scrapy-redis分布式爬虫原理分析

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/zzk1995/article/details/51786558

scrapy是python的一个非常好用的爬虫库,功能非常强大,但是当我们要爬取的页面非常多的时候,单个主机的处理能力就不能满足我们的需求了(无论是处理速度还是网络请求的并发数),这时候分布式爬虫的优势就显现出来,人多力量大。而scrapy-redis就是结合了分布式数据库redis,重写了scrapy一些比较关键的代码,将scrapy变成一个可以在多个主机上同时运行的分布式爬虫。
scrapy-redis是github上的一个开源项目,可以直接下载到他的源代码:
https://github.com/rolando/scrapy-redis
scrapy-redis的官方文档写的比较简洁,没有提及其运行原理,所以如果想全面的理解分布式爬虫的运行原理,还是得看scrapy-redis的源代码才行(还得先理解scrapy的运行原理,不然看scrapy-redis还是比较费劲),不过scrapy-redis的源代码很少,也比较好懂,很快就能看完。
scrapy-redis工程的主体还是是redis和scrapy两个库,工程本身实现的东西不是很多,这个工程就像胶水一样,把这两个插件粘结了起来。下面我们来看看,scrapy-redis的每一个源代码文件都实现了什么功能,最后如何实现分布式的爬虫系统:

connect.py

import redis
import six

from scrapy.utils.misc import load_object


DEFAULT_REDIS_CLS = redis.StrictRedis


# Sane connection defaults.
DEFAULT_PARAMS = {
    'socket_timeout': 30,
    'socket_connect_timeout': 30,
    'retry_on_timeout': True,
}

# Shortcut maps 'setting name' -> 'parmater name'.
SETTINGS_PARAMS_MAP = {
    'REDIS_URL': 'url',
    'REDIS_HOST': 'host',
    'REDIS_PORT': 'port',
}


def get_redis_from_settings(settings):
    """Returns a redis client instance from given Scrapy settings object.

    This function uses ``get_client`` to instantiate the client and uses
    ``DEFAULT_PARAMS`` global as defaults values for the parameters. You can
    override them using the ``REDIS_PARAMS`` setting.

    Parameters
    ----------
    settings : Settings
        A scrapy settings object. See the supported settings below.

    Returns
    -------
    server
        Redis client instance.

    Other Parameters
    ----------------
    REDIS_URL : str, optional
        Server connection URL.
    REDIS_HOST : str, optional
        Server host.
    REDIS_PORT : str, optional
        Server port.
    REDIS_PARAMS : dict, optional
        Additional client parameters.

    """
    params = DEFAULT_PARAMS.copy()
    params.update(settings.getdict('REDIS_PARAMS'))
    # XXX: Deprecate REDIS_* settings.
    for source, dest in SETTINGS_PARAMS_MAP.items():
        val = settings.get(source)
        if val:
            params[dest] = val

    # Allow ``redis_cls`` to be a path to a class.
    if isinstance(params.get('redis_cls'), six.string_types):
        params['redis_cls'] = load_object(params['redis_cls'])

    return get_redis(**params)


# Backwards compatible alias.
from_settings = get_redis_from_settings


def get_redis(**kwargs):
    """Returns a redis client instance.

    Parameters
    ----------
    redis_cls : class, optional
        Defaults to ``redis.StrictRedis``.
    url : str, optional
        If given, ``redis_cls.from_url`` is used to instantiate the class.
    **kwargs
        Extra parameters to be passed to the ``redis_cls`` class.

    Returns
    -------
    server
        Redis client instance.

