A brief review on PC/XT/AT/ATX

原创 2004年11月02日 16:58:00
                                                            A brief review on PC/XT/AT/ATX
                                                              -----------2004-11-2 (C) Gr1x
     This topic may seems boring at first sight, yeah, we've saw PC/XT/AT many times when reading sth about computer architecture. But many books just mension these words without explaining them, so I'm trying to guide u through the early stage of PC development, hoping it'll be useful for u.
    The following information is downed form the Internet, but may not complete and I cann't remember where, please let me know if u get more.
     In the early part of 1980, IBM decided to create a microcomputer (up to this date, IBM produced only mini and mainframes). They didn't really know that they wanted and they didn't think for one second that producing microcomputer was a profitable business (who would have thought!)!
    After hesitation between the Intel 8086 (16 bit) and the Motorola MC68000, they decided to use the Intel 8088 (8 - 16 bit) processor, as the two other ones were considered too powerful! Then they asked to Digital Research (the creators of CP/M) to create an operating system for their new computer, as DR was not very interested, they then asked a small company (famous for its BASIC Programming Language) to write the operating system: Microsoft.
    Microsoft wasn't capable of doing it, Bill Gates bought the rights to a small, hacked OS written by a small company called Seattle Computer Products
: QDOS (which reportedly stood for "Quick and Dirty Operating System", which itself bears a striking resemblance to CP/M) which became PC-DOS and then later MS-DOS!
   The original IBM PC wasn't very powerful (and was certainly less powerful than lot of 8 bit computers at the time). The very first PC had only 16 KB RAM and no floppy disk units, they used cassettes to load & store programs (notice that the commands to handle the cassette drives were present in the operating system all the way up to MS-DOS 5!). 

  Then in 1983 the XT stands for EXtended Technology  was introduced. The IBM PC XT is the successor of the IBM PC.
It has enhanced features: CGA graphic card, hard disk, more memory, and no more tape port.In addiditon to the removal of the cassette port, the XT also had eight 8-bit ISA expansion slots VS the PC's five. The XT's slots were also positioned closer together, the same spacing all PCs still use today. This made old PC's totally worthless because you couldn't buy an XT clone board and drop it into a PC case. Eight slots was a huge boon to the "power user" who had previously found himself having to pick and choose what upgrades to install in the paltry five slots of the PC.
    The IBM PC AT is the successor of the PC and the XT. IBM added a lot of new features: they abandoned the old Intel 8086 to the Intel 80286, so the PC AT uses new 16 bit expansion slots. 
    The PC AT has a new version of the OS: MS DOS 3.0 which can use the new floppy disk format (1.2 MB), the new hard disk capacity (20 MB) and allows file sharing. It has a new keyboard too (the same we use now, more or less) with cursor keys and a key that can lock it. 
   ......
   Now,it's ATX, the modern-day shape and layout of PC motherboards. It improves on the previous standard, the Baby AT form factor, by rotating the orientation of the board 90 degrees. This allows for a more efficient design, with disk drive cable connectors nearer to the drive bays and the CPU closer to the power supply and cooling fan.
    So, just try to make a conclusion, we get these: PC--->PC/XT(EXtended Technology)--->PC/AT(Advanced Technology)-->ATX(Advanced Technology Extented). Simple, then why I write so much, just wanna to practice my English :) Sorry for inconvenience!

【读书笔记】——《A Brief History of Humankind》

1. 地理生物学概念 homo sapien:智人; But the wheel is one hundred percent homo sapien innovation....
  • lanchunhui
  • lanchunhui
  • 2016年12月06日 18:28
  • 586

Writing device drivers in Linux: A brief tutorial(一)

最近看到一篇国外关于Linux内核入门的比较好的指南,于是就尝试翻译了一下。由于是第一次尝试翻译,加之英语水平有限,错误在所难免,欢迎拍砖! 由于没有大段的时间来做这个,一下翻译完是肯定不可能的,故...
  • yxz329130952
  • yxz329130952
  • 2012年08月27日 21:25
  • 1408

【笔记】A Review on Multi-Label Learning Algorithms

本文可分为五个部分,INTRODUCTION中包括对Multi-label问题的非正式定义,应用范围介绍,近年国际会议和期刊中该领域论文录用和发表的情况,最后介绍了本文的结构。THE PARADIGM...
  • tlzhatao
  • tlzhatao
  • 2016年04月16日 19:56
  • 992

论文读书笔记-Supervised machine learning:a review of classification techniques

这篇文章主要是介绍了机器学习中有监督学习下的几种分类方法,包括决策树、规则分类、神经网络、统计学习、SVM等等,在文章中作者对这些方法的优劣之处进行了说明。   下面是一些摘抄:   1、th...
  • jj12345jj198999
  • jj12345jj198999
  • 2013年09月26日 17:36
  • 1551

【Review】A Review on Deep Learning Techniques Applied to Semantic Segmentation

基本情况2017年4月份的文章.深度学习技术在语义分割中的应用综述,能写综述性质文章的都是大神,并且本文可以说是深度学习进行语义分割的第一本综述.本文正文有20页,参考文献有114篇,含28个数据集和...
  • u014451076
  • u014451076
  • 2017年05月02日 20:16
  • 1225

Eric S. Raymond五部曲之A Brief History of Hackerdom

本篇原作者为Eric S. Raymond,他是一位大哥级的 Hacker,写了很多自由软件,知名著作有Jargon File等,近年来发表“大教堂与集市”论文为Opensource software...
  • tom_cn
  • tom_cn
  • 2006年05月10日 15:34
  • 850

A Review on Multi-Label Learning Algorithms - KNN

在多标签分类中,有一种方法就是按照KNN的类似算法去求出每一个维度的结果。也是看周志华老师的review突然就想实现以下,然后实现了一个相当简单的。首先我们需要进行计算的是在近邻数目为k的情况下的贝叶...
  • Zhaohui1995_Yang
  • Zhaohui1995_Yang
  • 2016年08月29日 20:52
  • 583

机器学习简史brief history of machine learning

BRIEF HISTORY OF MACHINE LEARNING   My subjective ML timeline (click for larger) Since th...
  • GarfieldEr007
  • GarfieldEr007
  • 2016年02月27日 20:20
  • 1494

论文阅读:A Critical Review of Recurrent Neural Networks for Sequence Learning

回复式神经网络的发展以及应用,首先介绍了最简单的前馈神经网络,然后介绍回复式神经网络的发展历史,接着给出了回复式神经网络的训练方法,最后给出现代回复式神经网络的架构和种类以及应用。...
  • xizero00
  • xizero00
  • 2016年04月23日 10:44
  • 5495

A Brief Introduction to REST

 A Brief Introduction to REST Posted by Stefan Tilkov on Dec 10, 2007 03:42 AM Communi...
  • niusi123
  • niusi123
  • 2007年12月11日 16:53
  • 648
内容举报
返回顶部
收藏助手
不良信息举报
您举报文章:A brief review on PC/XT/AT/ATX
举报原因:
原因补充:

(最多只允许输入30个字)