Ajax: A New Approach to Web Applications

转载 2006年05月19日 19:01:00

by Jesse James Garrett

(From:http://www.adaptivepath.com/publications/essays/archives/000385.php

February 18, 2005

If anything about current interaction design can be called “glamorous,” it’s creating Web applications. After all, when was the last time you heard someone rave about the interaction design of a product that wasn’t on the Web? (Okay, besides the iPod.) All the cool, innovative new projects are online.

Despite this, Web interaction designers can’t help but feel a little envious of our colleagues who create desktop software. Desktop applications have a richness and responsiveness that has seemed out of reach on the Web. The same simplicity that enabled the Web’s rapid proliferation also creates a gap between the experiences we can provide and the experiences users can get from a desktop application.

That gap is closing. Take a look at Google Suggest. Watch the way the suggested terms update as you type, almost instantly. Now look at Google Maps. Zoom in. Use your cursor to grab the map and scroll around a bit. Again, everything happens almost instantly, with no waiting for pages to reload.

Google Suggest and Google Maps are two examples of a new approach to web applications that we at Adaptive Path have been calling Ajax. The name is shorthand for Asynchronous JavaScript + XML, and it represents a fundamental shift in what’s possible on the Web.

Defining Ajax

Ajax isn’t a technology. It’s really several technologies, each flourishing in its own right, coming together in powerful new ways. Ajax incorporates:

 

standards-based presentation using XHTML and CSS; dynamic display and interaction using the Document Object Model; data interchange and manipulation using XML and XSLT; asynchronous data retrieval using XMLHttpRequest; and JavaScript binding everything together.

The classic web application model works like this: Most user actions in the interface trigger an HTTP request back to a web server. The server does some processing — retrieving data, crunching numbers, talking to various legacy systems — and then returns an HTML page to the client. It’s a model adapted from the Web’s original use as a hypertext medium, but as fans of The Elements of User Experience know, what makes the Web good for hypertext doesn’t necessarily make it good for software applications.

Ajax Overview 1

Figure 1: The traditional model for web applications (left) compared to the Ajax model (right).

This approach makes a lot of technical sense, but it doesn’t make for a great user experience. While the server is doing its thing, what’s the user doing? That’s right, waiting. And at every step in a task, the user waits some more.

Obviously, if we were designing the Web from scratch for applications, we wouldn’t make users wait around. Once an interface is loaded, why should the user interaction come to a halt every time the application needs something from the server? In fact, why should the user see the application go to the server at all?

How Ajax is Different

An Ajax application eliminates the start-stop-start-stop nature of interaction on the Web by introducing an intermediary — an Ajax engine — between the user and the server. It seems like adding a layer to the application would make it less responsive, but the opposite is true.

Instead of loading a webpage, at the start of the session, the browser loads an Ajax engine — written in JavaScript and usually tucked away in a hidden frame. This engine is responsible for both rendering the interface the user sees and communicating with the server on the user’s behalf. The Ajax engine allows the user’s interaction with the application to happen asynchronously — independent of communication with the server. So the user is never staring at a blank browser window and an hourglass icon, waiting around for the server to do something.

Ajax Overview 2

Figure 2: The synchronous interaction pattern of a traditional web application (top) compared with the asynchronous pattern of an Ajax application (bottom).

Every user action that normally would generate an HTTP request takes the form of a JavaScript call to the Ajax engine instead. Any response to a user action that doesn’t require a trip back to the server — such as simple data validation, editing data in memory, and even some navigation — the engine handles on its own. If the engine needs something from the server in order to respond — if it’s submitting data for processing, loading additional interface code, or retrieving new data — the engine makes those requests asynchronously, usually using XML, without stalling a user’s interaction with the application.

Who’s Using Ajax

Google is making a huge investment in developing the Ajax approach. All of the major products Google has introduced over the last year — Orkut, Gmail, the latest beta version of Google Groups, Google Suggest, and Google Maps — are Ajax applications. (For more on the technical nuts and bolts of these Ajax implementations, check out these excellent analyses of Gmail, Google Suggest, and Google Maps.) Others are following suit: many of the features that people love in Flickr depend on Ajax, and Amazon’s A9.com search engine applies similar techniques.