    """
    redis_cls = kwargs.pop('redis_cls', DEFAULT_REDIS_CLS)
    url = kwargs.pop('url', None)
    if url:
        return redis_cls.from_url(url, **kwargs)
    else:
        return redis_cls(**kwargs)

connect文件引入了redis模块,这个是redis-python库的接口,用于通过python访问redis数据库,可见,这个文件主要是实现连接redis数据库的功能(返回的是redis库的Redis对象或者StrictRedis对象,这俩都是可以直接用来进行数据操作的对象)。这些连接接口在其他文件中经常被用到。其中,我们可以看到,要想连接到redis数据库,和其他数据库差不多,需要一个ip地址、端口号、用户名密码(可选)和一个整形的数据库编号,同时我们还可以在scrapy工程的setting文件中配置套接字的超时时间、等待时间等。

dupefilters.py

import logging
import time

from scrapy.dupefilters import BaseDupeFilter
from scrapy.utils.request import request_fingerprint

from .connection import get_redis_from_settings


DEFAULT_DUPEFILTER_KEY = "dupefilter:%(timestamp)s"

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)


# TODO: Rename class to RedisDupeFilter.
class RFPDupeFilter(BaseDupeFilter):
    """Redis-based request duplicates filter.

    This class can also be used with default Scrapy's scheduler.

    """

    logger = logger

    def __init__(self, server, key, debug=False):
        """Initialize the duplicates filter.

        Parameters
        ----------
        server : redis.StrictRedis
            The redis server instance.
        key : str
            Redis key Where to store fingerprints.
        debug : bool, optional
            Whether to log filtered requests.

        """
        self.server = server
        self.key = key
        self.debug = debug
        self.logdupes = True

    @classmethod
    def from_settings(cls, settings):
        """Returns an instance from given settings.

        This uses by default the key ``dupefilter:<timestamp>``. When using the
        ``scrapy_redis.scheduler.Scheduler`` class, this method is not used as
        it needs to pass the spider name in the key.

        Parameters
        ----------
        settings : scrapy.settings.Settings

        Returns
        -------
        RFPDupeFilter
            A RFPDupeFilter instance.


        """
        server = get_redis_from_settings(settings)
        # XXX: This creates one-time key. needed to support to use this
        # class as standalone dupefilter with scrapy's default scheduler
        # if scrapy passes spider on open() method this wouldn't be needed
        # TODO: Use SCRAPY_JOB env as default and fallback to timestamp.
        key = DEFAULT_DUPEFILTER_KEY % {'timestamp': int(time.time())}
        debug = settings.getbool('DUPEFILTER_DEBUG')
        return cls(server, key=key, debug=debug)

    @classmethod
    def from_crawler(cls, crawler):
        """Returns instance from crawler.

        Parameters
        ----------
        crawler : scrapy.crawler.Crawler

        Returns
        -------
        RFPDupeFilter
            Instance of RFPDupeFilter.

        """
        return cls.from_settings(crawler.settings)

    def request_seen(self, request):
        """Returns True if request was already seen.

        Parameters
        ----------
        request : scrapy.http.Request

        Returns
        -------
        bool

        """
        fp = self.request_fingerprint(request)
        # This returns the number of values added, zero if already exists.
        added = self.server.sadd(self.key, fp)
        return added == 0

    def request_fingerprint(self, request):
        """Returns a fingerprint for a given request.

        Parameters
        ----------
        request : scrapy.http.Request

        Returns
        -------
        str

        """
        return request_fingerprint(request)

    def close(self, reason=''):
        """Delete data on close. Called by Scrapy's scheduler.

        Parameters
        ----------
        reason : str, optional

        """
        self.clear()

    def clear(self):
        """Clears fingerprints data."""
        self.server.delete(self.key)

    def log(self, request, spider):
        """Logs given request.

        Parameters
        ----------
        request : scrapy.http.Request
        spider : scrapy.spiders.Spider

        """
        if self.debug:
            msg = "Filtered duplicate request: %(request)s"
            self.logger.debug(msg, {'request': request}, extra={'spider': spider})
        elif self.logdupes:
            msg = ("Filtered duplicate request %(request)s"
                   " - no more duplicates will be shown"
                   " (see DUPEFILTER_DEBUG to show all duplicates)")
            msg = "Filtered duplicate request: %(request)s"
            self.logger.debug(msg, {'request': request}, extra={'spider': spider})
            self.logdupes = False

