# JDK8-Object源码

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package java.lang;

/**
* Class {@code Object} is the root of the class hierarchy【类层次结构，等级】.
* Every class has {@code Object} as a superclass. All objects,
* including arrays, implement the methods of this class.
*
* @author  unascribed
* @see     java.lang.Class
* @since   JDK1.0
*/
public class Object {

private static native void registerNatives();
static {
registerNatives();
}

/**
* Returns the runtime class of this {@code Object}. The returned
* {@code Class} object is the object that is locked by {@code
* static synchronized} methods of the represented class.
*
* <p><b>The actual result type is {@code Class<? extends |X|>}
* where {@code |X|} is the erasure of the static type of the
* expression on which {@code getClass} is called.</b> For
* example, no cast is required in this code fragment:</p>
*
* <p>
* {@code Number n = 0;                             }<br>
* {@code Class<? extends Number> c = n.getClass(); }
* </p>
*
* @return The {@code Class} object that represents the runtime
*         class of this object.
* @jls 15.8.2 Class Literals
*/
public final native Class<?> getClass(); //返回一个对象的运行时类，通过返回的类对象可以获取运行时类的相关属性和方法，就是java的反射机制

/**
* Returns a hash code value for the object. This method is
* supported for the benefit of hash tables such as those provided by
* <p>
* The general contract of {@code hashCode} is:
* <ul>
* <li>Whenever it is invoked on the same object more than once during
*     an execution of a Java application, the {@code hashCode} method
*     must consistently return the same integer, provided no information
*     used in {@code equals} comparisons on the object is modified.
*     This integer need not remain consistent from one execution of an
*     application to another execution of the same application.
* <li>If two objects are equal according to the {@code equals(Object)}
*     method, then calling the {@code hashCode} method on each of
*     the two objects must produce the same integer result.
* <li>It is <em>not</em> required that if two objects are unequal
*     according to the {@link java.lang.Object#equals(java.lang.Object)}
*     method, then calling the {@code hashCode} method on each of the
*     two objects must produce distinct integer results.  However, the
*     programmer should be aware that producing distinct integer results
*     for unequal objects may improve the performance of hash tables.
* </ul>
* <p>
* As much as is reasonably practical, the hashCode method defined by
* class {@code Object} does return distinct integers for distinct
* objects. (This is typically implemented by converting the internal
* address of the object into an integer, but this implementation
* technique is not required by the
* Java™ programming language.)
*
* @return  a hash code value for this object.
* @see     java.lang.Object#equals(java.lang.Object)
* @see     java.lang.System#identityHashCode
*/
public native int hashCode(); //返回对象的散列码

/**
* Indicates【表明】 whether some other object is "equal to" this one.
* <p>
* The {@code equals} method implements an equivalence relation
* on non-null object references:
* <ul>
* <li>It is <i>reflexive</i>: 【自反性】for any non-null reference value
*     {@code x}, {@code x.equals(x)} should return
*     {@code true}.
* <li>It is <i>symmetric</i>: 【对称性】for any non-null reference values
*     {@code x} and {@code y}, {@code x.equals(y)}
*     should return {@code true} if and only if
*     {@code y.equals(x)} returns {@code true}.
* <li>It is <i>transitive</i>:【传递性】 for any non-null reference values
*     {@code x}, {@code y}, and {@code z}, if
*     {@code x.equals(y)} returns {@code true} and
*     {@code y.equals(z)} returns {@code true}, then
*     {@code x.equals(z)} should return {@code true}.
* <li>It is <i>consistent</i>:【一致性】 for any non-null reference values
*     {@code x} and {@code y}, multiple invocations of
*     {@code x.equals(y)} consistently return {@code true}
*     or consistently return {@code false}, provided no
*     information used in {@code equals} comparisons on the
*     objects is modified.在对象equals方法中所用信息没有被修改时，对于非空引用的多次比较返回始终或true或false
* <li>For any non-null reference value {@code x},
*     {@code x.equals(null)} should return {@code false}.非空引用x的x.equals(null)均返回false
* </ul>
* <p>
* The {@code equals} method for class {@code Object} implements
* the most discriminating【差别】 possible equivalence relation on objects;
* that is, for any non-null reference values {@code x} and
* {@code y}, this method returns {@code true} if and only
* if {@code x} and {@code y} refer to the same object
* ({@code x == y} has the value {@code true}).
* <p>
* Note that it is generally necessary to override the {@code hashCode}
* method whenever this method is overridden, so as to maintain the
* general contract for the {@code hashCode} method, which states
* that equal objects must have equal hash codes.
*
* @param   obj   the reference object with which to compare.
* @return  {@code true} if this object is the same as the obj
*          argument; {@code false} otherwise.
* @see     #hashCode()
* @see     java.util.HashMap
*/
public boolean equals(Object obj) {
return (this == obj); //判断两个对象是否相等，而==是判断两个两个对象的引用是否相等（或者在一些其他如基本类型中被用来比较两个值是否相等）
}

