString()) > val) {
                                              throw new ValidatorException(f.getName()+"'value is not greater than " + val);
                                    }
                              } else {
                                      throw new ValidatorException(f.getName()+" is not number.");
                              }  

                         } catch (Exception e) {
                                   e.printStackTrace();
                         }
                  }
         }

}

public class SizeValidator extends Validator {

          @Override
          public <T> void validateField(T t, Field f) {
                   if (f.isAnnotationPresent(Size.class)) {
                          try {
                               f.setAccessible(true);
                               Object value = f.get(t);
                               if( value instanceof Short || value instanceof Integer || value instanceof Long) {
                                        long max = f.getAnnotation(Size.class).max();
                                        long min = f.getAnnotation(Size.class).min();
                                        long val = Long.valueOf(value.toString());
                                        if(val < min || val > max) {
                                              throw new ValidatorException(f.getName()+"'value is in the " + min + " to " + max + " range");
                                        }
                                } else {
                                       throw new ValidatorException(f.getName()+" is not number.");
                                }  
                        } catch (Exception e) {
                                  e.printStackTrace();
                        }
                 }
        }

}

● 定义验证异常

public class ValidatorException extends Exception{

          public ValidatorException() {
                    super();
          }
 
         public ValidatorException(String message) {
                   super(message);
         }

         public ValidatorException(String message, Throwable throwable) {
                   super(message, throwable);
         }

         public ValidatorException(Throwable throwable) {
                  super(throwable);
         } 
}
public enum ValidatorType {

        Null,NotNull,Min,Max,Size;
}

public class ValidatorFactory {
 
          public static Validator createValidator(ValidatorType type) {
                    switch(type) {
                    case Null return new NullValidator();
                    case NotNull return new NotNullValidator();
                    case Min return new MinValidator();
                    case Max return new MaxValidator();
                    case Size return new SizeValidator();
                    default return null;
                    }
         }
}
public class Validation {

          public static <T> void validate(T t) {
                     Field[] fields = t.getClass().getDeclaredFields();
                     for(Field f : fields) {
                           Annotation[] as = f.getAnnotations();
                           for(Annotation a : as) {
                                 String typeName = a.annotationType().getSimpleName();
                                 Validator validator = ValidatorFactory.createValidator(ValidatorType.valueOf(typeName));
                                 validator.validate(t, f);
                           }
                     }
          }
}

● 测试

public class TestObject {

         @NotNull(message="name can not null.")
         private String name;
 
         @NotNull(message="age can not null.")
         @Max(value = 32)
         @Size(max=100, min=10)
         private Integer age;

  
}

public class ClientTest {

          public void test() {
                  TestObject obj = new TestObject();
                  obj.setName("JOE");
                  obj.setAge(10);
                   Validation.validate(obj);
         }
 
}

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