这个文件看起来比较复杂,重写了scrapy本身已经实现的request判重功能。因为本身scrapy单机跑的话,只需要读取内存中的request队列或者持久化的request队列(scrapy默认的持久化似乎是json格式的文件,不是数据库)就能判断这次要发出的request url是否已经请求过或者正在调度(本地读就行了)。而分布式跑的话,就需要各个主机上的scheduler都连接同一个数据库的同一个request池来判断这次的请求是否是重复的了。
在这个文件中,通过继承BaseDupeFilter重写他的方法,实现了基于redis的判重。根据源代码来看,scrapy-redis使用了scrapy本身的一个fingerprint接request_fingerprint,这个接口很有趣,根据scrapy文档所说,他通过hash来判断两个url是否相同(相同的url会生成相同的hash结果),但是当两个url的地址相同,get型参数相同但是顺序不同时,也会生成相同的hash结果(这个真的比较神奇。。。)所以scrapy-redis依旧使用url的fingerprint来判断request请求是否已经出现过。这个类通过连接redis,使用一个key来向redis的一个set中插入fingerprint(这个key对于同一种spider是相同的,redis是一个key-value的数据库,如果key是相同的,访问到的值就是相同的,这里使用spider名字+DupeFilter的key就是为了在不同主机上的不同爬虫实例,只要属于同一种spider,就会访问到同一个set,而这个set就是他们的url判重池),如果返回值为0,说明该set中该fingerprint已经存在(因为集合是没有重复值的),则返回False,如果返回值为1,说明添加了一个fingerprint到set中,则说明这个request没有重复,于是返回True,还顺便把新fingerprint加入到数据库中了。
DupeFilter判重会在scheduler类中用到,每一个request在进入调度之前都要进行判重,如果重复就不需要参加调度,直接舍弃就好了,不然就是白白浪费资源。

picklecompat.py

"""A pickle wrapper module with protocol=-1 by default."""

try:
    import cPickle as pickle  # PY2
except ImportError:
    import pickle


def loads(s):
    return pickle.loads(s)


def dumps(obj):
    return pickle.dumps(obj, protocol=-1)

这里实现了loads和dumps两个函数,其实就是实现了一个serializer,因为redis数据库不能存储复杂对象(value部分只能是字符串,字符串列表,字符串集合和hash,key部分只能是字符串),所以我们存啥都要先串行化成文本才行。这里使用的就是python的pickle模块,一个兼容py2和py3的串行化工具。这个serializer主要用于一会的scheduler存reuqest对象,至于为什么不实用json格式,我也不是很懂,item pipeline的串行化默认用的就是json。

pipeline.py

from scrapy.utils.misc import load_object
from scrapy.utils.serialize import ScrapyJSONEncoder
from twisted.internet.threads import deferToThread

from . import connection


default_serialize = ScrapyJSONEncoder().encode


class RedisPipeline(object):
    """Pushes serialized item into a redis list/queue"""

    def __init__(self, server,
                 key='%(spider)s:items',
                 serialize_func=default_serialize):
        self.server = server
        self.key = key
        self.serialize = serialize_func

    @classmethod
    def from_settings(cls, settings):
        params = {
            'server': connection.from_settings(settings),
        }
        if settings.get('REDIS_ITEMS_KEY'):
            params['key'] = settings['REDIS_ITEMS_KEY']
        if settings.get('REDIS_ITEMS_SERIALIZER'):
            params['serialize_func'] = load_object(
                settings['REDIS_ITEMS_SERIALIZER']
            )

        return cls(**params)

    @classmethod
    def from_crawler(cls, crawler):
        return cls.from_settings(crawler.settings)

    def process_item(self, item, spider):
        return deferToThread(self._process_item, item, spider)

    def _process_item(self, item, spider):
        key = self.item_key(item, spider)
        data = self.serialize(item)
        self.server.rpush(key, data)
        return item

    def item_key(self, item, spider):
        """Returns redis key based on given spider.

        Override this function to use a different key depending on the item
        and/or spider.