These projects demonstrate that Ajax is not only technically sound, but also practical for real-world applications. This isn’t another technology that only works in a laboratory. And Ajax applications can be any size, from the very simple, single-function Google Suggest to the very complex and sophisticated Google Maps.

At Adaptive Path, we’ve been doing our own work with Ajax over the last several months, and we’re realizing we’ve only scratched the surface of the rich interaction and responsiveness that Ajax applications can provide. Ajax is an important development for Web applications, and its importance is only going to grow. And because there are so many developers out there who already know how to use these technologies, we expect to see many more organizations following Google’s lead in reaping the competitive advantage Ajax provides.

Moving Forward

The biggest challenges in creating Ajax applications are not technical. The core Ajax technologies are mature, stable, and well understood. Instead, the challenges are for the designers of these applications: to forget what we think we know about the limitations of the Web, and begin to imagine a wider, richer range of possibilities.

It’s going to be fun.


Ajax Q&A

March 13, 2005: Since we first published Jesse’s essay, we’ve received an enormous amount of correspondence from readers with questions about Ajax. In this Q&A, Jesse responds to some of the most common queries.

Q. Did Adaptive Path invent Ajax? Did Google? Did Adaptive Path help build Google’s Ajax applications?

A. Neither Adaptive Path nor Google invented Ajax. Google’s recent products are simply the highest-profile examples of Ajax applications. Adaptive Path was not involved in the development of Google’s Ajax applications, but we have been doing Ajax work for some of our other clients.

Q. Is Adaptive Path selling Ajax components or trademarking the name? Where can I download it?

A. Ajax isn’t something you can download. It’s an approach — a way of thinking about the architecture of web applications using certain technologies. Neither the Ajax name nor the approach are proprietary to Adaptive Path.

Q. Is Ajax just another name for XMLHttpRequest?

A. No. XMLHttpRequest is only part of the Ajax equation. XMLHttpRequest is the technical component that makes the asynchronous server communication possible; Ajax is our name for the overall approach described in the article, which relies not only on XMLHttpRequest, but on CSS, DOM, and other technologies.

Q. Why did you feel the need to give this a name?

A. I needed something shorter than “Asynchronous JavaScript+CSS+DOM+XMLHttpRequest” to use when discussing this approach with clients.

Q. Techniques for asynchronous server communication have been around for years. What makes Ajax a “new” approach?

A. What’s new is the prominent use of these techniques in real-world applications to change the fundamental interaction model of the Web. Ajax is taking hold now because these technologies and the industry’s understanding of how to deploy them most effectively have taken time to develop.

Q. Is Ajax a technology platform or is it an architectural style?

A. It’s both. Ajax is a set of technologies being used together in a particular way.

Q. What kinds of applications is Ajax best suited for?

A. We don’t know yet. Because this is a relatively new approach, our understanding of where Ajax can best be applied is still in its infancy. Sometimes the traditional web application model is the most appropriate solution to a problem.

Q. Does this mean Adaptive Path is anti-Flash?

A. Not at all. Macromedia is an Adaptive Path client, and we’ve long been supporters of Flash technology. As Ajax matures, we expect that sometimes Ajax will be the better solution to a particular problem, and sometimes Flash will be the better solution. We’re also interested in exploring ways the technologies can be mixed (as in the case of Flickr, which uses both).

Q. Does Ajax have significant accessibility or browser compatibility limitations? Do Ajax applications break the back button? Is Ajax compatible with REST? Are there security considerations with Ajax development? Can Ajax applications be made to work for users who have JavaScript turned off?

A. The answer to all of these questions is “maybe”. Many developers are already working on ways to address these concerns. We think there’s more work to be done to determine all the limitations of Ajax, and we expect the Ajax development community to uncover more issues like these along the way.

Q. Some of the Google examples you cite don’t use XML at all. Do I have to use XML and/or XSLT in an Ajax application?

A. No. XML is the most fully-developed means of getting data in and out of an Ajax client, but there’s no reason you couldn’t accomplish the same effects using a technology like JavaScript Object Notation or any similar means of structuring data for interchange.