/**
* Creates and returns a copy of this object.  The precise meaning
* of "copy" may depend on the class of the object. The general
* intent【目的】 is that, for any object {@code x}, the expression:
* <blockquote>
* <pre>
* x.clone() != x</pre></blockquote>
* will be true, and that the expression:
* <blockquote>
* <pre>
* x.clone().getClass() == x.getClass()</pre></blockquote>
* will be {@code true}, but these are not absolute requirements.
* While it is typically the case that:
* <blockquote>
* <pre>
* x.clone().equals(x)</pre></blockquote>
* will be {@code true}, this is not an absolute requirement.
* <p>
* By convention【约定】, the returned object should be obtained by calling
* {@code super.clone}.  If a class and all of its superclasses (except
* {@code Object}) obey【服从】 this convention, it will be the case that
* {@code x.clone().getClass() == x.getClass()}.
* <p>
* By convention, the object returned by this method should be independent
* of this object (which is being cloned).  To achieve this independence,
* it may be necessary to modify one or more fields of the object returned
* by {@code super.clone} before returning it.  Typically, this means
* copying any mutable【易变的】 objects that comprise【由...组成】 the internal "deep structure"
* of the object being cloned and replacing the references to these
* objects with references to the copies.  If a class contains only
* primitive fields or references to immutable objects, then it is usually
* the case that no fields in the object returned by {@code super.clone}
* need to be modified.
* <p>
* The method {@code clone} for class {@code Object} performs a
* specific cloning operation. First, if the class of this object does
* not implement the interface {@code Cloneable}, then a
* {@code CloneNotSupportedException} is thrown. Note that all arrays
* are considered to implement the interface {@code Cloneable} and that
* the return type of the {@code clone} method of an array type {@code T[]}
* is {@code T[]} where T is any reference or primitive type.
* Otherwise, this method creates a new instance of the class of this
* object and initializes all its fields with exactly the contents of
* the corresponding fields of this object, as if by assignment; the
* contents of the fields are not themselves cloned. Thus, this method
* performs a "shallow copy" of this object, not a "deep copy" operation.
* <p>
* The class {@code Object} does not itself implement the interface
* {@code Cloneable}, so calling the {@code clone} method on an object
* whose class is {@code Object} will result in throwing an
* exception at run time.
*
* @return     a clone of this instance.
* @throws  CloneNotSupportedException  if the object's class does not
*               support the {@code Cloneable} interface. Subclasses
*               that override the {@code clone} method can also
*               throw this exception to indicate that an instance cannot
*               be cloned.
* @see java.lang.Cloneable
*/
protected native Object clone() throws CloneNotSupportedException;