        """
        return self.key % {'spider': spider.name}

pipeline文件实现了一个item pipieline类,和scrapy的item pipeline是同一个对象,通过从settings中拿到我们配置的REDIS_ITEMS_KEY作为key,把item串行化之后存入redis数据库对应的value中(这个value可以看出出是个list,我们的每个item是这个list中的一个结点),这个pipeline把提取出的item存起来,主要是为了方便我们延后处理数据。

queue.py

from scrapy.utils.reqser import request_to_dict, request_from_dict

from . import picklecompat


class Base(object):
    """Per-spider queue/stack base class"""

    def __init__(self, server, spider, key, serializer=None):
        """Initialize per-spider redis queue.

        Parameters:
            server -- redis connection
            spider -- spider instance
            key -- key for this queue (e.g. "%(spider)s:queue")

        """
        if serializer is None:
            # Backward compatibility.
            # TODO: deprecate pickle.
            serializer = picklecompat
        if not hasattr(serializer, 'loads'):
            raise TypeError("serializer does not implement 'loads' function: %r"
                            % serializer)
        if not hasattr(serializer, 'dumps'):
            raise TypeError("serializer '%s' does not implement 'dumps' function: %r"
                            % serializer)

        self.server = server
        self.spider = spider
        self.key = key % {'spider': spider.name}
        self.serializer = serializer

    def _encode_request(self, request):
        """Encode a request object"""
        obj = request_to_dict(request, self.spider)
        return self.serializer.dumps(obj)

    def _decode_request(self, encoded_request):
        """Decode an request previously encoded"""
        obj = self.serializer.loads(encoded_request)
        return request_from_dict(obj, self.spider)

    def __len__(self):
        """Return the length of the queue"""
        raise NotImplementedError

    def push(self, request):
        """Push a request"""
        raise NotImplementedError

    def pop(self, timeout=0):
        """Pop a request"""
        raise NotImplementedError

    def clear(self):
        """Clear queue/stack"""
        self.server.delete(self.key)


class SpiderQueue(Base):
    """Per-spider FIFO queue"""

    def __len__(self):
        """Return the length of the queue"""
        return self.server.llen(self.key)

    def push(self, request):
        """Push a request"""
        self.server.lpush(self.key, self._encode_request(request))

    def pop(self, timeout=0):
        """Pop a request"""
        if timeout > 0:
            data = self.server.brpop(self.key, timeout)
            if isinstance(data, tuple):
                data = data[1]
        else:
            data = self.server.rpop(self.key)
        if data:
            return self._decode_request(data)


class SpiderPriorityQueue(Base):
    """Per-spider priority queue abstraction using redis' sorted set"""

    def __len__(self):
        """Return the length of the queue"""
        return self.server.zcard(self.key)

    def push(self, request):
        """Push a request"""
        data = self._encode_request(request)
        score = -request.priority
        # We don't use zadd method as the order of arguments change depending on
        # whether the class is Redis or StrictRedis, and the option of using
        # kwargs only accepts strings, not bytes.
        self.server.execute_command('ZADD', self.key, score, data)

    def pop(self, timeout=0):
        """
        Pop a request
        timeout not support in this queue class
        """
        # use atomic range/remove using multi/exec
        pipe = self.server.pipeline()
        pipe.multi()
        pipe.zrange(self.key, 0, 0).zremrangebyrank(self.key, 0, 0)
        results, count = pipe.execute()
        if results:
            return self._decode_request(results[0])


class SpiderStack(Base):
    """Per-spider stack"""

    def __len__(self):
        """Return the length of the stack"""
        return self.server.llen(self.key)

    def push(self, request):
        """Push a request"""
        self.server.lpush(self.key, self._encode_request(request))

    def pop(self, timeout=0):
        """Pop a request"""
        if timeout > 0:
            data = self.server.blpop(self.key, timeout)
            if isinstance(data, tuple):
                data = data[1]
        else:
            data = self.server.lpop(self.key)

        if data:
            return self._decode_request(data)