Q. Are Ajax applications easier to develop than traditional web applications?

A. Not necessarily. Ajax applications inevitably involve running complex JavaScript code on the client. Making that complex code efficient and bug-free is not a task to be taken lightly, and better development tools and frameworks will be needed to help us meet that challenge.

Q. Do Ajax applications always deliver a better experience than traditional web applications?

A. Not necessarily. Ajax gives interaction designers more flexibility. However, the more power we have, the more caution we must use in exercising it. We must be careful to use Ajax to enhance the user experience of our applications, not degrade it.

常用图像数据集大全

常用图像数据集大全(分类,跟踪,分割,检测等)  转载于 http://blog.csdn.net/tiandijun/article/details/44539387 1.搜狗实...
  • jasonzzj
  • jasonzzj
  • 2017年02月20日 11:51
  • 1791

Ajax和传统Web应用的对比

一.同步和异步的区别 这两个概念在操作系统中提到过,这次我们再来结合这个看一下。同步是这样一个过程: 提交请求-〉等待服务器处理——〉处理完毕,返回。这个期间客户端浏览器不能够干任何事情。 异步:请求...
  • u013034640
  • u013034640
  • 2016年06月05日 22:53
  • 1193

关于Web Worker你必须知道的7件事

介绍 通过使用Web Worker, 我们可以在浏览器后台运行Javascript, 而不占用浏览器自身线程。Web Worker可以提高应用的总体性能,并且提升用户体验。如果你想在自己的Web应用...
  • dojotoolkit
  • dojotoolkit
  • 2014年05月05日 10:35
  • 39805

jQuery Ajax在web应用开发中很常用

原文地址: http://www.php100.com/html/program/jquery/2013/0905/6004.html jQuery Ajax在web应用开发中很常用,它主要...
  • liujiayu10
  • liujiayu10
  • 2015年11月24日 10:04
  • 503

java web开发:ajax技术(一)——局部刷新技术的实现

一 什么是Ajax Ajax:AsynchronousJavaScript And Xml——异步JavaScript和XML技术,还有一个比较通用的名称:页面局部刷新技术;是一种把多种技术融合到一起...
  • xueyulanmo
  • xueyulanmo
  • 2014年02月25日 16:56
  • 4151

算法导论学习笔记之二--分而治之(divide-and-conquer approach)

如果一个问题当它的规模缩小的时候,问题性质不变,并且问题的规模最小的时候简单可解,就可以采用divide-and-conquer 方法。 divide-and-conquer 分以下4步进行: 直接...
  • institute
  • institute
  • 2014年03月02日 17:21
  • 2777

Android中WebView中拦截所有请求并替换URL(支持AJAX的post请求类型)

需求背景 接到这样一个需求,需要在 WebView 的所有网络请求中,在请求的url中,加上一个sign=xxxx 的标志位,同时添加手机本地的数据比如 sessionToken=sd54f5sd4...
  • kpioneer123
  • kpioneer123
  • 2016年05月17日 18:41
  • 12192

JavaWEB小知识学习--原生AJAX

AJAX的作用局部刷新,作为提升页面体验还是很重要的,不过大家都说对SEO不是很友好,一直使用jQuery封装的AJAX,没有了解过原生的是什么样子的,特此学习下,补充知识1.原生AJAX的Get方式...
  • u012706811
  • u012706811
  • 2016年07月16日 10:23
  • 1783

原生ajax请求与Promise请求

// 简单的ajax原生实现   var url = 'https://hq.tigerbrokers.com/fundamental/finance_calendar/getType/2017-02...
  • sunscheung
  • sunscheung
  • 2017年05月22日 16:55
  • 1101

python web框架企业实战详解(第六期)\第三课时-ajax&jquery&webpy

main.py__author__ = 'Liao' import web import time urls = ( '/gettime','gettime', '/(.*)', ...
  • t0nsha
  • t0nsha
  • 2016年03月13日 01:04
  • 2373
内容举报
返回顶部
收藏助手
不良信息举报
您举报文章:Ajax: A New Approach to Web Applications
举报原因:
原因补充:

(最多只允许输入30个字)