/**
* Returns a string representation of the object. In general, the
* {@code toString} method returns a string that
* "textually represents" this object. The result should
* be a concise but informative representation that is easy for a
* It is recommended that all subclasses override this method.
* <p>
* The {@code toString} method for class {@code Object}
* returns a string consisting of the name of the class of which the
* object is an instance, the at-sign character {@code @}', and
* the unsigned hexadecimal representation of the hash code of the
* object. In other words, this method returns a string equal to the
* value of:
* <blockquote>
* <pre>
* getClass().getName() + '@' + Integer.toHexString(hashCode())
* </pre></blockquote>
*
* @return  a string representation of the object.
*/
public String toString() {
return getClass().getName() + "@" + Integer.toHexString(hashCode());
}

/**
* Wakes up a single thread that is waiting on this object's
* monitor. If any threads are waiting on this object, one of them
* is chosen to be awakened. The choice is arbitrary and occurs at
* the discretion of the implementation. A thread waits on an object's
* monitor by calling one of the {@code wait} methods.
* <p>
* The awakened thread will not be able to proceed until the current
* thread relinquishes the lock on this object. The awakened thread will
* compete in the usual manner with any other threads that might be
* actively competing to synchronize on this object; for example, the
* the next thread to lock this object.
* <p>
* This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner
* of this object's monitor. A thread becomes the owner of the
* object's monitor in one of three ways:
* <ul>
* <li>By executing a synchronized instance method of that object.
* <li>By executing the body of a {@code synchronized} statement
*     that synchronizes on the object.
* <li>For objects of type {@code Class,} by executing a
*     synchronized static method of that class.
* </ul>
* <p>
* Only one thread at a time can own an object's monitor.
*
* @throws  IllegalMonitorStateException  if the current thread is not
*               the owner of this object's monitor.
* @see        java.lang.Object#notifyAll()
* @see        java.lang.Object#wait()
*/
public final native void notify();

/**
* Wakes up all threads that are waiting on this object's monitor. A
* thread waits on an object's monitor by calling one of the
* {@code wait} methods.
* <p>
* The awakened threads will not be able to proceed until the current
* will compete in the usual manner with any other threads that might
* be actively competing to synchronize on this object; for example,
* being the next thread to lock this object.
* <p>
* This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner
* of this object's monitor. See the {@code notify} method for a
* description of the ways in which a thread can become the owner of
* a monitor.
*
* @throws  IllegalMonitorStateException  if the current thread is not
*               the owner of this object's monitor.
* @see        java.lang.Object#notify()
* @see        java.lang.Object#wait()
*/
public final native void notifyAll();