__all__ = ['SpiderQueue', 'SpiderPriorityQueue', 'SpiderStack']

该文件实现了几个容器类,可以看这些容器和redis交互频繁,同时使用了我们上边picklecompat中定义的serializer。这个文件实现的几个容器大体相同,只不过一个是队列,一个是栈,一个是优先级队列,这三个容器到时候会被scheduler对象实例化,来实现request的调度。比如我们使用SpiderQueue最为调度队列的类型,到时候request的调度方法就是先进先出,而实用SpiderStack就是先进后出了。
我们可以仔细看看SpiderQueue的实现,他的push函数就和其他容器的一样,只不过push进去的request请求先被scrapy的接口request_to_dict变成了一个dict对象(因为request对象实在是比较复杂,有方法有属性不好串行化),之后使用picklecompat中的serializer串行化为字符串,然后使用一个特定的key存入redis中(该key在同一种spider中是相同的)。而调用pop时,其实就是从redis用那个特定的key去读其值(一个list),从list中读取最早进去的那个,于是就先进先出了。
这些容器类都会作为scheduler调度request的容器,scheduler在每个主机上都会实例化一个,并且和spider一一对应,所以分布式运行时会有一个spider的多个实例和一个scheduler的多个实例存在于不同的主机上,但是,因为scheduler都是用相同的容器,而这些容器都连接同一个redis服务器,又都使用spider名加queue来作为key读写数据,所以不同主机上的不同爬虫实例公用一个request调度池,实现了分布式爬虫之间的统一调度。

scheduler.py

import importlib
import six

from scrapy.utils.misc import load_object

from . import connection


# TODO: add SCRAPY_JOB support.
class Scheduler(object):
    """Redis-based scheduler"""

    def __init__(self, server,
                 persist=False,
                 flush_on_start=False,
                 queue_key='%(spider)s:requests',
                 queue_cls='scrapy_redis.queue.SpiderPriorityQueue',
                 dupefilter_key='%(spider)s:dupefilter',
                 dupefilter_cls='scrapy_redis.dupefilter.RFPDupeFilter',
                 idle_before_close=0,
                 serializer=None):
        """Initialize scheduler.

        Parameters
        ----------
        server : Redis
            The redis server instance.
        persist : bool
            Whether to flush requests when closing. Default is False.
        flush_on_start : bool
            Whether to flush requests on start. Default is False.
        queue_key : str
            Requests queue key.
        queue_cls : str
            Importable path to the queue class.
        dupefilter_key : str
            Duplicates filter key.
        dupefilter_cls : str
            Importable path to the dupefilter class.
        idle_before_close : int
            Timeout before giving up.

        """
        if idle_before_close < 0:
            raise TypeError("idle_before_close cannot be negative")

        self.server = server
        self.persist = persist
        self.flush_on_start = flush_on_start
        self.queue_key = queue_key
        self.queue_cls = queue_cls
        self.dupefilter_cls = dupefilter_cls
        self.dupefilter_key = dupefilter_key
        self.idle_before_close = idle_before_close
        self.serializer = serializer
        self.stats = None

    def __len__(self):
        return len(self.queue)

    @classmethod
    def from_settings(cls, settings):
        kwargs = {
            'persist': settings.getbool('SCHEDULER_PERSIST'),
            'flush_on_start': settings.getbool('SCHEDULER_FLUSH_ON_START'),
            'idle_before_close': settings.getint('SCHEDULER_IDLE_BEFORE_CLOSE'),
        }

        # If these values are missing, it means we want to use the defaults.
        optional = {
            # TODO: Use custom prefixes for this settings to note that are
            # specific to scrapy-redis.
            'queue_key': 'SCHEDULER_QUEUE_KEY',
            'queue_cls': 'SCHEDULER_QUEUE_CLASS',
            'dupefilter_key': 'SCHEDULER_DUPEFILTER_KEY',
            # We use the default setting name to keep compatibility.
            'dupefilter_cls': 'DUPEFILTER_CLASS',
            'serializer': 'SCHEDULER_SERIALIZER',
        }
        for name, setting_name in optional.items():
            val = settings.get(setting_name)
            if val:
                kwargs[name] = val

        # Support serializer as a path to a module.
        if isinstance(kwargs.get('serializer'), six.string_types):
            kwargs['serializer'] = importlib.import_module(kwargs['serializer'])

        server = connection.from_settings(settings)
        # Ensure the connection is working.
        server.ping()

        return cls(server=server, **kwargs)

