SQL语法总结

转载 2011年10月12日 23:56:12
 

SQL语法总结

[导读]SQL语法总结1.按条件读取字段, 定义某个字段只取规定的几个值,或一个值select os.* from  blis_order o,blis_orderservice os where o.orderid=os.orderid and o.ordertypeid not in (4, 8, 10, 11) and o.status in (New,Accepted,Pending-approval,Pending-effective,Pending-correction) and snp.status=Active and b.e

 

SQL语法总结
1.按条件读取字段, 定义某个字段只取规定的几个值,或一个值

select os.* from  blis_order o,blis_orderservice os where o.orderid=os.orderid and o.ordertypeid not in (4, 8, 10, 11) and o.status in ('New','Accepted','Pending-approval','Pending-effective','Pending-correction') and snp.status='Active' and b.entityid=1

2.去掉重复(互异)的字段distinct

select distinct op.name,op. from blis_chargeactivation ca,blis_orderparameter op where op.mastertype='charge' and ca.chargeactivationid=op.masterid and ca.parentcode like '%NBR Storage Charge%'


3.某个字段不可为null

select os.orderserviceid,os.orderofferid,o.ordertypeid,o.status from  Blis_Order o,  Blis_Orderservice os where o.orderid=os.orderid and os.orderofferid is not null

4.删除满足某个条件的记录

delete  from blis_bstoffermigplan bsf where bsf.keyid='110206'

5.取name_a字段,放入字段别名name_b

select bsf.keyid subcode,bsf.bstoffermigplanid from blis_bstoffermigplan bsf

这里取的是keyid字段, 显示的为subcode字段。


6.connection rollback commit
rollback 就是把在内存中做的行为取消,不持久化到数据库中,commit就是把内存中做的行为持久化到数据库中。

7. 在Oracle中使用Dual, Dual是Oracle一个特有的虚拟表, Oracle中很多系统的sequence(序列),sequence一般和表建立了一一对应关系,但是要编程插入的话,必须手工指定,比如增加条account数据,相应的值插入SEQ_ACCOUNT.nextval,变量和函数都可以通过Dual中获得
S: select getdate();
O: select sysdate from dual;


select SEQ_INTEGRATIONTASK.NEXTVAL from DUAL

8.(PK)主键(PK) (for database)

9.排序(数字,字母由大到小)

select bsf.* from blis_bstoffermigplan bsf order by bsf.ordertypeid desc

10.插入一条记录

insert into blis_bstoffermigplan (bstoffermigplanid, entityid, keyid, subioncode, ordertypeid, type, templatecode, currencycode, exceptioncount, lastexception, att1, att2, att3,att4,att5,offercode, status, createdby, creationdate, lastmodifiedby, lastmodifieddate) values (seq_bstoffermigplan.nextval, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?,?, ?, ?,?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?,sysdate, ?, sysdate)

11,更新一条记录

update offermigplan.db_table_name set entityid=?,keyid=?,subioncode=?,ordertypeid=?,type=?,templatecode=?,currencycode=?,exceptioncount=?,lastexception=?,att1=?,att2=?,att3=?,att4=?,att5=?,offercode=?,status=?,createdby=?,lastmodifiedby=?,lastmodifieddate=sysdate where bstoffermigplanid=?

 

12.插入数据量比较大的类型clob

13.查询日期

下列两条语句功能相同

select * from blis_account acc where  to_char(acc.lastmodifieddate,'YYYYMMDD')>'20050101'

select * from blis_account acc where  acc.lastmodifieddate>to_date('2005-01-01','yyyy-mm-dd')

14找出根据某个字段中的值重复的记录

比如找出chargeactivationid 有相同值的blis_usageaccess记录

select * from blis_usageaccess where chargeactivationid in (select chargeactivationid from blis_usageaccess group by chargeactivationid having count(*) >1)

USAGEACCESSID CHARGEACTIVATIONID  SERVICEACCESSCODE
292518 148701  AUDIO-BROADCAST@
292517 148701  VOIP@
292516 148701  CALLIN-DID@
292515 148701  CALLBACK-INTL@
292512 148701  CALLIN@
292513 148701  CALLIN-TOLLFREE@
292514 148701  CALLBACK@
292478 147945  AUDIO-BROADCAST@
292477 147945   VOIP@
292475 147945  CALLBACK-INTL@
292476 147945  CALLIN-DID@
292472 147945  CALLIN@

 

 


15.通过查询获得某个字段的合计值,如果这个值位null将给出一个预设的默认值

select  nvl(ob.bookingvalue,0) bookingvalue from blis_order o, blis_orderbooking ob where o.orderid=ob.orderid and o.orderid =125034 and ob.bookingtypeid = 215 and ob.status = 'Active'


这里关心nvl的用法,nvl(arg,value)代表如果前面的arg的值为null那么返回的值为后面的value

16.知道一个column的名字,但不清楚它属于哪张table时,可以使用

select * from user_col_comments ucc where ucc.column_name = 'column_name' 

比如: select * from user_col_comments ucc where ucc.column_name = ‘ORDERID’ 就会查出一系列有ORDERID字段的表。

17.遍历两字段排列

select (pf.offername || ' '|| cur.name) offercode from blis_packageoffer pf,blis_currency cur where cur.status='Active' and pf.status='Active'

结果如下:

offercode

a1 b1

a1 b2

a2 b1

a2 b2

18.条件判断

case when pc.provisioningby = 'BPS' then 'True'
         else 'False' end

select sos.Sosorderserviceid, st.sosprovisionticketid,
       (case when pc.provisioningby = 'BPS' then 'True'
         else 'False' end) isConnector
  from blis_sosprovisionticket st, blis_sosorderform sof,
       blis_sosorderservice sos, blis_packagecomponent pc
where sof.sosorderformid = sos.sosorderformid
   and sos.sosorderserviceid = st.sosorderserviceid
   and sos.status = 'Active' and st.status = 'Active'
   and pc.tagname(+) = st.servicetag and pc.provisioningby
   and sof.sosorderformid = 104789

19. pc.tagname(+) =st.servicetag

当pc.tagname存在值,st.servicetag不存在值的话,记录也可以检索出来。

20.让表可以手工编辑

select rowid,st.* from blis_sosprovisionticket st where st.sosprovisionticketid=102508

用classes12.zip 还是会抛出classNotFoundException:oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver,换用class12.jar就正常了,classes12.zip  或class12.jar是JDBC oracle驱动类

创建数据库:

查看所有表: select * from dba_all_tables
查看所有用户: select * from all_users
查看所有DBA用户:select * from dba_users
创建role :create role BLIS_ADMIN_ROLE;
创建新用户:create user username identified by password
授予表空间使用权:grant resource to username
授予创建表权限:grant create table to username
授予连接数据库的权限:grant create session to username
查看所有表空间: select * from dba_tablespaces
把任何表授予某用户: grant create any table to BLIS_ADMIN_ROLE;
授予某用户检索功能:grant create any index to BLIS_ADMIN_ROLE;
授予某用户对某表有检索,插入,更新,删除功能:grant select, insert, update, delete on BLIS_ACCAGENCYCOMMISSION to BLIS_ADMIN_ROLE;

导出数据库:比如: exp blis/blis@dbls full=y file=d:1.dmp

连接ORACLE数据库的字符串格式是
jdbc:oracle:thin:@主机:端口:SID
注意是SID 而不是数据库名

SID不对的话会抛出异常:java.sql.SQLException: Io 异常: Connection refused(DEION=(TMP=)(VSNNUM=153092352)(ERR=12505)(ERROR_STACK=(ERROR=(CODE=12505)(EMFI=4))))

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