/**
* Causes the current thread to wait until either another thread invokes the
* {@link java.lang.Object#notify()} method or the
* {@link java.lang.Object#notifyAll()} method for this object, or a
* specified amount of time has elapsed.
* <p>
* The current thread must own this object's monitor.
* <p>
* This method causes the current thread (call it <var>T</var>) to
* place itself in the wait set for this object and then to relinquish
* any and all synchronization claims on this object. Thread <var>T</var>
* becomes disabled for thread scheduling purposes and lies dormant
* until one of four things happens:
* <ul>
* <li>Some other thread invokes the {@code notify} method for this
* object and thread <var>T</var> happens to be arbitrarily chosen as
* the thread to be awakened.
* <li>Some other thread invokes the {@code notifyAll} method for this
* object.
* <li>The specified amount of real time has elapsed, more or less.  If
* {@code timeout} is zero, however, then real time is not taken into
* consideration and the thread simply waits until notified.
* </ul>
* The thread <var>T</var> is then removed from the wait set for this
* object and re-enabled for thread scheduling. It then competes in the
* usual manner with other threads for the right to synchronize on the
* object; once it has gained control of the object, all its
* synchronization claims on the object are restored to the status quo
* ante - that is, to the situation as of the time that the {@code wait}
* method was invoked. Thread <var>T</var> then returns from the
* invocation of the {@code wait} method. Thus, on return from the
* {@code wait} method, the synchronization state of the object and of
* thread {@code T} is exactly as it was when the {@code wait} method
* was invoked.
* <p>
* A thread can also wake up without being notified, interrupted, or
* timing out, a so-called <i>spurious wakeup</i>.  While this will rarely
* occur in practice, applications must guard against it by testing for
* the condition that should have caused the thread to be awakened, and
* continuing to wait if the condition is not satisfied.  In other words,
* waits should always occur in loops, like this one:
* <pre>
*     synchronized (obj) {
*         while (<condition does not hold>)
*             obj.wait(timeout);
*         ... // Perform action appropriate to condition
*     }
* </pre>
* (For more information on this topic, see Section 3.2.3 in Doug Lea's
* "Concurrent Programming in Java (Second Edition)" (Addison-Wesley,
* 2000), or Item 50 in Joshua Bloch's "Effective Java Programming
*
* interrupted} by any thread before or while it is waiting, then an
* {@code InterruptedException} is thrown.  This exception is not
* thrown until the lock status of this object has been restored as
* described above.
*
* <p>
* Note that the {@code wait} method, as it places the current thread
* into the wait set for this object, unlocks only this object; any
* other objects on which the current thread may be synchronized remain
* locked while the thread waits.
* <p>
* This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner
* of this object's monitor. See the {@code notify} method for a
* description of the ways in which a thread can become the owner of
* a monitor.
*
* @param      timeout   the maximum time to wait in milliseconds.
* @throws  IllegalArgumentException      if the value of timeout is
*               negative.
* @throws  IllegalMonitorStateException  if the current thread is not
*               the owner of the object's monitor.
* @throws  InterruptedException if any thread interrupted the
*             was waiting for a notification.  The <i>interrupted
*             status</i> of the current thread is cleared when
*             this exception is thrown.
* @see        java.lang.Object#notify()
* @see        java.lang.Object#notifyAll()
*/
public final native void wait(long timeout) throws InterruptedException;

/**
* Causes the current thread to wait until another thread invokes the
* {@link java.lang.Object#notify()} method or the
* {@link java.lang.Object#notifyAll()} method for this object, or
* amount of real time has elapsed.
* <p>
* This method is similar to the {@code wait} method of one
* argument, but it allows finer control over the amount of time to
* wait for a notification before giving up. The amount of real time,
* measured in nanoseconds, is given by:
* <blockquote>
* <pre>
* 1000000*timeout+nanos</pre></blockquote>
* <p>
* In all other respects, this method does the same thing as the
* method {@link #wait(long)} of one argument. In particular,
* {@code wait(0, 0)} means the same thing as {@code wait(0)}.
* <p>
* releases ownership of this monitor and waits until either of the
* following two conditions has occurred:
* <ul>
*     to wake up either through a call to the {@code notify} method
*     or the {@code notifyAll} method.
* <li>The timeout period, specified by {@code timeout}
*     milliseconds plus {@code nanos} nanoseconds arguments, has
*     elapsed.
* </ul>
* <p>
* The thread then waits until it can re-obtain ownership of the
* monitor and resumes execution.
* <p>
* As in the one argument version, interrupts and spurious wakeups are
* possible, and this method should always be used in a loop:
* <pre>
*     synchronized (obj) {
*         while (<condition does not hold>)
*             obj.wait(timeout, nanos);
*         ... // Perform action appropriate to condition
*     }
* </pre>
* This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner
* of this object's monitor. See the {@code notify} method for a
* description of the ways in which a thread can become the owner of
* a monitor.
*
* @param      timeout   the maximum time to wait in milliseconds.
* @param      nanos      additional time, in nanoseconds range
*                       0-999999.
* @throws  IllegalArgumentException      if the value of timeout is
*                      negative or the value of nanos is
*                      not in the range 0-999999.
* @throws  IllegalMonitorStateException  if the current thread is not
*               the owner of this object's monitor.
* @throws  InterruptedException if any thread interrupted the
*             was waiting for a notification.  The <i>interrupted
*             status</i> of the current thread is cleared when
*             this exception is thrown.
*/
public final void wait(long timeout, int nanos) throws InterruptedException {
if (timeout < 0) {
throw new IllegalArgumentException("timeout value is negative");
}