    @classmethod
    def from_crawler(cls, crawler):
        instance = cls.from_settings(crawler.settings)
        # FIXME: for now, stats are only supported from this constructor
        instance.stats = crawler.stats
        return instance

    def open(self, spider):
        self.spider = spider

        try:
            self.queue = load_object(self.queue_cls)(
                server=self.server,
                spider=spider,
                key=self.queue_key % {'spider': spider.name},
                serializer=self.serializer,
            )
        except TypeError as e:
            raise ValueError("Failed to instantiate queue class '%s': %s",
                             self.queue_cls, e)

        try:
            self.df = load_object(self.dupefilter_cls)(
                server=self.server,
                key=self.dupefilter_key % {'spider': spider.name},
                debug=spider.settings.getbool('DUPEFILTER_DEBUG'),
            )
        except TypeError as e:
            raise ValueError("Failed to instantiate dupefilter class '%s': %s",
                             self.dupefilter_cls, e)

        if self.flush_on_start:
            self.flush()
        # notice if there are requests already in the queue to resume the crawl
        if len(self.queue):
            spider.log("Resuming crawl (%d requests scheduled)" % len(self.queue))

    def close(self, reason):
        if not self.persist:
            self.flush()

    def flush(self):
        self.df.clear()
        self.queue.clear()

    def enqueue_request(self, request):
        if not request.dont_filter and self.df.request_seen(request):
            self.df.log(request, self.spider)
            return False
        if self.stats:
            self.stats.inc_value('scheduler/enqueued/redis', spider=self.spider)
        self.queue.push(request)
        return True

    def next_request(self):
        block_pop_timeout = self.idle_before_close
        request = self.queue.pop(block_pop_timeout)
        if request and self.stats:
            self.stats.inc_value('scheduler/dequeued/redis', spider=self.spider)
        return request

    def has_pending_requests(self):
        return len(self) > 0

这个文件重写了scheduler类,用来代替scrapy.core.scheduler的原有调度器。其实对原有调度器的逻辑没有很大的改变,主要是使用了redis作为数据存储的媒介,以达到各个爬虫之间的统一调度。
scheduler负责调度各个spider的request请求,scheduler初始化时,通过settings文件读取queue和dupefilters的类型(一般就用上边默认的),配置queue和dupefilters使用的key(一般就是spider name加上queue或者dupefilters,这样对于同一种spider的不同实例,就会使用相同的数据块了)。每当一个request要被调度时,enqueue_request被调用,scheduler使用dupefilters来判断这个url是否重复,如果不重复,就添加到queue的容器中(先进先出,先进后出和优先级都可以,可以在settings中配置)。当调度完成时,next_request被调用,scheduler就通过queue容器的接口,取出一个request,把他发送给相应的spider,让spider进行爬取工作。
同时我们可以看到,如果setting文件中配置了SCHEDULER_PERSIST为True,那么在爬虫关闭的时候scheduler会调用自己的flush函数把redis数据库中的判重和调度池全部清空,使得我们的爬取进度完全丢失(但是item没有丢失,item数据在另一个键中储存)。如果设置SCHEDULER_PERSIST为False,爬虫关闭后,判重池和调度池仍然存在于redis数据库中,则我们再次开启爬虫时,可以接着上一次的进度继续爬取。

spider.py

from scrapy import signals
from scrapy.exceptions import DontCloseSpider
from scrapy.spiders import Spider, CrawlSpider

from . import connection


class RedisMixin(object):
    """Mixin class to implement reading urls from a redis queue."""
    redis_key = None  # If empty, uses default '<spider>:start_urls'.
    # Fetch this amount of start urls when idle.
    redis_batch_size = 100
    # Redis client instance.
    server = None

    def start_requests(self):
        """Returns a batch of start requests from redis."""
        return self.next_requests()

    def setup_redis(self, crawler=None):
        """Setup redis connection and idle signal.

