# Project euler problem 31 - 40

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## Problem 31

22 November 2002

In England the currency is made up of pound, £, and pence, p, and there are eight coins in general circulation:

1p, 2p, 5p, 10p, 20p, 50p, £1 (100p) and £2 (200p).

It is possible to make £2 in the following way:

1 £1 + 1 50p + 2 20p + 1 5p + 1 2p + 3 1p

How many different ways can £2 be made using any number of coins?

## Problem 32

06 December 2002

We shall say that an n -digit number is pandigital if it makes use of all the digits 1 to n exactly once; for example, the 5-digit number, 15234, is 1 through 5 pandigital.

The product 7254 is unusual, as the identity, 39 186 = 7254, containing multiplicand, multiplier, and product is 1 through 9 pandigital.

Find the sum of all products whose multiplicand/multiplier/product identity can be written as a 1 through 9 pandigital.

HINT: Some products can be obtained in more than one way so be sure to only include it once in your sum.

## Problem 33

20 December 2002

The fraction 49 / 98 is a curious fraction, as an inexperienced mathematician in attempting to simplify it may incorrectly believe that 49 / 98 = 4 / 8 , which is correct, is obtained by cancelling the 9s.

We shall consider fractions like, 30 / 50 = 3 / 5 , to be trivial examples.

There are exactly four non-trivial examples of this type of fraction, less than one in value, and containing two digits in the numerator and denominator.

If the product of these four fractions is given in its lowest common terms, find the value of the denominator.

## Problem 34

03 January 2003

145 is a curious number, as 1! + 4! + 5! = 1 + 24 + 120 = 145.

Find the sum of all numbers which are equal to the sum of the factorial of their digits.

Note: as 1! = 1 and 2! = 2 are not sums they are not included.

## Problem 35

17 January 2003

The number, 197, is called a circular prime because all rotations of the digits: 197, 971, and 719, are themselves prime.

There are thirteen such primes below 100: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 31, 37, 71, 73, 79, and 97.

How many circular primes are there below one million?

## Problem 36

31 January 2003

The decimal number, 585 = 1001001001 2 (binary), is palindromic in both bases.

Find the sum of all numbers, less than one million, which are palindromic in base 10 and base 2.

(Please note that the palindromic number, in either base, may not include leading zeros.)

## Problem 37

14 February 2003

The number 3797 has an interesting property. Being prime itself, it is possible to continuously remove digits from left to right, and remain prime at each stage: 3797, 797, 97, and 7. Similarly we can work from right to left: 3797, 379, 37, and 3.

Find the sum of the only eleven primes that are both truncatable from left to right and right to left.

NOTE: 2, 3, 5, and 7 are not considered to be truncatable primes.

## Problem 38

28 February 2003

Take the number 192 and multiply it by each of 1, 2, and 3:

192 1 = 192
192 2 = 384
192 3 = 576

By concatenating each product we get the 1 to 9 pandigital, 192384576. We will call 192384576 the concatenated product of 192 and (1,2,3)

The same can be achieved by starting with 9 and multiplying by 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, giving the pandigital, 918273645, which is the concatenated product of 9 and (1,2,3,4,5).

What is the largest 1 to 9 pandigital 9-digit number that can be formed as the concatenated product of an integer with (1,2, ... , n ) where n 1?

## Problem 39

14 March 2003

If p is the perimeter of a right angle triangle with integral length sides, {a ,b ,c }, there are exactly three solutions for p = 120.

{20,48,52}, {24,45,51}, {30,40,50}

For which value of p 1000, is the number of solutions maximised?

## Problem 40

28 March 2003

An irrational decimal fraction is created by concatenating the positive integers:

0.123456789101 112131415161718192021...

It can be seen that the 12 th digit of the fractional part is 1.

If d n represents the n th digit of the fractional part, find the value of the following expression.

d 1 d 10 d 100 d 1000 d 10000 d 100000 d 1000000

1
0

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