if (nanos < 0 || nanos > 999999) {
throw new IllegalArgumentException(
"nanosecond timeout value out of range");
}

if (nanos > 0) {
timeout++;
}

wait(timeout);
}

/**
* Causes the current thread to wait until another thread invokes the
* {@link java.lang.Object#notify()} method or the
* {@link java.lang.Object#notifyAll()} method for this object.
* In other words, this method behaves exactly as if it simply
* performs the call {@code wait(0)}.
* <p>
* releases ownership of this monitor and waits until another thread
* notifies threads waiting on this object's monitor to wake up
* either through a call to the {@code notify} method or the
* {@code notifyAll} method. The thread then waits until it can
* re-obtain ownership of the monitor and resumes execution.
* <p>
* As in the one argument version, interrupts and spurious wakeups are
* possible, and this method should always be used in a loop:
* <pre>
*     synchronized (obj) {
*         while (<condition does not hold>)
*             obj.wait();
*         ... // Perform action appropriate to condition
*     }
* </pre>
* This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner
* of this object's monitor. See the {@code notify} method for a
* description of the ways in which a thread can become the owner of
* a monitor.
*
* @throws  IllegalMonitorStateException  if the current thread is not
*               the owner of the object's monitor.
* @throws  InterruptedException if any thread interrupted the
*             was waiting for a notification.  The <i>interrupted
*             status</i> of the current thread is cleared when
*             this exception is thrown.
* @see        java.lang.Object#notify()
* @see        java.lang.Object#notifyAll()
*/
public final void wait() throws InterruptedException {
wait(0);
}

/**
* Called by the garbage collector on an object when garbage collection
* determines that there are no more references to the object.
* A subclass overrides the {@code finalize} method to dispose of
* system resources or to perform other cleanup.
* <p>
* The general contract of {@code finalize} is that it is invoked
* if and when the Java™ virtual
* machine has determined that there is no longer any
* means by which this object can be accessed by any thread that has
* not yet died, except as a result of an action taken by the
* finalization of some other object or class which is ready to be
* finalized. The {@code finalize} method may take any action, including
* making this object available again to other threads; the usual purpose
* of {@code finalize}, however, is to perform cleanup actions before
* the object is irrevocably discarded. For example, the finalize method
* for an object that represents an input/output connection might perform
* explicit I/O transactions to break the connection before the object is
* <p>
* The {@code finalize} method of class {@code Object} performs no
* special action; it simply returns normally. Subclasses of
* {@code Object} may override this definition.
* <p>
* The Java programming language does not guarantee which thread will
* invoke the {@code finalize} method for any given object. It is
* guaranteed, however, that the thread that invokes finalize will not
* be holding any user-visible synchronization locks when finalize is
* invoked. If an uncaught exception is thrown by the finalize method,
* the exception is ignored and finalization of that object terminates.
* <p>
* After the {@code finalize} method has been invoked for an object, no
* further action is taken until the Java virtual machine has again
* determined that there is no longer any means by which this object can
* be accessed by any thread that has not yet died, including possible
* actions by other objects or classes which are ready to be finalized,
* at which point the object may be discarded.
* <p>
* The {@code finalize} method is never invoked more than once by a Java
* virtual machine for any given object.
* <p>
* Any exception thrown by the {@code finalize} method causes
* the finalization of this object to be halted, but is otherwise
* ignored.
*
* @throws Throwable the {@code Exception} raised by this method
* @see java.lang.ref.WeakReference
* @see java.lang.ref.PhantomReference
* @jls 12.6 Finalization of Class Instances
*/
protected void finalize() throws Throwable { }
}
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