        This should be called after the spider has set its crawler object.
        """
        if self.server is not None:
            return

        if crawler is None:
            # We allow optional crawler argument to keep backwrads
            # compatibility.
            # XXX: Raise a deprecation warning.
            assert self.crawler, "crawler not set"
            crawler = self.crawler

        if not self.redis_key:
            self.redis_key = '%s:start_urls' % self.name
        self.log("Reading URLs from redis key '%s'" % self.redis_key)

        self.redis_batch_size = self.settings.getint(
            'REDIS_START_URLS_BATCH_SIZE',
            self.redis_batch_size,
        )

        self.server = connection.from_settings(crawler.settings)
        # The idle signal is called when the spider has no requests left,
        # that's when we will schedule new requests from redis queue
        crawler.signals.connect(self.spider_idle, signal=signals.spider_idle)

    def next_requests(self):
        """Returns a request to be scheduled or none."""
        use_set = self.settings.getbool('REDIS_START_URLS_AS_SET')
        fetch_one = self.server.spop if use_set else self.server.lpop
        # XXX: Do we need to use a timeout here?
        found = 0
        while found < self.redis_batch_size:
            data = fetch_one(self.redis_key)
            if not data:
                # Queue empty.
                break
            yield self.make_request_from_data(data)
            found += 1

        if found:
            self.logger.debug("Read %s requests from '%s'", found, self.redis_key)

    def make_request_from_data(self, data):
        # By default, data is an URL.
        if '://' in data:
            return self.make_requests_from_url(data)
        else:
            self.logger.error("Unexpected URL from '%s': %r", self.redis_key, data)

    def schedule_next_requests(self):
        """Schedules a request if available"""
        for req in self.next_requests():
            self.crawler.engine.crawl(req, spider=self)

    def spider_idle(self):
        """Schedules a request if available, otherwise waits."""
        # XXX: Handle a sentinel to close the spider.
        self.schedule_next_requests()
        raise DontCloseSpider


class RedisSpider(RedisMixin, Spider):
    """Spider that reads urls from redis queue when idle."""

    @classmethod
    def from_crawler(self, crawler):
        obj = super(RedisSpider, self).from_crawler(crawler)
        obj.setup_redis(crawler)
        return obj


class RedisCrawlSpider(RedisMixin, CrawlSpider):
    """Spider that reads urls from redis queue when idle."""

    @classmethod
    def from_crawler(self, crawler):
        obj = super(RedisCrawlSpider, self).from_crawler(crawler)
        obj.setup_redis(crawler)
        return obj

spider的改动也不是很大,主要是通过connect接口,给spider绑定了spider_idle信号,spider初始化时,通过setup_redis函数初始化好和redis的连接,之后通过next_requests函数从redis中取出strat url,使用的key是settings中REDIS_START_URLS_AS_SET定义的(注意了这里的初始化url池和我们上边的queue的url池不是一个东西,queue的池是用于调度的,初始化url池是存放入口url的,他们都存在redis中,但是使用不同的key来区分,就当成是不同的表吧),spider使用少量的start url,可以发展出很多新的url,这些url会进入scheduler进行判重和调度。直到spider跑到调度池内没有url的时候,会触发spider_idle信号,从而触发spider的next_requests函数,再次从redis的start url池中读取一些url。

最后总结一下scrapy-redis的总体思路:这个工程通过重写scheduler和spider类,实现了调度、spider启动和redis的交互。实现新的dupefilter和queue类,达到了判重和调度容器和redis的交互,因为每个主机上的爬虫进程都访问同一个redis数据库,所以调度和判重都统一进行统一管理,达到了分布式爬虫的目的。
当spider被初始化时,同时会初始化一个对应的scheduler对象,这个调度器对象通过读取settings,配置好自己的调度容器queue和判重工具dupefilter。每当一个spider产出一个request的时候,scrapy内核会把这个reuqest递交给这个spider对应的scheduler对象进行调度,scheduler对象通过访问redis对request进行判重,如果不重复就把他添加进redis中的调度池。当调度条件满足时,scheduler对象就从redis的调度池中取出一个request发送给spider,让他爬取。当spider爬取的所有暂时可用url之后,scheduler发现这个spider对应的redis的调度池空了,于是触发信号spider_idle,spider收到这个信号之后,直接连接redis读取strart url池,拿去新的一批url入口,然后再次重复上边的工作。

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