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OC中的集合类NSSet、NSArray、NSDictionary

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三种集合类来收集cocoa对象(NSObject对象):
NSArray 用于对象有序集合(相当于是数组)
NSSet 用于对象无序集合
NSDictionary用于键值映射
以上三种集合类是不可变的(一旦初始化后,就不能改变)

以下是对应的三种可变集合类(这三种可变集合类是对应上面三种集合类的子类):
NSMutableArray
NSMutableSet
NSMutableDictionary

注:这些集合类只能收集cocoa对象(NSOjbect对象),如果想保存一些原始的C数据(例如,int, float, double, BOOL等),则需要将这些原始的C数据封装成NSNumber类型的,NSNumber对象是cocoa对象,可以被保存在集合类中。

NSDictionary
key-value, key-value, ..... 一系列键值对。
key(键)在整个dictionary是唯一的,通过key可以查询其对应的一个或多个value(值)。
Hash table. Look up objects using a key to get a value.
Immutable. You cannot add or remove objects to it once it’s created.
Keys are objects which must implement.  Keys are usually NSString objects.
- (NSUInteger)hash & - (BOOL)isEqual:(NSObject *)obj
Important methods:
+ dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys: (id)firstObject, ...;
- (int)count;
- (id)objectForKey:(id)key;
- (NSArray *)allKeys;
- (NSArray *)allValues;
 -----创建字典 -----
    - (id) initWithObjectsAndKeys;

     NSDictionary *dictionary = [[NSDictionary alloc] initWithObjectsAndKeys:@"One",@"1",@"Two",@"2",@"Three",@"3",nil];
    NSString *string = [dictionary objectForKey:@"One"];
    NSLog(@"string:%@",string);
    NSLog(@"dictionary:%@",dictionary);
    [dictionary release];

NSMutableDictionary
+ (NSMutableDictionary *)dictionary;
- (void)setObject:(id)anObject forKey:(id)key;
- (void)removeObjectForKey:(id)key;
- (void)removeAllObjects;
- (void)addEntriesFromDictionary:(NSDictionary *)otherDictionary;
 -----创建可变字典 -----   
//创建
    NSMutableDictionary *dictionary = [NSMutableDictionary dictionary];
添加字典
    [dictionary setObject:@"One" forKey:@"1"];
    [dictionary setObject:@"Two" forKey:@"2"];
    [dictionary setObject:@"Three" forKey:@"3"];
    [dictionary setObject:@"Four" forKey:@"4"];
//删除指定的字典
    [dictionary removeObjectForKey:@"3"];


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